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1.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276042, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Concerning rates of psychological disorders are increasingly recognized in young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to examine the associations of different structural and functional social supports on depression, anxiety, and stress among young adults in Vietnam. METHODS: An online cross-sectional study was performed on 236 respondents aged 16 to 30 years in Vietnam from June to July 2020. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale-21 Items (DASS-21); the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and the LUBBEN Social Network Scale (LSNS-6) was used to measure psychological health, functional and structural social support characteristics. Multi-level mixed-effect logistic regression was used to identify associations between social support and anxiety, depression, and stress. RESULTS: The rate of at least mild depression, anxiety, and stress were 30.1%, 34.8%, and 35.6%, respectively. Structural supports measured by LSNS-6 were not associated with the likelihood of having depression, anxiety, and stress (p>0.05). Respondents having friends with whom they could share joys and sorrows were less likely to have anxiety (aOR = 0.61, 95%CI = 0.41-0.90) and stress (aOR = 0.66, 95%CI = 0.45-0.96). Having family support in decision-making was also negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. Meanwhile, those having family and friends who tried to help them were more likely to suffer stress (aOR = 1.94, 95%CI = 1.16-3.24) and depression (aOR = 2.09; 95%CI = 1.11-3.92), respectively. CONCLUSION: This study highlighted a high rate of psychological problems among young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic in Vietnam. Emotional support from friends and advice support from family were important components that should be considered in further interventions to mitigate the psychological problems in young adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Young Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Social Support
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099557

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, university students have adopted measures that completely transformed their educational environment, and this has generated an increase in psychological stress. The present study aimed to identify the factors associated with anxiety, depression, and stress in students at a university in Peru during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. We conducted a cross-sectional analytical study in students in Lima, Peru. The DASS-21 scale was used to measure levels of depression, anxiety, and stress and associate it with socio-educational and COVID-19-related variables using generalized linear models with Poisson distribution, log link, and robust variance. Of 400 students surveyed, 19.2%, 23.2% and 17.2% of students presented depression, anxiety, and stress, respectively. The frequency of depression (PR = 0.91, 95%CI: 0.84-0.99), anxiety (PR = 0.90, 95%CI: 0.83-0.99) and stress (PR = 0.92, 95%CI: 0.86-0.99) was lower in women. The students of the engineering and business faculty presented a higher frequency of anxiety (PR = 1.11, 95%CI: 1.00-1.22). There was a greater frequency of presenting anxiety, depression and stress in students who worked in a different area of health or did not work. Our results suggest the importance of promoting mental health awareness campaigns in university students due to the constant academic load they have.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology , Universities , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mental Health , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Students/psychology
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictive measures have substantially affected educational processes around the globe, resulting in psychological distress among students. The mental health of students in higher education is of paramount importance, and the COVID-19 pandemic has brought this vulnerable population into renewed focus. In this context, the evaluation of students' mental health at educational institutes has gained invaluable popularity during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to ascertain the psychological health and coping strategies among students from a higher education institute in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: An online study instrument was used to assess anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, GAD-7), depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9, PHQ-9), post-traumatic stress disorder-PTSD (Impact of Event Scale-Revised, IES-R) and coping strategies (Brief-COPE). The severity of the psychological distress was classified as per the scoring criteria and correlated with demographics using appropriate statistical methods. RESULTS: Of 1074 students (age 21.1 ± 2.1 years), 12.9% and 9.7% had severe anxiety and depression, respectively. The mean anxiety and depression scores were 7.50 ± 5.51 and 9.31 ± 6.72, respectively. About one-third (32%) of students reported suicidal ideation, with 8.4% students having such thoughts nearly every day. The average PTSD score was 21.64 ± 17.63, where avoidance scored higher (8.10 ± 6.94) than intrusion and hyperarousal. There was no association of anxiety, depression and PTSD score with the demographics of the study participants. Religious/spiritual coping (5.43 ± 2.15) was the most adoptive coping mechanism, followed by acceptance (5.15 ± 2.10). Male students were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with active copings, instrumental support, planning, humor, acceptance and religious coping. Substance use was the least adopted coping strategy but practiced by a considerable number of students. CONCLUSIONS: The long-lasting pandemic situation, onerous protective measures and uncertainties in educational procedures have resulted in a high prevalence of psychological ailments among university students, as indicated in this study. These findings accentuate the urgent need for telepsychiatry and appropriate population-specific mental health services to assess the extent of psychological impairment and to leverage positive coping behaviors among students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychiatry , Telemedicine , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Students/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
4.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0277059, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098772

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is important to ensure that both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of clinical education are maintained during the pandemic. Understanding students' views on clinical rotations and the extent of their perceived pandemic-related stress would thus be useful for designing and implementing effective clerkship programs. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate perceived stress and perceptions regarding clinical clerkship among incoming clinical students (third year) and senior clinical students (fourth year) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: After completing orientation programs at the beginning of the academic year, we surveyed students on their perceived stress, their general perspectives regarding the appropriate scope of clinical clerkship, and their preferences regarding level of participation in clerkship. We examined the differences in stress and clerkship-related perceptions based on the students' study year and sex using independent t-test, chi-squared test, and Fisher's exact test. In addition, the influences of stress, sex, and study year on clerkship-related perceptions were examined using multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: The independent t-test indicated that third-year students experienced lower stress than did fourth-year students. Clerkship-related perceptions also differed significantly between third- and fourth-year students. Multinomial logistic regression analyses on the scope of and participation levels in clinical clerkship revealed that third-year students had significantly lower odds of preferring a limited range of clinical rotations and lower engagement in clerkships compared to fourth-year students. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected clinical education and, consequently, medical students' inclination toward active participation in clinical rotations. It is thus essential to understand students' views and provide them with relevant intra-pandemic educational supports.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Clerkship , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Students, Medical , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
5.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276841, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has endangered the psychological health of individuals. This study aimed to assess the quality of life and its related psychological problems during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 559 citizens above the age of 16 years, in Isfahan and Bandar Abbas cities in Iran were selected with a convenient sampling method. An online questionnaire was used to collect the data, which consisted of five sections: demographic information, short health anxiety inventory (SHAI), perceived stress scale (PSS), world health organization quality of life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) and Padua inventory. Data were analyzed using statistical tests including t-test, path analysis and structural equation modeling (SEM) using SPSS 24 and Amos 21 statistical software. RESULTS: A total of 559 subjects with the mean age of 37.34 ± 11.19 years participated in this study. Most of the participants were female (78.5%), married (71.6%) and employed (40.9%). The majority of them also had a bachelor's degree (42.9%). There were significant negative correlations between perceived helplessness (r = -.597, p = .000), perceived stress (r = -.715, p = .000), risk of disease (r = -.302, p = .000), negative effect of disease (r = -.424, p = .000), health anxiety (r = -.366, p = .000), contamination obsessions (r = -.187, p = .000) and washing compulsions (r = -.193, p = .000) with quality of life. On other hand, significant positive correlation was found between perceived self-efficacy (r = .665, p = .000) and quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: According to our findings, health anxiety, perceived stress and obsessive-compulsive disorder were negatively affected psychological health during COVID-19 which in turn decreased quality of life. Therefore, we suggest considering prevention and treatment of theses psychological problems to diminish the risk of reduced quality of life during COVID-19 global pandemic crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Adolescent , Male , Quality of Life , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
6.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e059860, 2022 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097978

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk factors for workplace bullying and mental health outcomes among workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: A nationwide online survey was conducted from August to September 2020 in Japan. PARTICIPANTS: 16 384 workers (men: n=9565; women: n=6789). MAIN OUTCOME VARIABLES: Workplace bullying was measured by one item from the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire; severe psychological distress according to the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (≥13) and suicidal ideation by one item. Prevalence ratios were calculated by modified Poisson regression analyses adjusting for potential confounders such as gender, age, occupational characteristics and a prior history of depression. RESULTS: Overall, 15% of workers experienced workplace bullying, 9% had severe psychological distress and 12% had suicidal ideation during the second and third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan. The results of this study showed men, executives, managers and permanent employees had a higher risk of bullying than women or part-time workers. Increased physical and psychological demands were common risk factors for bullying, severe psychological distress and suicidal ideation. Starting to work from home was a significant predictor for adverse mental health outcomes but a preventive factor against workplace bullying. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study showed different high-risk groups for bullying or mental health during the pandemic. Any intervention to decrease workplace bullying or mental health problems should focus not only on previously reported vulnerable workers but also workers who have experienced a change in work style or job demands.


Subject(s)
Bullying , COVID-19 , Occupational Stress , Psychological Distress , Male , Female , Humans , Suicidal Ideation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Workplace/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Japan/epidemiology , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(7): e2014053, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2094114

ABSTRACT

Importance: People exposed to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and a series of imperative containment measures could be psychologically stressed, yet the burden of and factors associated with mental health symptoms remain unclear. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of and risk factors associated with mental health symptoms in the general population in China during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This large-sample, cross-sectional, population-based, online survey study was conducted from February 28, 2020, to March 11, 2020. It involved all 34 province-level regions in China and included participants aged 18 years and older. Data analysis was performed from March to May 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: The prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and acute stress among the general population in China during the COVID-19 pandemic was evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, Insomnia Severity Index, and Acute Stress Disorder Scale. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore demographic and COVID-19-related risk factors. Results: Of 71 227 individuals who clicked on the survey link, 56 932 submitted the questionnaires, for a participation rate of 79.9%. After excluding the invalid questionnaires, 56 679 participants (mean [SD] age, 35.97 [8.22] years; 27 149 men [47.9%]) were included in the study; 39 468 respondents (69.6%) were aged 18 to 39 years. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the rates of mental health symptoms among the survey respondents were 27.9% (95% CI, 27.5%-28.2%) for depression, 31.6% (95% CI, 31.2%-32.0%) for anxiety, 29.2% (95% CI, 28.8%-29.6%) for insomnia, and 24.4% (95% CI, 24.0%-24.7%) for acute stress. Participants with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 and their family members or friends had a high risk for symptoms of depression (adjusted odds ratios [ORs], 3.27 [95% CI, 1.84-5.80] for patients; 1.53 [95% CI, 1.26-1.85] for family or friends), anxiety (adjusted ORs, 2.48 [95% CI, 1.43-4.31] for patients; 1.53 [95% CI, 1.27-1.84] for family or friends), insomnia (adjusted ORs, 3.06 [95% CI, 1.73-5.43] for patients; 1.62 [95% CI, 1.35-1.96] for family or friends), and acute stress (adjusted ORs, 3.50 [95% CI, 2.02-6.07] for patients; 1.77 [95% CI, 1.46-2.15] for family or friends). Moreover, people with occupational exposure risks and residents in Hubei province had increased odds of symptoms of depression (adjusted ORs, 1.96 [95% CI, 1.77-2.17] for occupational exposure; 1.42 [95% CI, 1.19-1.68] for Hubei residence), anxiety (adjusted ORs, 1.93 [95% CI, 1.75-2.13] for occupational exposure; 1.54 [95% CI, 1.30-1.82] for Hubei residence), insomnia (adjusted ORs, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.45-1.77] for occupational exposure; 1.20 [95% CI, 1.01-1.42] for Hubei residence), and acute stress (adjusted ORs, 1.98 [95% CI, 1.79-2.20] for occupational exposure; 1.49 [95% CI, 1.25-1.79] for Hubei residence). Both centralized quarantine (adjusted ORs, 1.33 [95% CI, 1.10-1.61] for depression; 1.46 [95% CI, 1.22-1.75] for anxiety; 1.63 [95% CI, 1.36-1.95] for insomnia; 1.46 [95% CI, 1.21-1.77] for acute stress) and home quarantine (adjusted ORs, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.25-1.36] for depression; 1.28 [95% CI, 1.23-1.34] for anxiety; 1.24 [95% CI, 1.19-1.30] for insomnia; 1.29 [95% CI, 1.24-1.35] for acute stress) were associated with the 4 negative mental health outcomes. Being at work was associated with lower risks of depression (adjusted OR, 0.85 [95% CI, 0.79-0.91]), anxiety (adjusted OR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.86-0.99]), and insomnia (adjusted OR, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.81-0.94]). Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this survey indicate that mental health symptoms may have been common during the COVID-19 outbreak among the general population in China, especially among infected individuals, people with suspected infection, and people who might have contact with patients with COVID-19. Some measures, such as quarantine and delays in returning to work, were also associated with mental health among the public. These findings identify populations at risk for mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic and may help in implementing mental health intervention policies in other countries and regions.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , Coronavirus Infections , Depression , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Stress, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Mental Status Schedule/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Prevalence , Quarantine/psychology , Return to Work/psychology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/diagnosis , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/physiopathology , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/physiopathology
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090169

ABSTRACT

The study aims to assess pregnancy-specific stress among pregnant women in Spain during the first lockdown of the COVID-19 pandemic. Two samples of pregnant women from the south of Spain (Andalusia) were assessed using the Prenatal Distress Questionnaire (PDQ) and a sociodemographic and obstetric questionnaire. Group 1 (N = 155) was recruited face-to-face, whereas Group 2 (N = 78) was recruited online. Pregnancy-specific stress levels were significantly different in both groups. The face-to-face group (Group 1) had higher pregnancy-specific stress levels than the online group (Group 2). The online sample over-represents young adult pregnant women with high education levels and a high number of previous miscarriages. The face-to-face study seems more accessible to racially and ethnically diverse groups. The main concern among both groups was the risk of having a sick neonate. Research during the COVID-19 pandemic can benefit from using online resources to collect data to screen and identify perinatal mental health problems in a crisis environment. Nevertheless, researchers should be aware of the potential limitations this strategy can have, for example, certain groups of people may have limited access to the internet.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Infant, Newborn , Young Adult , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Pregnant Women/psychology , Parturition/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Anxiety
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090151

ABSTRACT

Psychosocial job stressors increase the risk of mental health problems for the workers in health and social services (HSS). Although previous studies suggest that the accumulation of two or more stressors is detrimental to mental health, few studies have examined the synergistic interaction of accumulating job stressors. We examined survey responses from 9855 Finnish HSS workers in a cross-sectional study design from 2021. We conducted an interaction analysis of high job demands, low rewards and low workplace social capital on psychological distress, focusing on the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). Additionally, we analysed the interaction of job demands, low rewards and COVID-19 burden (extra workload and emotional load). Our analysis showed that the total RERI for the job stressors on psychological distress was considerable (6.27, 95% CI 3.14, 9.39). The total excess risk was caused by two-way interactions, especially between high demands and low rewards and by the three-way interaction of all stressors. The total RERI for job demands, low reward and COVID-19 burden (3.93, 95% CI 1.15, 6.72), however, was caused entirely by two-way interaction between high demands and low rewards. Mental health interventions tackling high demands, low rewards and low social capital are jointly needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Pandemics , Workplace/psychology , Workload/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Job Satisfaction
10.
J Occup Health ; 64(1): e12356, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084961

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This prospective study aimed to examine the association of psychosocial working conditions with adverse reactions after receiving COVID-19 vaccination in a sample of employees in Japan. METHODS: The data were retrieved from an online panel of full-time employees (E-COCO-J). The analysis included participants who were employed and were not vaccinated at baseline (June 2021) but received vaccination at a 4-month follow-up (October 2021). An 11-item scale measured the adverse reactions. Four types of psychosocial working conditions (i.e., job demands, job control, and supervisor and coworker support) were measured using the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between the psychosocial working conditions and adverse reactions of COVID-19 vaccines, adjusting for socioeconomic variables, chronic disease, the number of vaccination, type of vaccine, anxiety for adverse reactions, fear and worry about COVID-19, and psychological distress at baseline. RESULTS: Overall, 747 employees were included in the analysis. The average number of adverse reactions was 3.8 (standard deviation = 2.2): Arm pain (81.1%), fatigues (64.1%), muscle pains (63.3%), and fever (37.5°C+) (53.5%) were reported more frequently. Coworker support score was significantly and negatively associated with the numbers of adverse reactions (standardized ß = -0.100, P = .023). Women, young age, second-time vaccination, Moderna, and high psychological distress were significantly associated with adverse reactions. CONCLUSIONS: Employees with low coworker support may be more likely to have adverse reactions after vaccinations. The findings of this study could support that increasing workplace support may reduce adverse reactions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Workplace , Female , Humans , Workplace/psychology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Japan/epidemiology , Social Support , Surveys and Questionnaires , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082313

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed a profound psychological impact on healthcare workers. However, the role of positive affect in moderating the effect of perceived stress on the psychological states of healthcare workers remains unknown. This study aimed to analyze the moderating effect of positive affect on the association between stress and the mental health of healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional study evaluated the relationships between perceived stress (the Perceived Stress Scale), positive affect (the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), depression (the Patient Health Questionnaire-9), and anxiety (the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item Scale) during the COVID-19 pandemic in 644 Chinese healthcare workers who completed online self-reports. The results revealed a significant negative association between positive affect and psychological problems, including stress, depression, and anxiety. At the total group level, multiple regression analysis showed that positive affect alleviated the influence of perceived stress on depression, but no significant moderating effect was found for anxiety. In the subgroups divided by perceived stress, the moderating effect of positive affect on depression was only significant in healthcare workers with a high level of perceived stress. These results suggested that positive affect played a moderative role in alleviating the effect of stress on depression among healthcare workers, particularly those with a high level of stress, thus emphasizing the importance of positive affect as an intervention strategy for promoting the mental health of healthcare workers in the context of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082094

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has not only jeopardized people's physical health, but also put additional strain on their mental health. This study explored the role of indoor natural elements (i.e., green plants) in relieving individuals' mental stress during a prolonged stressful period. A pilot and three formal studies examined the effect of indoor green plants placed in living and working environments on people's perceived stress during the pandemic and further uncovered its underlying mechanism emphasizing a mediating role of emotion. The pilot study confirmed that the severity of the pandemic positively correlated with individuals' level of stress. Study 1 then demonstrated that indoor green plants in people's living environments might reduce their perceived stress during the pandemic, which is referred to as the "plant effect". Study 2 repeated the plant effect in a field experiment conducted in a working environment and Study 3 revealed a mediating role of positive emotion. This study provides preliminary evidence for the mitigating effect of indoor green plants on individuals' mental stress during the COVID-19 pandemic period. The indoor green plants placed in living and working environments may elicit positive emotion, which in turn reduce people's mental stress. In addition, our results reveal that growth status of the indoor green plants affected the plant effect as well.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viridiplantae , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Plants
13.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 123(11): 833-839, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Numerous studies have been conducted on the psychological effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, how the mental health of health workers will be affected among the number of peaks during the pandemic has not been evaluated yet. The study aims to investigate the effects of the first, second, and third peaks of COVID-19 on anxiety, depression, and stress symptoms in healthcare workers. METHODS: The current study included 4031 healthcare workers, 1051 during the first peak period, 1409 during the second peak period, and 1571 during the third peak period. The Depression-anxiety-stress scale-21(DASS-21) was used to assess the participants' levels of anxiety, depression, and stress symptoms. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 33.74 ± 7.95, and 2634 (66.3 %) were female. 36.9 %(n = 1486) of the participants were physicians, 41.1 % (n = 1655) were nurses and 22.1 % (n = 890) were other healthcare workers. A statistically significant difference was documented in the DASS-21 anxiety (F(2:4028) = 502.893, p 2. Peak > 1. Peak), DASS-21 depression (F(2:4028) = 46.034, p 2. Peak > 1. Peak), DASS-21 stress (F(2:4028) = 65.548, p 1. Peak), and DASS-21 total scores (F(2:4028) = 156.860, p 2. Peak > 1. Peak) of healthcare workers during all three peak periods. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that as the peak number rises, so do the levels of anxiety and depression among healthcare workers. As a result, it is possible to assert that prolongation of the COVID-19 pandemic worsens mental problems (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 35).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
14.
Front Public Health ; 10: 936486, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080284

ABSTRACT

Aim: We examined the anxiety levels and coping strategies among staff and students of a tertiary educational institution during the COVID-19 pandemic and determined the association between anxiety level and coping strategies. Method: Through an online survey, we used Coronavirus Anxiety Scale (CAS) to measure the level of anxiety associated with the COVID-19 crisis and Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) to assess the coping responses adopted to handle stressful life events. Coping strategies were classified as adaptive and maladaptive, for which the aggregate sores were calculated. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the predictors of anxiety adjusted for potentially confounding variables. Results from 434 participants were available for analysis. Results: The mean score (SD) of the CAS was 1.1 (1.8). The mean scores of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies were 35.69 and 19.28, respectively. Multiple linear regression revealed that maladaptive coping [Adjusted B coefficient = 4.106, p-value < 0.001] and presence of comorbidities [Adjusted B coefficient = 1.376, p-value = 0.025] significantly predicted anxiety. Conclusion: Maladaptive coping and presence of comorbidities were the predictors of coronavirus anxiety. The apparent lack of anxiety in relation to COVID-19 and movement restriction is reflective of the reported high level of satisfaction with the support and services provided during the COVID-19 outbreak in Malaysia. Adaptive coping strategies were adopted more frequently than maladaptive. Nevertheless, public education on positive coping strategies and anxiety management may be still be relevant to provide mental health support to address the needs of the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Malaysia/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Students/psychology
15.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 20(1): 379-384, 2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080085

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate dentists' work conditions, awareness, protective measures, economic effects and perceived stress during the first two waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted among 126 dentists working in the Frenchspeaking part of Switzerland, in particular in the Cantons of Vaud and Geneva. Data consisted of the answers to 40 questions assessing the knowledge, attitudes, workload and mental condition of the dentists during the first 2 waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Swiss dentists received sufficient information about the COVID-19 pandemic and implemented protective measures. Differences were found between the 1st and the 2nd wave concerning the workload; during the first wave, the workload was low for the majority of dentists (60%), whereas during the second, it was moderate (53.4%) or high (41.3%). During both waves, the mental burden was also important, and was related mainly to financial issues and fear of infection. CONCLUSIONS: This survey reported that Swiss dentists were, in general, satisfied with the transmission of precise operating guidelines during the pandemic. However, a considerable psychological impact, mainly during the first wave, was revealed. With the implementation of proper strategic measures during the COVID-19 outbreak, dental practitioners will be prepared for future global health-care disruptions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Dentists/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Switzerland/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Professional Role , Surveys and Questionnaires , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
16.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can ; 44(10): 1067-1075, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076430

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the psychological and behavioural effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on a Canadian cohort of individuals during pregnancy and the postpartum period. METHODS: In 2020, individuals between 20 weeks gestation and 3 months postpartum receiving maternity care from an urban Canadian clinic were invited to complete a questionnaire. The purpose-built questionnaire used validated scales including the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS), Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21), Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), and questions from a SARS study. RESULTS: One hundred nine people completed the questionnaire (response rate, 55%) of whom 57% (n = 62) were postpartum. Most respondents (107, 98%) were married and had completed post-secondary education (104, 95%). Despite these protective factors, moderate to severe levels of depression (22%), anxiety (19%) and stress (27%), were recorded using the DASS-21, and 25% of participants (26) had depression (score ≥11) using the EPDS. Despite high social support in all MOS domains (median scores 84-100), a majority of participants reported loneliness (69, 67%) and were nearly or totally housebound (65, 64%). About half of participants worried about themselves (50, 46.3%) or their baby (59, 54%) contracting COVID-19, while the majority postponed (80, 74.1%) and cancelled (79, 73.2%) prenatal appointments. Being homebound or feeling lonely / lacking support were significant risk factors for psychological distress (P = 0.02) whereas exercise and strong social support were protective (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Pregnant and postpartum individuals experienced moderate to severe depression, anxiety, and stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Exercise and strong social support were protective. Health care provider enquiry of home circumstances and activity may identify individuals needing enhanced supports.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depression, Postpartum , Maternal Health Services , Psychological Distress , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/psychology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Unhealthy lifestyles are strongly entrenched in healthcare universities and have sometimes been linked to stress or lack of sleep. This study investigated the prevalence of toxic habits (smoking, patterns of harmful alcohol use, and illicit drug use), stress levels, perceived health status, and sleep duration and assessed the connections between toxic habits and said well-being measures, as well as healthcare students' perception of the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on these health-related behaviors. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, healthcare students from Alfonso X University (Spain) completed a health survey composed of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), self-perceived health status, and the number of hours of sleep. RESULTS: A total of 997 healthcare students completed the survey, of which 982 were analyzed. Being a smoker (32.2%) was associated with worse health status and insufficient sleep. Risk drinkers (33.2%) were associated with being female, and the consumption of cannabinoids (6.7%), with being male. These three toxic habits were related to each other. High levels of stress (28.2%) were correlated with worse ratings in the perception of health status (29.2%) and with insufficient sleep (45.8%), and all of them were associated with the female sex. Respectively, 49.3% and 44.2% of students recognized a worsening in their perception of stress and their sleep habits during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Healthcare universities must carry out health promotion programs for stress management, sleep habits, and unhealthy lifestyles.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Cannabinoids , Illicit Drugs , Humans , Male , Female , Universities , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sleep Deprivation/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/complications , Students , Habits , Delivery of Health Care
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071423

ABSTRACT

This study analyzed changes in the psychological health of students who were in the final year of their nursing degree during the COVID-19 pandemic and later served as nursing professionals in hospitals. Methods: A prospective longitudinal study was conducted over two periods of time (the first in April 2020 and the second 6 months later, in December 2020) with 296 students for a T0 baseline (rate response 68.83%) and 92 students for a T1 post-test sample (response rate 31.08%). The data were electronically collected using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, the Resilience Scale, and a post-traumatic stress questionnaire. The mean age of the sample participants was 24.17 years (SD = 5.51), and 89.11% were female. During the pandemic, 14.11% of students showed scores that indicated depression, and 32.61% showed scores that indicated anxiety. In December 2020, 86.5% of the participants were working as nurses, and the percentages of those with anxiety (12%) and depression (4.3%) were significantly lower than in the first sample period. A total of 20.7% of the participants had post-traumatic stress. High scores for resilience were significantly associated with better quality of life and lower levels of anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress. Conclusions: Although the percentages of participants with anxiety and depression decreased, they still presented with mental health problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Students, Nursing , Humans , Female , Young Adult , Adult , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Quality of Life , Longitudinal Studies , Prospective Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology
19.
Educ Health (Abingdon) ; 35(1): 20-25, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066834

ABSTRACT

Background: The sudden and rapid spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has created fear, worry and uncertainty in the student community. First-year medical students are likely to be doubly affected, for in addition to the stress of adapting to new learning processes, they are also now faced with uncertainties due to the COVID-19 pandemic. It was therefore decided to estimate psychological distress among the 1st-year medical students among the COVID-19 pandemic-related uncertainty. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1st-year medical students studying at a Medical College in western India. Demographic and COVID-19 related data was collected from the students through Google Forms and psychological distress was measured by using the 20 point World Health Organization-Self Reporting Questionnaire (WHO-SRQ 20). The study was approved by the Institutional ethics committee. Informed consent was taken before administering the questionnaire to the study participants. Statistical analysis was conducted using the SPSS statistical software. Results: Prevalence of Psychological distress among the study participants by WHO-SRQ 20 Scale with cut off 7/8 as found to be 25.5%. Worried about themselves contracting COVID-19 Infection (odds ratio [OR]: 3.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-9.42), worried of the adverse financial effect on self and family due to COVID-19 pandemic (OR: 3.01; 95% CI: 1.29-7.04), worried that online mode of learning was putting them at disadvantage compared to traditional Teaching-Learning method (OR: 3.44; 95% CI: 1.25-9.42), and worried about adverse effects on social support due to COVID-19 pandemic (OR: 2.63; 95% CI: 1.27-5.43), were the factors significantly associated with psychological distress among the medical students. Discussion: There is an urgent need to develop a system to render counseling/professional help to all the students in need. This would ensure better mental health and would minimize any adverse academic outcomes among the students due to the COVID-19 Pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Students, Medical , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Students, Medical/psychology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Uncertainty , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , India/epidemiology
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066085

ABSTRACT

We aimed to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress in university students in Paraguay during the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 293 students from four universities in Paraguay in 2021. The DASS-21 mental health scale was used to measure the outcomes (depression, anxiety, and stress) and evaluate their association with socio-educational variables. A total of 77.1% of the participants were women and 136 (46.4%) were between 21 and 25 years old. The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress was 74.7%, 87.4%, and 57%, respectively. We found that being a woman and studying at a public university was positively associated with depression, anxiety, and stress. Receiving COVID-19 training increases the prevalence of mental health problems. In conclusion, high levels of anxiety, depression, and stress were found in university students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Being a woman, studying at a public university, and receiving training on COVID-19 were factors associated with a higher prevalence of presenting all the mental health problems evaluated. Furthermore, students aged 31 and over had a higher prevalence of depression and stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Paraguay/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Students/psychology , Universities , Young Adult
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