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3.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(3): 220-224, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1535076

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has also affected mental health. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate Mexican population mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic by measuring symptoms of stress, depression, anxiety and insomnia, as well as resilience. METHODS: Cross-sectional, descriptive, observational study. A survey was carried out to collect sociodemographic data, and the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale 21 (DASS 21), Athens Insomnia Scale and the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14) were applied. Central tendency and dispersion measures were obtained for quantitative variables and frequencies for qualitative variables. The chi-square test was used for bivariate analysis; alpha level was 0.05. RESULTS: 1,667 individuals with a mean age of 33.78 ± 10.79 years were analyzed. On DASS 21, a mean of 9.7 points (normal) was found, as well as 7.10 for anxiety (normal) and 6.73 for depression (normal). On Athens Insomnia Scale, a mean of 9.33 points (moderate alteration), and on the RS-14 scale, 69.13 points (high resilience) were obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms' intensity was lower than expected in comparison with that recorded in other populations, probably due to the high levels of resilience of the Mexican population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health , Resilience, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
4.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 768, 2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnant and postpartum women face unique challenges and concerns during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus far, no studies have explored the factors associated with increased levels of worry in this population globally. The current study sought to assess the frequency and sources of worry during the COVID-19 pandemic in an international sample of pregnant and postpartum women. METHODS: We conducted an anonymous, online, cross-sectional survey in 64 countries between May and June 2020. The survey was available in 12 languages and hosted on the Pregistry platform for COVID-19 studies. Participants were sought mainly on social media platforms and online parenting forums. The survey included questions related to demographics, level of worry, support, stress, COVID-19 exposure, frequency of media usage, and mental health indicators. RESULTS: The study included 7561 participants. Eighty-three percent of all participants indicated that they were either 'somewhat' or 'very' worried. Women 13-28 weeks pregnant were significantly more likely to indicate that they were 'very worried' compared to those who were postpartum or at other stages of pregnancy. When compared with women living in Europe, those in Africa, Asia and Pacific, North America and South/Latin America were more likely to have increased levels of worry, as were those who more frequently interacted with social media. Different forms of support and stress also had an impact upon level of worry, while indicators of stress and anxiety were positively associated with worry level. CONCLUSION: Pregnant and postpartum women are vulnerable to the changes in societal norms brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding the factors associated with levels of worry within this population will enable society to address potential unmet needs and improve the current and future mental health of parents and children.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Pregnancy Complications/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Health Surveys , Humans , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Young Adult
5.
Psychiatr Danub ; 33(3): 393-401, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The course of chronic diseases can be influenced by psychological stress, suggesting a potential influence of current/recent disasters on atopic dermatitis (AD) patients. The aim of the study was to examine effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and Zagreb earthquake on the psychological stress level and disease condition of AD patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 150 AD patients (three groups with 50 patients): 1) those not exposed to either the COVID-19 pandemic or the earthquake; 2) those who only experienced the COVID-19 pandemic; and 3) those who experienced both the pandemic and the earthquake. Patients' data from the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), on AD severity (SCORAD), and their answers from our newly designed questionnaire on disease-related behaviors and AD condition during the pandemic and quarantine were examined and statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The subjects who experienced both disasters had a greater PSS than those experiencing only the COVID-19 pandemic, especially women, and they also had higher disease severity (SCORAD) than those in the other two groups. Also, 59% of patients reported psychological stress during the pandemic, mostly caused by: the possibility of infection (31%), a changed work life and possible loss of income (23%), general pandemic-related conditions (17%), worry about physical survival (11%) and other (6%). Concerning the earthquake, the PSS significantly positively correlated with the psychological experience of the earthquake and with the intensity of sleep disturbances. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to specifically confirm that the COVID-19 pandemic influenced AD patients' stress levels and that stress from two disasters affected skin disease. Further research and therapeutic measures are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dermatitis, Atopic , Earthquakes , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dermatitis, Atopic/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
6.
J Affect Disord ; 292: 89-94, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to explore the association between perceived stress and depression among medical students and the mediating role of insomnia in this relationship during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March to April 2020 in medical university. Levels of perceived stress, insomnia and depression were measured using Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9). The descriptive analyses of the demographic characteristics and correlation analyses of the three variables were calculated. The significance of the mediation effect was obtained using a bootstrap approach with SPSS PROCESS macro. RESULTS: The mean age of medical students was 21.46 years (SD=2.50). Of these medical students, 10,185 (34.3%) were male and 19,478 (65.7%) were female. Perceived stress was significantly associated with depression (ß=0.513, P < 0.001). Insomnia mediated the association between perceived stress and depression (ß=0.513, P < 0.001). The results of the non-parametric bootstrapping method confirmed the significance of the indirect effect of perceived stress through insomnia (95% bootstrap CI =0.137, 0.149). The indirect effect of insomnia accounted for 44.13% of the total variance in depression. CONCLUSIONS: These findings contribute to a better understanding of the interactive mechanisms underlying perceived stress and depression, and elucidating the mediating effects of insomnia on the association. This research provides a useful theoretical and methodological approach for prevention of depression in medical students. Findings from this study indicated that it may be effective to reduce depression among medical students by improving sleep quality and easing perceived stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Students, Medical , Adult , Anxiety , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502435

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of mental distress among university students in Jordan. METHODS: An online cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted between 12th of June and the 4th of August 2021 in Jordan to measure student mental stress using Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 (SRQ-20). RESULTS: A total of 1063 university students participated in the study. One-third of the participating students reported that they had a history of COVID-19 infection. More than half of the participating university students (65.7%) were found to have mental distress (measured symptomatically by the SRQ-20 with a score of eight or more). The average mental distress score was 9.8 (SD: 5.5) out of 20. Female students, students from non-medical colleges, students in their last years of study, students with chronic diseases and those with low income were associated with high levels of mental distress (p < 0.05). With regards to social support, a moderate level of social support was received from three sources: persons considered as significant others, family members, and friends. The average social support score for the participating university students was 41.9 (SD: 10.3) out of 60 (equivalent to 69.8%). CONCLUSIONS: Mental distress is prevalent among university students in Jordan. There is a need for evidence-based governmental strategies and interventions that provide social support at universities such as self-help measures and professional mental health services as part of student health services that would be helpful to reduce the burden of mental distress of students and promote the mission of the integration of mental health in all university policies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Universities , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 722071, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497171

ABSTRACT

Purpose: There is limited information about the association between workplace psychosocial factors and general worker mental health status during the COVID-19 pandemic. In the present study, we examined how anxiety about being infected by COVID-19 in the workplace affected the association between job demands and psychological distress (PD). Method: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted in December 2020. The final analyzed sample was 27,036. The dependent variable of PD was assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6). Job demands were assessed using the Job Content Questionnaire. Feelings of anxiety were assessed by participants' responses to the following question: "Do you feel anxiety about being infected by COVID-19 in the workplace?" We used a two-level regression adjusting for prefectural level: each individual-level variable at level 1 was nested into each prefecture at level 2, stratified by presence of anxiety. Results: A total of 50.5% of participants felt anxious about being infected by COVID-19 in the workplace. The interaction between anxiety and job demands was significant. Job demands were positively associated with PD. In the stratified analysis, the associations were stronger among employees who experienced anxiety about COVID-19 infection in the workplace than among those who did not. Conclusion: The association between job demands and PD may be strengthened by anxiety about COVID-19 infection in the workplace.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Workplace
10.
Int J Psychiatry Med ; 56(4): 210-227, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495822

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease which is believed to have initially originated in Wuhan city of China at the end of 2019 was declared as pandemic by March 2020 by WHO. This pandemic significantly impacted the mental health of communities around the globe. This project draws data from available research to quantify COVID-19 mental health issues and its prevalence in China during the early period of the COVID-19 crisis. It is believed that this pooling of data will give fair estimate of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. METHODS: We conducted this study in accordance with PRISMA guidelines 2009. The protocol for this review is registered and published in PROSPERO (CRD42020182893). The databases used were Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar and Scopus. The studies were extracted according to pre-defined eligibility criteria and risk of bias assessment was conducted. The Meta-analysis was done using OpenMeta [analyst]. RESULTS: Total of 62382 participants in nineteen studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Stress was the most prevalent (48.1%) mental health consequence of Covid-19 pandemic, followed by depression (26.9%) and anxiety (21.8%). After performing subgroup analysis, prevalence of depression and anxiety in both females and frontline health care workers were high as compared to the prevalence in general Chinese population. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depression and anxiety is moderately high whereas pooled prevalence of stress was found to be very high in Chinese people during this Covid-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/psychology
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488596

ABSTRACT

International research has evidenced the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on families, and the key role played by parenting stress levels. Although significant associations with parents' past trauma and resilience have been shown, this study aimed to explore their complex interplay on the relationship between parents' peritraumatic distress due to COVID-19, parenting stress, and children's psychopathological difficulties. We recruited 353 parents with children aged two to 16 years via an online survey during the Italian second wave of COVID-19. Parents' peritraumatic distress due to COVID-19, parenting stress, past trauma and resilience, and children's psychological difficulties were assessed through self-report and report-form questionnaires. Parents' past traumas significantly predicted peritraumatic distress due to COVID-19 and children's psychological difficulties. The relationship between past traumas and children's psychological difficulties was serial mediated by parents' peritraumatic distress and parenting stress. Direct and total effects of parent's resilience on parent's peritraumatic distress were not significant, but there were significant indirect effects via parenting stress and via parents' peritraumatic distress and parenting stress, indicating inconsistent mediation. This study evidenced the key risk and protective role played by, respectively, parents' past traumas exposure and resilience on the relationship between parents' psychological difficulties due to COVID-19, parenting stress, and children's psychological difficulties, with important clinical implications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Humans , Mental Health , Parenting , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
12.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 529, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486561

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic as a global mental health crisis has affected everyone, including students. The present study aimed to determine and investigate the relationship between health locus of control and perceived stress in students of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences (southern Iran) during the outbreak of COVID-19. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study examined 250 students of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences. We performed simple random sampling and utilized the demographic information form, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale (MHLCS) by Wallston, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) by Cohen to collect data. We analyzed data using the SPSS, Pearson correlation coefficient, and the hierarchical regression model with an error level of 5%. RESULTS: The mean perceived stress was 30.74 ± 8.09, and 92.4% of the students had moderate and high stress levels. Among the components of the health locus of control, the internal health locus of control (IHLC) had the highest mean in students (27.55 ± 3.81). Furthermore, the internal health locus of control (R = - 0.30, P < 0.001) had a significant inverse relationship, with perceived stress and the chance health locus of control (CHLC) (R = 0.30, P < 0.001) had a significant direct relationship. In the final regression model, the health locus of control and all the variables predicted 22.7% of the perceived stress variation in students during the COVID-19 period. CONCLUSION: The results indicated that the internal health locus of control was associated with a reduction of perceived stress, and the powerful others health locus of control (PHLC) was related to its increase in students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Given the uncertain future, in the present work, universities are suggested to design web-based educational interventions alongside the curriculum to further strengthen the internal health locus of control and thus help reduce their perceived stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Internal-External Control , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Students , Universities
13.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 1267-1276, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484979

ABSTRACT

Aims: This study aimed to investigate how the psychological health of health care professionals (HCP) on COVID duty was different from those who were not directly in contact. Methodology: Of 473 (76%) randomly selected respondents (doctors and nurses) to a WhatsApp request message, 450 subjects' data were finally analyzed. Result: The prevalence of stress, anxiety and depression among HCP was 33.8, 38.9 and 43.6%, respectively. Compared with nonexposed professionals, COVID-19-exposed professionals had roughly double the score of these morbidities (t = 6.3, p < 0.001; t = 6.9, p < 0.001; t = 6.0, p < 0.001). Most worry (71.11%) was about the health of their family, followed by themselves (35.55%). Conclusion: The level of exposure, feelings of uncertainty and fear of infection emerged in our study as possible risk factors for psychological morbidities among HCP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Health , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Burnout, Psychological/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Online Systems , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480765

ABSTRACT

Background: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has created numerous stressful conditions, especially for vulnerable populations such as pregnant women. Pandemic-related pregnancy stress consists of two dimensions: stress associated with feeling unprepared for birth due to the pandemic (Preparedness Stress), and stress related to fears of perinatal COVID-19 infection (Perinatal Infection Stress). The purpose of our study was to elucidate the association between various factors-sociodemographic, obstetric, pandemic-related, and situational-and pandemic stress in its two dimensions during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Polish pregnant women. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a total of 1119 pregnant women recruited during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Poland (between November 2020 and January 2021). Participants were recruited via social media to complete an online study questionnaire that included sociodemographic, obstetric, situational, and COVID-19 pandemic factors, as well as the Pandemic-Related Pregnancy Stress Scale (PREPS). Results: Nearly 38.5% of participants reported high Preparedness Stress; 26% reported high Perinatal Infection Stress. Multivariate analyses indicated that lack of COVID-19 diagnosis, higher compliance with safety rules and restrictions, and limited access to outdoor space were independently associated with moderate to severe levels of Infection Stress. Current emotional or psychiatric problems, nulliparity, limited access to outdoor space, and alterations to obstetric visits were independently associated with moderate to severe Preparedness Stress. Conclusion: Study findings suggest that particular attention should be focused on the groups of pregnant women who are most vulnerable to pandemic-related stress and therefore may be more prone to adverse outcomes associated with prenatal stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Parturition , Poland/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(10)2021 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470925

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: As maternal deaths associated with the SARS-CoV-2 infection remain at several times greater than the general population, significant factors that might contribute to the higher mortality and morbidity rate are the psychological impact of the disease and pregnancy itself. Therefore, the current study's main objective was to assess how pregnant women react and cope with the stress of COVID-19 disease and how it influences their overall health and quality of life in healthcare facilities. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we included 304 pregnant women who successfully completed standardized forms to assess our topics of interest, comprising of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Short Form Health Survey-12, the Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced Inventory scale, the CORE-Outcome Measure Questionnaire, and the Quality from the Patient's Perspective questionnaire. Results: Unemployed, pregnant women living in poverty in the rural areas had higher SARS-CoV-2 infection rates during pregnancy. They faced higher anxiety levels and depression rates, with associated increased physical burden and exhaustion. However, these findings are not influenced by hospital care since it remained unchanged among COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 maternity units, excepting significantly lower technical competence scores of COVID-19 facilities. Conclusions: As the pandemic's consequences emerge and additional outbreaks occur, care must prioritize the additional physical burden experienced by pregnant women who have contracted COVID-19, as well as psychological, emotional, and mental health support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnant Women , Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470876

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to analyze university Health Sciences students' self-perception regarding gender stereotypes, and to explore whether there was any association between gender stereotypes and clinical/socio-demographic variables. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 252 university students who completed a self-administrated online questionnaire (18.3% males, 81.7% females). We evaluated the self-perception of gender stereotypes as determined using the BSRI-12 questionnaire and explored the association of this measure with the impact of perceived stress measured using a modified scale (PSS-10-C) as well as anxiety and depression according to scores on the Goldberg scale (GADS). RESULTS: According to the students' self-perception of gender stereotypes, 24.9% self-perceived themselves as feminine, 20.1% as masculine, 24.9% as androgynous, and 30% as undifferentiated. The degree determines self-identification with gender stereotypes. Nursing and Occupational Therapy are studied mostly by women, 28.4% and 45%, respectively, while Physiotherapy is studied mainly by men (71.2%). Females indicated more anxiety (75.7%) and depression (81.7%) than males (52.9% and 67.3%, respectively). In contrast, males developed more stress (88.5%) than females (74.1%). CONCLUSIONS: University degree, anxiety, depression, and stress determined self-identification with gender stereotypes. The results of this study indicate that gender roles influence the possibility of developing mental disorders and should be taken into account in future studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Concept , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Students , Universities
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470852

ABSTRACT

Vulnerable populations may be more vulnerable to mental health problems posed by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A systematic review was performed to compare the mental health impact of COVID-19 between vulnerable and non-vulnerable groups. Five electronic databases were searched for observational studies reporting the psychological outcomes of both vulnerable populations and healthy controls during the COVID-19 era. The primary outcomes are the severity of depression and anxiety, and secondary outcomes include other aspects of mental health such as stress or sleep disturbance. Meta-analysis was performed for the severity of mental health symptoms, and the results were presented as standardized mean difference and 95% confidence intervals. A total of 25 studies were included. According to the findings, the elderly generally experienced significantly lower levels of psychological symptoms including depression, anxiety, and perceived stress. Pregnant women, patients with chronic diseases, and patients with pre-existing severe mental disorders showed mixed results according to each mental health outcome. The results indicate that vulnerable groups have been affected differently in the COVID-19 era. Though the insufficient number and heterogeneity of included studies leave the results inconclusive, our findings may contribute to identifying priorities of mental health needs among various vulnerable populations and allocating health resources with efficiency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health , Aged , Anxiety , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
19.
Bull Menninger Clin ; 85(3): 254-270, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470682

ABSTRACT

Sleep problems among frontline medical staff during the COVID-19 epidemic require attention. A total of 249 frontline medical staff who were recruited to support Wuhan completed this cross-sectional study. A web-based questionnaire about insomnia, depression, anxiety, and fatigue was used to assess mental health status. The prevalence of sleep disorders among frontline medical staff was 50.6%. More time spent in Wuhan and a history of insomnia, depression, anxiety, and fatigue were associated with a higher risk of insomnia. People who stayed in Wuhan for a long time with a history of insomnia, depression, anxiety, and fatigue symptoms might be at high risk of insomnia.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/psychology , Medical Staff, Hospital/psychology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , China , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Medical Staff, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Mental Disorders/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Wake Disorders/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors
20.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 231, 2021 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468067

ABSTRACT

It is well accepted that environmental stressors experienced over a one's life, from microbial infections to chemical toxicants to even psychological stressors, ultimately shape central nervous system (CNS) functioning but can also contribute to its eventual breakdown. The severity, timing and type of such environmental "hits", woven together with genetic factors, likely determine what CNS outcomes become apparent. This focused review assesses the current COVID-19 pandemic through the lens of a multi-hit framework and disuses how the SARS-COV-2 virus (causative agent) might impact the brain and potentially interact with other environmental insults. What the long-term consequences of SAR2 COV-2 upon neuronal processes is yet unclear, but emerging evidence is suggesting the possibility of microglial or other inflammatory factors as potentially contributing to neurodegenerative illnesses. Finally, it is critical to consider the impact of the virus in the context of the substantial psychosocial stress that has been associated with the global pandemic. Indeed, the loneliness, fear to the future and loss of social support alone has exerted a massive impact upon individuals, especially the vulnerable very young and the elderly. The substantial upswing in depression, anxiety and eating disorders is evidence of this and in the years to come, this might be matched by a similar spike in dementia, as well as motor and cognitive neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Mental Disorders/immunology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/immunology , Neuroimmunomodulation/immunology , Animals , Brain/immunology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Immunotherapy/trends , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Disorders/therapy , Neurodegenerative Diseases/epidemiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/therapy , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/immunology , Stress, Psychological/therapy
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