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1.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262283, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613363

ABSTRACT

In stressful situations such as the COVID-19-pandemic, unpleasant emotions are expected to increase while pleasant emotions will likely decrease. Little is known about the role cognitive appraisals, information management, and upregulating pleasant emotions can play to support emotion regulation in a pandemic. In an online survey (N = 1682), we investigated predictors of changes in pleasant and unpleasant emotions in a German sample (aged 18-88 years) shortly after the first restrictions were imposed. Crisis self-efficacy and felt restriction were predictors of changes in unpleasant emotions and joy alike. The application of emotion up-regulation strategies was weakly associated with changes in joy. Among the different upregulation strategies, only "savouring the moment" predicted changes in joy. Our study informs future research perspectives assessing the role of upregulating pleasant emotions under challenging circumstances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Emotional Regulation/physiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emotions , Epidemics/psychology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580544

ABSTRACT

There are many ways to regulate emotions. People use both adaptive (e.g., regulation by music) and maladaptive (e.g., regulation by food) strategies to do this. We hypothesized that participants with a high level of food-based regulatory strategies and a low level of music-based regulatory strategies (a group with the least adaptive form of emotion regulation) would have significantly greater levels of unhealthy eating behaviours, depression, anxiety and stress, as well as a significantly lower level of healthy eating behaviours than those with a low level of food-based regulatory strategies and a high level of music-based regulatory strategies (a group with the greatest adaptive form of emotion regulation). Participants (N = 410; Mage = 31.77, SD = 13.53) completed: the Brief Music in Mood Regulation Scale, the Emotional Overeating Questionnaire, the Healthy and Unhealthy Eating Behavior Scale, the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale and a socio-demographic survey. The four clusters were identified: (a) Cluster 1 (N = 148): low food-based regulatory strategies and high music-based regulatory strategies; (b) Cluster 2 (N = 42): high food-based regulatory strategies and high music-based regulatory strategies; (c) Cluster 3 (N = 70): high food-based regulatory strategies and low music-based regulatory strategies; (d) Cluster 4 (N = 150): low food-based regulatory strategies and low music-based regulatory strategies. Overall, our outcomes partially support our hypothesis, as higher levels of unhealthy eating behaviours, depression, anxiety and stress were observed in participants with high food-based and low music-based regulatory strategies as compared with adults with low food-based and high music-based regulatory strategies. To sum up, the results obtained indicate that during the COVID-19 pandemic the group of people regulating their emotional state and unhealthy eating predominantly with food is potentially characterized by worse functioning than the group of people regulating with music. Therefore, it can be concluded that people who regulate their functioning using food should be included in preventive measures by specialists. During the visit, psychologists and primary care physicians can ask patients about their daily strategies and based on this information specialists can estimate the potential risk of developing high levels of stress and anxiety, depressive disorders and unhealthy eating habits and provide specific (match) intervention.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/therapy , COVID-19/psychology , Depressive Disorder/therapy , Diet, Healthy/statistics & numerical data , Feeding and Eating Disorders/therapy , Music/psychology , Stress, Psychological/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anxiety Disorders/complications , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Cluster Analysis , Depressive Disorder/complications , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Emotional Regulation , Feeding and Eating Disorders/complications , Feeding and Eating Disorders/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/complications , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
4.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575182

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the impact of food insecurity and poor nutrient intake on the psychological health of middle-aged and older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. A sub-sample of 535 individuals aged 52 years and above, from the earlier cohort and interventional studies (n = 4) from four selected states in Peninsular Malaysia, were recruited during the COVID-19 outbreak (April to June 2020). Telephone interviews were conducted by trained interviewers with a health sciences background to obtain participants' information on health status, physical activity, food security, and psychological health (General Health Questionnaire-12; normal and psychological distress). Univariate analyses were performed for each variable, followed by a logistic regression analysis using SPSS Statistics version 25.0. Results revealed food insecurity (OR = 17.06, 95% CI: 8.24-35.32, p < 0.001), low protein (OR = 0.981, 95% CI: 0.965-0.998, p < 0.05), and fiber intakes (OR = 0.822, 95% CI: 0.695-0.972, p < 0.05) were found to be significant factors associated with the psychological distress group after adjusting for confounding factors. The findings suggested that food insecurity and insufficiencies of protein and fiber intakes heightened the psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Optimal nutrition is vital to ensure the physical and psychological health of the older population, specifically during the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/economics , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Food Insecurity/economics , Humans , Independent Living/economics , Independent Living/psychology , Independent Living/statistics & numerical data , Malaysia/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Health Questionnaire/statistics & numerical data , Stress, Psychological/diagnosis , Stress, Psychological/economics , Stress, Psychological/psychology
6.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538436

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has been associated with both increased anxiety, deterioration in diet and weight gain. These associations may differ by sex. The present report examines differences by sex in diet quality in order to determine whether associations between diet and psychological stress during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic differed by sex. This online study is available internationally in seven languages. The Mediterranean Diet Score was used to measure diet quality, while the General Anxiety Disorder 7-point scale (GAD-7) was used to measure anxiety. Findings were compared by self-reported sex (male vs. female). A total of 3797 respondents provided informed consent and met eligibility criteria, of whom 526 women were omitted due to being pregnant or six months or less post-partum, or due to reproductive status not being reported. Thus, 3271 individuals are included in the present report, of whom 71.2% were women. The median age of women was 30 (interquartile range (IQR) = 16) years vs. 31 (IQR = 19) years, p = 0.079. The median diet quality score was 9 (IQ = 3) in both women and men (p = 0.75). Despite the overall similarity in diet score, several components of the score differed significantly by sex. Women reported consuming significantly more olive oil, daily servings of vegetables, and weekly servings of sweet baked goods. Men reported consuming significantly more sweetened/carbonated drinks, red meat, alcohol, legumes, and hummus/tahini. Women reported a GAD-7 score of 6 (IQR = 8), while men reported 3 (6), p < 0.001. An inverse association was detected between the Mediterranean diet score and the GAD-7 score in both women (rho = -0.166, p < 0.001) and men (rho = -0.154, p < 0.001), and the correlation coefficients did not differ by sex (p = 0.76). Mediterranean diet score and age both reduced the odds of elevated anxiety (GAD-7 ≥ 10), while female sex, deterioration of diet quality during the outbreak, unemployment, and completing the survey in English increased the odds of this outcome. During the COVID-19 lockdowns, overall diet quality did not differ by sex; however, some differences by sex in components of the total score were detected. Moderate to severe anxiety was positively associated with female sex and poorer diet quality even after controlling for age, employment status, and the language in which the survey was performed.


Subject(s)
Anxiety , COVID-19 , Food Preferences/psychology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Characteristics , Stress, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 768, 2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528682

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnant and postpartum women face unique challenges and concerns during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus far, no studies have explored the factors associated with increased levels of worry in this population globally. The current study sought to assess the frequency and sources of worry during the COVID-19 pandemic in an international sample of pregnant and postpartum women. METHODS: We conducted an anonymous, online, cross-sectional survey in 64 countries between May and June 2020. The survey was available in 12 languages and hosted on the Pregistry platform for COVID-19 studies. Participants were sought mainly on social media platforms and online parenting forums. The survey included questions related to demographics, level of worry, support, stress, COVID-19 exposure, frequency of media usage, and mental health indicators. RESULTS: The study included 7561 participants. Eighty-three percent of all participants indicated that they were either 'somewhat' or 'very' worried. Women 13-28 weeks pregnant were significantly more likely to indicate that they were 'very worried' compared to those who were postpartum or at other stages of pregnancy. When compared with women living in Europe, those in Africa, Asia and Pacific, North America and South/Latin America were more likely to have increased levels of worry, as were those who more frequently interacted with social media. Different forms of support and stress also had an impact upon level of worry, while indicators of stress and anxiety were positively associated with worry level. CONCLUSION: Pregnant and postpartum women are vulnerable to the changes in societal norms brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding the factors associated with levels of worry within this population will enable society to address potential unmet needs and improve the current and future mental health of parents and children.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/psychology , Pregnancy Complications/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Health Surveys , Humans , Logistic Models , Odds Ratio , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , Risk Factors , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Young Adult
8.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E1013-E1020, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524569

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Qualitative research is lacking on the mental well-being of adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to explore the feelings and emotions adolescents experienced during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic and the coping strategies they identified and employed to manage those emotions. METHODS: Participants living in Canada aged 13-19 years were recruited through social media platforms and youth-serving organizations. Qualitative data were gathered from 2 open-ended questions included in a youth-informed cross-sectional online survey: "What feelings and emotions have you experienced around the pandemic?" and "What coping strategies have you used during the pandemic?" We collected data from June 2020 to September 2020. A summative content analysis was undertaken to analyze survey responses inductively. RESULTS: A total of 1164 open-ended responses from Canadian adolescents (n = 851; mean age 15.6, standard deviation 1.7, yr) were analyzed. We identified 3 major themes within the category of feelings and emotions associated with the pandemic: sociospatial and temporal disconnections, emotional toll of the pandemic and positives amid the pandemic. Within the category of coping strategies used during the pandemic, 2 major themes were identified: connecting online and outdoors, and leisure and health-promoting activities. INTERPRETATION: Although the emotional toll of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic is evident, participants in our study adopted various positive coping strategies to mitigate their distress, including physical activity, safe peer interactions and hobbies. The results have important implications for public health policy and practice during pandemic times, emphasizing the importance of accessible mental health resources for those experiencing psychological distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emotions , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Media , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 271, 2021.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505637

ABSTRACT

This study is based on a psychoanalytically inspired psychological investigation of two pregnant women with COVID-19 at different stages of pregnancy in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology A at the Charles Nicolle Hospital. Our study was conducted between 2020 and 2021, until deliveries. Two young Tunisian women aged 28 and 30 years were tested positive for COVID-19 during pregnancy. They suffered from emotional shock. In this study, we discuss the different points of collision between life and death by describing, in detail, the experiences of these two women during their confinement.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
11.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259281, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: E-learning is a relatively trending system of education that has been placed over conventional campus-based learning worldwide, especially since the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to assess e-learning readiness among university students of a developing country like Bangladesh and identify the independent predictors of e-learning readiness. METHODS: From 26 December 2020 to 11 January 2021, a total of 1162 university students who had enrolled for e-learning completed a semi-structured questionnaire. Data were collected online via "Google Form" following the principles of snowball sampling through available social media platforms in Bangladesh. A multivariable linear regression model was fitted to investigate the association of e-learning readiness with perceived e-learning stress and other independent predictor variables. RESULTS: A total of 1162 university students participated in this study. The results indicated that with the increase of students' perceived e-learning stress score, the average e-learning readiness score was significantly decreased (ß = -0.43, 95% CI: -0.66, -0.20). The students did not seem ready, and none of the e-learning readiness scale items reached the highest mean score (5.0). The age, gender, divisional residence, preference of students and their parents, devices used, and having any eye problems were significantly associated with the students' e-learning readiness. CONCLUSION: During the prolonged period of the COVID-19 pandemic, e-learning implication strategies are needed to be assessed systematically with the level of readiness and its' impacts among students for the continuation of sound e-learning systems. The study findings recommend evaluating the e-learning readiness of university students and the mental health outcomes during the COVID-19 catastrophe in Bangladesh.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Education, Distance/trends , Students, Medical/psychology , Adult , Bangladesh , Computer-Assisted Instruction , Education, Distance/methods , Female , Forecasting/methods , Humans , Learning , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
Int J Psychiatry Med ; 56(4): 210-227, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495822

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease which is believed to have initially originated in Wuhan city of China at the end of 2019 was declared as pandemic by March 2020 by WHO. This pandemic significantly impacted the mental health of communities around the globe. This project draws data from available research to quantify COVID-19 mental health issues and its prevalence in China during the early period of the COVID-19 crisis. It is believed that this pooling of data will give fair estimate of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. METHODS: We conducted this study in accordance with PRISMA guidelines 2009. The protocol for this review is registered and published in PROSPERO (CRD42020182893). The databases used were Pubmed, Medline, Google scholar and Scopus. The studies were extracted according to pre-defined eligibility criteria and risk of bias assessment was conducted. The Meta-analysis was done using OpenMeta [analyst]. RESULTS: Total of 62382 participants in nineteen studies fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Stress was the most prevalent (48.1%) mental health consequence of Covid-19 pandemic, followed by depression (26.9%) and anxiety (21.8%). After performing subgroup analysis, prevalence of depression and anxiety in both females and frontline health care workers were high as compared to the prevalence in general Chinese population. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depression and anxiety is moderately high whereas pooled prevalence of stress was found to be very high in Chinese people during this Covid-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/psychology
13.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 12(1): 1871555, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493526

ABSTRACT

Background: It has been suggested that resilience is best conceptualized as healthy and stable functioning in the face of a potentially traumatic event. However, most research on this field has focused on self-reported resilience, and other patterns of response when facing adversity, in cross-sectional designs. Objective: Alternatively, we aimed to study changing patterns of psychological responses to the COVID-19 pandemic in the general population, based on patterns of symptoms, and factors contributing to those patterns. Method: A national representative sample of Spain (N = 1,628) responded to an internet-based survey at two assessment points, separated by 1 month (April and May 2020), during the official national confinement stage. Based upon whether participants exhibited absence/presence of distress (i.e., significant trauma-related, depression, or anxiety symptoms) at one or two of the assessment times, patterns of psychological responses were defined by categorizing individuals into one of the four categories: Resilience, Delayed distress, Recovered, and Sustained distress. Results: Analyses of the levels of disturbance associated with the symptoms provided support to that four-fold distinction of patterns of responses. Furthermore, resilience responses were the most common psychological response to the pandemic. Multinomial regression analyses revealed that the main variables increasing the probability of resilience to COVID-19 were being male, older, having no history of mental health difficulties, higher levels of psychological well-being and high identification with all humanity. Also, having low scores in several variables (i.e., anxiety and economic threat due to COVID-19, substance use during the confinement, intolerance to uncertainty, death anxiety, loneliness, and suspiciousness) was a significant predictor of a resilient response to COVID-19. Conclusion: Our findings are consistent with previous literature that conceptualizes resilience as a dynamic process. The clinical implications of significant predictors of the resilience and the rest of psychological patterns of response are discussed.


Antecedentes: Se ha sugerido que la mejor manera de conceptualizar la resiliencia es como un funcionamiento saludable y estable ante un evento potencialmente traumático. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de las investigaciones sobre la resiliencia y otras pautas de respuesta ante la adversidad se han centrado en el uso de cuestionarios de autoinforme de resiliencia en diseños transversales.Objetivo: Alternativamente, nuestro objetivo fue estudiar los cambios en los patrones de las respuestas psicológicas a la pandemia de COVID-19 en la población general y analizar de manera empírica las características que contribuyen a la respuesta resiliente.Métodos: Se utilizó una muestra nacional representativa española (N=1.628), que respondió a una encuesta realizada a través de Internet, en dos momentos de evaluación, separados por un mes, durante la etapa de confinamiento asociada a la pandemia (Abril y Mayo 2020). Se definieron los patrones de respuesta psicológica en función de la ausencia/presencia de malestar (v.g., síntomas significativos de estrés post-traumático, depresión y Ansiedad) en los dos momentos de evaluación, clasificando a los individuos en: resiliencia, malestar tardío, recuperación y malestar sostenido.Resultados: Análisis de los niveles de interferencia apoyaron estos cuatro de patrones dinámicos de respuesta psicológica. Además, la respuesta de resiliencia fue la más común frente a la pandemia. Un análisis de regresión multinomial indicó que los predictores de una mayor probabilidad de resiliencia fueron ser hombre, tener más edad, no tener antecedentes de salud mental, y altos niveles de identificación con la humanidad y de bienestar psicológico. Además, bajos niveles en otras variables (ansiedad y amenaza económica debida a la pandemia, consumo de sustancias durante el confinamiento, intolerancia a la incertidumbre, ansiedad ante la muerte, soledad, y desconfianza) fueron también predictores significativos de una respuesta de resiliencia psicológica al COVID-19.Conclusión: Nuestros hallazgos están en línea con la literatura previa que identifica la resiliencia como un patrón de respuesta común y un proceso dinámico. Se discuten las implicaciones clínicas de los predictores significativos de los cuatro diferentes patrones de respuesta.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Resilience, Psychological , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
J Nurs Adm ; 51(11): 554-560, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483691

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the predictors associated with severe burnout and poor mental health among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic as a learning opportunity for future emergent situations. BACKGROUND: Modifiable predictors of mental health need to be further examined and quantified to prioritize human resource support in organizations as healthcare workers confront stressful situations. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 271 healthcare workers from September 8 to October 10, 2020. RESULTS: Approximately one-third reported severe burnout, as well as moderate/severe anxiety and depression. Feeling protected working with COVID-19 patients, high family functioning, and spirituality were associated with 2- to 4-fold lower odds of severe burnout. Satisfaction with the organization's communications predicted 2-fold lower odds of anxiety, whereas high resilience was associated with almost 4-fold lower odds of stress and depression. CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare organizations may consider adopting programs to foster resilience, family and spiritual support, and effective communication strategies to reduce burnout and poor mental health among healthcare workers during pandemics and other situations of high stress.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Emergencies , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Health , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Stress, Psychological/psychology
16.
Bull Menninger Clin ; 85(3): 254-270, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470682

ABSTRACT

Sleep problems among frontline medical staff during the COVID-19 epidemic require attention. A total of 249 frontline medical staff who were recruited to support Wuhan completed this cross-sectional study. A web-based questionnaire about insomnia, depression, anxiety, and fatigue was used to assess mental health status. The prevalence of sleep disorders among frontline medical staff was 50.6%. More time spent in Wuhan and a history of insomnia, depression, anxiety, and fatigue were associated with a higher risk of insomnia. People who stayed in Wuhan for a long time with a history of insomnia, depression, anxiety, and fatigue symptoms might be at high risk of insomnia.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/psychology , Medical Staff, Hospital/psychology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , China , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Medical Staff, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Mental Disorders/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Wake Disorders/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors
17.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258101, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456091

ABSTRACT

The turnover intention of healthcare workers is a threat to the competence of health services, especially during COVID-19 time. This study aimed to investigate the association between stress and turnover intention among healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia and whether social support could affect this association. In this cross-sectional study, healthcare workers in primary healthcare centers in Saudi Arabia responded to an online questionnaire assessing their sociodemographic and occupational history, stress levels using the Perceived Stress Scale-10 (PSS-10), social support using the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and turnover intention within the next few months. Path analysis was conducted to assess the mediating effect of social support on the association between stress and turnover intention. A total of 1101 healthcare workers (242 physicians, 340 nurses, 310 paramedics, and 209 administrative workers) participated in this study. The path between stress and support had a significant standardized regression weight (-.34, p < .05). The path between support and turnover had a significant standardized regression weight (.08, p < .05). The standardized total effect of stress on turnover without the impact of support was significant (-.39, p < .05). The direct effect of stress on turnover with the presence of support was significant (-.36, p < .05). The indirect effect of stress on turnover with the presence of support was significant (-.03, p < .05). Thus, there is evidence to show that support mediates the relationship between stress and support. Stress is associated with turnover intention among healthcare workers in Saudi Arabia. Social support had a mitigating effect on the relationship between stress and turnover intention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel/psychology , Intention , Personnel Turnover , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Stress, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Primary Health Care , Saudi Arabia , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
19.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 670, 2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus currently cause a lot of pressure on the health system. Accordingly, many changes occurred in the way of providing health care, including pregnancy and childbirth care. To our knowledge, no studies on experiences of maternity care Providers during the COVID-19 Pandemic have been published in Iran. We aimed to discover their experiences on pregnancy and childbirth care during the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This study was a qualitative research performed with a descriptive phenomenological approach. The used sampling method was purposive sampling by taking the maximum variation possible into account, which continued until data saturation. Accordingly, in-depth and semi-structured interviews were conducted by including 12 participants, as 4 gynecologists, 6 midwives working in the hospitals and private offices, and 2 midwives working in the health centers. Data were analyzed using Colaizzi's seven stage method with MAXQDA10 software. RESULTS: Data analysis led to the extraction of 3 themes, 9 categories, and 25 subcategories. The themes were as follows: "Fear of Disease", "Burnout", and "Lessons Learned from the COVID-19 Pandemic", respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal health care providers experience emotional and psychological stress and work challenges during the current COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, comprehensive support should be provided for the protection of their physical and mental health statuses. By working as a team, utilizing the capacity of telemedicine to care and follow up mothers, and providing maternity care at home, some emerged challenges to maternal care services can be overcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Maternal Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Perinatal Care/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Burnout, Psychological/psychology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Emotions/physiology , Female , Gynecology/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Interviews as Topic , Iran/epidemiology , Maternal Health Services/trends , Middle Aged , Midwifery/statistics & numerical data , Perinatal Care/organization & administration , Phobic Disorders/psychology , Pregnancy , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Telemedicine/methods
20.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(10): e2127892, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1445779

ABSTRACT

Importance: Children's physical activity and screen time are likely suboptimal during the COVID-19 pandemic, which may influence their current and future mental health. Objective: To describe the association of physical activity and screen time with mental health among US children during the pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional survey was conducted from October 22 to November 2, 2020, among 547 parents of children aged 6 to 10 years and 535 parent-child dyads with children and adolescents (hereinafter referred to as children) aged 11 to 17 years and matched down to 500 children per cohort using US Census-based sampling frames. Children aged 11 to 17 years self-reported physical activity, screen time, and mental health, and their parents reported other measures. Parents of children aged 6 to 10 years reported all measures. All 1000 cases were further weighted to a sampling frame corresponding to US parents with children aged 6 to 17 years using propensity scores. Exposures: Child physical activity, screen time, COVID-19 stressors, and demographics. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mental health using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire for total difficulties and externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Results: Among the 1000 children included in the analysis (mean [SD] age, 10.8 [3.5] years; 517 [52.6%] boys; 293 [31.6%] American Indian/Alaska Native, Asian, or Black individuals or individuals of other race; and 233 [27.8%] Hispanic/Latino individuals), 195 (20.9%) reported at least 60 minutes of physical activity every day. Children reported a mean (SD) of 3.9 (2.2) d/wk with at least 60 minutes of physical activity and 4.4 (2.5) h/d of recreational screen time. COVID-19 stressors were significantly associated with higher total difficulties for both younger (ß coefficient, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.3-0.9) and older (ß coefficient, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.0-0.7) groups. After accounting for COVID-19 stressors, engaging in 7 d/wk (vs 0) of physical activity was associated with fewer externalizing symptoms in younger children (ß coefficient, -2.0; 95% CI, -3.4 to -0.6). For older children, engaging in 1 to 6 and 7 d/wk (vs 0) of physical activity was associated with lower total difficulties (ß coefficients, -3.5 [95% CI, -5.3 to -1.8] and -3.6 [95% CI, -5.8 to -1.4], respectively), fewer externalizing symptoms (ß coefficients, -1.5 [95% CI, -2.5 to -0.4] and -1.3 [95% CI, -2.6 to 0], respectively), and fewer internalizing symptoms (ß coefficients, -2.1 [95% CI, -3.0 to -1.1] and -2.3 [95% CI, -3.5 to -1.1], respectively). More screen time was correlated with higher total difficulties among younger (ß coefficient, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.5) and older (ß coefficient, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.6) children. There were no significant differences by sex. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional survey study, more physical activity and less screen time were associated with better mental health for children, accounting for pandemic stressors. Children engaged in suboptimal amounts of physical activity and screen time, making this a potentially important target for intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exercise/psychology , Mental Health , Screen Time , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
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