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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e057805, 2022 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741640

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Stroke survivors, once in the community, face challenges with their long-term rehabilitation care and present higher levels of loneliness, depression and anxiety than the rest of the population. A community-based performance arts programme, Stroke Odysseys (SO), has been devised to tackle the challenges of living with stroke in the UK. In this study, we aim to evaluate the implementation, impact and experiences of SO for stroke survivors. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Scaling-up Health Arts Programmes: Implementation and Effectiveness Research (SHAPER)-SO aims to scale-up SO to 75 participants and 47 stakeholders, while simultaneously evaluating the effectiveness and implementation of the programme. The main research aim is to evaluate the implementation, effectiveness, impact and experiences of a community-based performance arts programme (SO for stroke survivors). This mixed-methods study will evaluate the experience and impact of SO on those participating using mixed methods (interviews, observations and surveys) before and after each stage and carry out non-participant observations during a percentage of the workshops, training and tour. Data will be analysed using quantitative and qualitative approaches. This is a study within the SHAPER programme. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been granted by the King's College London PNM Research Ethics Panel, REC reference: LRS/DP-20/21-21549. Written informed consent will be sought for participants and stakeholders. The results of the study will be reported and disseminated at international conferences and in peer-reviewed scientific journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04864470.


Subject(s)
Stroke Rehabilitation , Stroke , Humans , Quality of Life , Stroke/therapy , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom
2.
J Integr Neurosci ; 21(1): 8, 2022 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687835

ABSTRACT

We report on our remote speech therapy experience in post-stroke aphasia. The aim was to test the feasibility and utility of telerehabilitation to support future randomized controlled trials. Post-stroke aphasia is a common and disabling speech disorder, which significantly affects patients' and caregivers' health and quality of life. Due to COVID-19 pandemic, most of the conventional speech therapy approaches had to stop or "switch" into telerehabilitation procedures to ensure the safety of patients and operators but, concomitantly, the best rehabilitation level possible. Here, we planned a 5-month telespeech therapy programme, twice per week, of a patient with non-fluent aphasia following an intracerebral haemorrhage. Overall, treatment adherence based on the operator's assessments was high, and incomplete adherence for technical problems occurred very rarely. In line with the patient's feedback, acceptability was also positive, since he was constantly motivated during the sessions and the exercises performed autonomously, as confirmed by the speech therapist and caregiver, respectively. Moreover, despite the sequelae from the cerebrovascular event, evident in some writing tests due to the motor deficits in his right arm and the disadvantages typical of all telepractices, more relevant results were achieved during the telerehabilitation period compared to those of the "face-to-face" therapy before the COVID-19 outbreak. The telespeech therapy performed can be considered successful and the patient was able to return to work. Concluding, we support it as a feasible approach offering patients and their families the opportunity to continue the speech and language rehabilitation pathway, even at the time of pandemic.


Subject(s)
Aphasia/rehabilitation , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Stroke/complications , Telerehabilitation , Aphasia/etiology , COVID-19 , Humans , Language Therapy/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Speech Therapy/methods , Treatment Outcome
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(2)2022 01 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633758

ABSTRACT

The available data from electroneurography (ENG) studies on the transmission of neural impulses in the motor fibers of upper and lower extremity nerves following neuromuscular functional electrical stimulation (NMFES) combined with kinesiotherapy in post-stroke patients during sixty-day observation do not provide convincing results. This study aims to compare the effectiveness of an NMFES of antagonistic muscle groups at the wrist and ankle and kinesiotherapy based mainly on proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF). An ENG was performed once in a group of 60 healthy volunteers and three times in 120 patients after stroke (T0, up to 7 days after the incident; T1, after 21 days of treatment; and T2, after 60 days of treatment); 60 subjects received personalized NMFES and PNF treatment (NMFES+K), while the other 60 received only PNF (K). An ENG studied peripheral (M-wave recordings), C8 and L5 ventral root (F-wave recordings) neural impulse transmission in the peroneal and the ulnar nerves on the hemiparetic side. Both groups statistically differed in their amplitudes of M-wave recording parameters after peroneal nerve stimulation performed at T0 and T2 compared with the control group. After 60 days of treatment, only the patients from the NMFES+K group showed significant improvement in M-wave recordings. The application of the proposed NMFES electrostimulation algorithm combined with PNF improved the peripheral neural transmission in peroneal but not ulnar motor nerve fibers in patients after ischemic stroke. Combined kinesiotherapy and safe, personalized, controlled electrotherapy after stroke give better results than kinesiotherapy alone.


Subject(s)
Electric Stimulation Therapy , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke Rehabilitation , Ankle , Electric Stimulation , Electric Stimulation Therapy/methods , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lower Extremity , Muscles , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Synaptic Transmission , Treatment Outcome , Wrist
5.
Neurorehabil Neural Repair ; 36(1): 3-16, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488373

ABSTRACT

Background. The COVID-19 pandemic attributable to the severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS-CoV-2) has had a significant and continuing impact across all areas of healthcare including stroke. Individuals post-stroke are at high risk for infection, disease severity, and mortality after COVID-19 infection. Exercise stroke rehabilitation programs remain critical for individuals recovering from stroke to mitigate risk factors and morbidity associated with the potential long-term consequences of COVID-19. There is currently no exercise rehabilitation guidance for people post-stroke with a history of COVID-19 infection. Purpose. To (1) review the multi-system pathophysiology of COVID-19 related to stroke and exercise; (2) discuss the multi-system benefits of exercise for individuals post-stroke with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection; and (3) provide clinical considerations related to COVID-19 for exercise during stroke rehabilitation. This article is intended for healthcare professionals involved in the implementation of exercise rehabilitation for individuals post-stroke who have suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection and non-infected individuals who want to receive safe exercise rehabilitation. Results. Our clinical considerations integrate pre-COVID-19 stroke (n = 2) and COVID-19 exercise guidelines for non-stroke populations (athletic [n = 6], pulmonary [n = 1], cardiac [n = 2]), COVID-19 pathophysiology literature, considerations of stroke rehabilitation practices, and exercise physiology principles. A clinical decision-making tool for COVID-19 screening and eligibility for stroke exercise rehabilitation is provided, along with key subjective and physiological measures to guide exercise prescription. Conclusion. We propose that this framework promotes safe exercise programming within stroke rehabilitation for COVID-19 and future infectious disease outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/rehabilitation , Exercise Therapy/methods , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Stroke/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Clinical Decision-Making , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Stroke/physiopathology
6.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(7): e17216, 2020 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recent advancements in wearable sensor technology have shown the feasibility of remote physical therapy at home. In particular, the current COVID-19 pandemic has revealed the need and opportunity of internet-based wearable technology in future health care systems. Previous research has shown the feasibility of human activity recognition technologies for monitoring rehabilitation activities in home environments; however, few comprehensive studies ranging from development to clinical evaluation exist. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to (1) develop a home-based rehabilitation (HBR) system that can recognize and record the type and frequency of rehabilitation exercises conducted by the user using a smartwatch and smartphone app equipped with a machine learning (ML) algorithm and (2) evaluate the efficacy of the home-based rehabilitation system through a prospective comparative study with chronic stroke survivors. METHODS: The HBR system involves an off-the-shelf smartwatch, a smartphone, and custom-developed apps. A convolutional neural network was used to train the ML algorithm for detecting home exercises. To determine the most accurate way for detecting the type of home exercise, we compared accuracy results with the data sets of personal or total data and accelerometer, gyroscope, or accelerometer combined with gyroscope data. From March 2018 to February 2019, we conducted a clinical study with two groups of stroke survivors. In total, 17 and 6 participants were enrolled for statistical analysis in the HBR group and control group, respectively. To measure clinical outcomes, we performed the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Upper Extremity, grip power test, Beck Depression Inventory, and range of motion (ROM) assessment of the shoulder joint at 0, 6, and 12 months, and at a follow-up assessment 6 weeks after retrieving the HBR system. RESULTS: The ML model created with personal data involving accelerometer combined with gyroscope data (5590/5601, 99.80%) was the most accurate compared with accelerometer (5496/5601, 98.13%) or gyroscope data (5381/5601, 96.07%). In the comparative study, the drop-out rates in the control and HBR groups were 40% (4/10) and 22% (5/22) at 12 weeks and 100% (10/10) and 45% (10/22) at 18 weeks, respectively. The HBR group (n=17) showed a significant improvement in the mean WMFT score (P=.02) and ROM of flexion (P=.004) and internal rotation (P=.001). The control group (n=6) showed a significant change only in shoulder internal rotation (P=.03). CONCLUSIONS: This study found that a home care system using a commercial smartwatch and ML model can facilitate participation in home training and improve the functional score of the WMFT and shoulder ROM of flexion and internal rotation in the treatment of patients with chronic stroke. This strategy can possibly be a cost-effective tool for the home care treatment of stroke survivors in the future. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Research Information Service KCT0004818; https://tinyurl.com/y92w978t.


Subject(s)
Home Care Services , Internet , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Stroke/physiopathology , Telerehabilitation , Upper Extremity/physiopathology , Wearable Electronic Devices , Aged , Chronic Disease , Exercise Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Machine Learning , Middle Aged , Mobile Applications , Models, Theoretical , Prospective Studies , Survivors , Treatment Outcome
7.
Phys Ther ; 101(6)2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121254

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Given the uncertainty of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, implementing telerehabilitation that enables the remote delivery of rehabilitation services is needed to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. We studied the implementation and the effectiveness of the virtual Graded Repetitive Arm Supplementary Program (GRASP) delivered and evaluated via videoconferencing in individuals with stroke. METHODS: The Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework with mixed methods was used to evaluate the implementation of the 2 iterations of the program delivered by a nonprofit organization during the pandemic. RESULTS: Reach: Seventeen people were screened, 13 people were eligible, and 11 consented to participate in the study. Effectiveness: Between baseline and posttest, participants with stroke demonstrated significant improvement in upper extremity function (Arm Capacity and Movement Test) and self-perceived upper extremity (UE) function (Stroke Impact Scale). Adoption: Factors that facilitate program uptake by the staff were well-planned implementation, appropriate screening procedure, and helpful feedback from the audits. All staff felt comfortable using videoconferencing technology to deliver the program despite some technical difficulties. Factors contributing to ongoing participation included that the participants liked the group, they perceived improvements, and the instructor was encouraging. Only one participant with stroke was not comfortable using the videoconferencing technology. Implementation: The program was implemented as intended as evaluated by a fidelity checklist. Participants' adherence was high, as verified by the average attendance and practice time. Maintenance: The organization continued to offer the program. CONCLUSION: The virtual GRASP program was successfully implemented. Although the program was effective in improving both measured and perceived UE function in a small sample of individuals with stroke, caution should be taken in generalizing the results. IMPACT: Implementing telerehabilitation is crucial to optimize patient outcomes and reduce the spread of COVID-19. Our findings provide guidance on the process of delivering a UE rehabilitation program remotely via videoconferencing for stroke. Moreover, insights that arise from this study also inform the implementation of other telerehabilitation services.


Subject(s)
Exercise Therapy/methods , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Telerehabilitation/methods , Upper Extremity/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , British Columbia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Program Evaluation , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Phys Ther ; 101(6)2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091223

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has seen a rapid shift to telehealth-delivered physical therapy services. Common impairments after stroke create unique challenges when providing rehabilitation via telehealth, particularly when it involves activities undertaken in weight-bearing or standing positions, including walking training. Our scoping review maps the evidence regarding safety, efficacy, and feasibility of remotely supervised telehealth interventions involving activities undertaken in weight-bearing or standing positions for people after stroke. METHODS: Searches of relevant databases for primary research studies were conducted using keywords relating to exercise and telehealth. Studies of stroke survivors undertaking interventions involving activities in weight-bearing or standing positions, supervised in real-time via telehealth were included. Two reviewers independently appraised all studies. Data were charted by one reviewer, checked by another, and results synthesized narratively. RESULTS: Seven studies (2 randomized trials, 1 mixed-methods, and 4 pre-post studies) were included, involving 179 participants. Some studies included stroke survivors with cognitive impairment, and 2 (29%) studies included only participants who walked independently. Adherence (reported in 3 studies) and satisfaction (reported in 4 studies) were good, and no serious adverse events (data from 4 studies) related to interventions were reported. Strategies to overcome technological barriers were used to optimize intervention safety and feasibility, along with physiological monitoring, caregiver assistance, and in-person exercise prescription. However, there is limited high-quality evidence of efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: We identified strategies used in research to date that can support current practice. However, urgent research is needed to ensure that stroke survivors are receiving evidence-based, effective services. IMPACT: The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated a rapid shift to telerehabilitation services for people with stroke, but there is little evidence to guide best practice. Our review provides practical guidance and strategies to overcome barriers and optimize safety and adherence for telehealth interventions involving activities in weight-bearing or standing positions.


Subject(s)
Exercise Therapy/methods , Standing Position , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Telerehabilitation/methods , Walking , Weight-Bearing , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Safety , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Brain Behav Immun ; 91: 649-667, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064858

ABSTRACT

For the last two decades, researchers have placed hopes in a new era in which a combination of reperfusion and neuroprotection would revolutionize the treatment of stroke. Nevertheless, despite the thousands of papers available in the literature showing positive results in preclinical stroke models, randomized clinical trials have failed to show efficacy. It seems clear now that the existing data obtained in preclinical research have depicted an incomplete picture of stroke pathophysiology. In order to ameliorate bench-to-bed translation, in this review we first describe the main actors on stroke inflammatory and immune responses based on the available preclinical data, highlighting the fact that the link between leukocyte infiltration, lesion volume and neurological outcome remains unclear. We then describe what is known on neuroinflammation and immune responses in stroke patients, and summarize the results of the clinical trials on immunomodulatory drugs. In order to understand the gap between clinical trials and preclinical results on stroke, we discuss in detail the experimental results that served as the basis for the summarized clinical trials on immunomodulatory drugs, focusing on (i) experimental stroke models, (ii) the timing and selection of outcome measuring, (iii) alternative entry routes for leukocytes into the ischemic region, and (iv) factors affecting stroke outcome such as gender differences, ageing, comorbidities like hypertension and diabetes, obesity, tobacco, alcohol consumption and previous infections like Covid-19. We can do better for stroke treatment, especially when targeting inflammation following stroke. We need to re-think the design of stroke experimental setups, notably by (i) using clinically relevant models of stroke, (ii) including both radiological and neurological outcomes, (iii) performing long-term follow-up studies, (iv) conducting large-scale preclinical stroke trials, and (v) including stroke comorbidities in preclinical research.


Subject(s)
Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Stroke/immunology , Stroke/physiopathology , Animals , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Comorbidity , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Immunity/immunology , Immunity/physiology , Inflammation/immunology , Neuroprotection/immunology , Neuroprotection/physiology , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Reperfusion/methods , Reperfusion/trends
11.
Neurol Sci ; 42(3): 805-809, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023328

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The pandemic has implemented the need for new digital technologies as useful tools during the emergency and the long recovery phase that will follow. SARS-CoV-2 has strongly impacted stroke care with significant contraction in a number of patients treated. METHODS: This mini-review is an initiative of the "Digital Technologies, Web and Social Media Study Group" of the Italian Society of Neurology and briefly discusses digital tools for managing the acute phase and the rehabilitation after stroke, even considering the new apps that will improve the process of remote monitoring of patients after discharge at home. RESULTS: Telemedicine and digital technologies could play a role in each of the three stroke-belt stages: hyperacute treatment and reperfusion, acute care, etiological classification and secondary prevention and rehabilitation. CONCLUSION: The global emergency represented by the COVID-19 pandemic can be the stimulus to accelerate the digitalization process in the field of stroke for the use of new methods on a large scale.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurology/methods , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Stroke , Telemedicine/methods , Humans , Italy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy
12.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 143(4): 349-354, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015520

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to investigate how the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic affected the hospital stroke management and research in Norway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All neurological departments with a Stroke Unit in Norway (n = 17) were invited to participate in a questionnaire survey. The study focused on the first lockdown period, and all questions were thus answered in regard to the period between 12 March and 15 April 2020. RESULTS: The responder rate was 94% (16/17). Eighty-one % (13/16) reported that the pandemic affected their department, and 63% (10/16) changed their stroke care pathways. The number of new acute admissions in terms of both strokes and stroke mimics decreased at all 16 departments. Fewer patients received thrombolysis and endovascular treatment, and multidisciplinary stroke rehabilitation services were less available. The mandatory 3 months of follow-up of stroke patients was postponed at 73% of the hospitals. All departments conducting stroke research reported a stop in ongoing projects. CONCLUSION: In Norway, hospital-based stroke care and research were impacted during the initial phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, with likely repercussions for patient care and outcomes. In the future, stroke departments will require contingency plans in order to protect the entire stroke treatment chain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Stroke/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Norway/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Stroke/therapy , Stroke Rehabilitation/trends
13.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 99(10): 876-879, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-649730

ABSTRACT

There is emerging literature that coronavirus disease 2019 infections result in an increased incidence of thrombosis secondary to a prothrombotic state. Initial studies reported ischemic strokes primarily occurring in the critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 population. However, there have been reports of ischemic strokes as the presenting symptom in young noncritically ill coronavirus disease 2019 patients without significant risk factors. Further characterization of the coronavirus disease 2019 stroke population is needed. We present four cases of coronavirus disease 2019 ischemic strokes occurring in patients aged 37-68 yrs with varying coronavirus disease 2019 infection severities, premorbid risk factors, clinical presentations (eg, focal and nonfocal), and vascular distributions. These cases highlight the heterogeneity of coronavirus disease 2019 ischemic strokes. The duration of the coronavirus disease 2019-related prothrombotic state is unknown, and it is unclear whether patients are at risk for recurrent strokes. With more coronavirus disease 2019 patients recovering and being discharged to rehabilitation, physiatric awareness of this prothrombotic state and increased incidence of ischemic strokes is essential. Because of the variable presentation of coronavirus disease 2019 ischemic strokes, clinicians can consider neuroimaging as part of the evaluation in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with either acute focal or nonfocal neurologic symptoms. Additional studies are needed to clarify prothrombotic state duration, determine prognosis for recovery, and establish the physiatrist's role in long-term disease management.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/rehabilitation , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/rehabilitation , Stroke Rehabilitation/trends , Stroke/virology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods
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