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1.
Circulation ; 145(15): 1123-1139, 2022 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784936

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute myocarditis (AM) is thought to be a rare cardiovascular complication of COVID-19, although minimal data are available beyond case reports. We aim to report the prevalence, baseline characteristics, in-hospital management, and outcomes for patients with COVID-19-associated AM on the basis of a retrospective cohort from 23 hospitals in the United States and Europe. METHODS: A total of 112 patients with suspected AM from 56 963 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 were evaluated between February 1, 2020, and April 30, 2021. Inclusion criteria were hospitalization for COVID-19 and a diagnosis of AM on the basis of endomyocardial biopsy or increased troponin level plus typical signs of AM on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. We identified 97 patients with possible AM, and among them, 54 patients with definite/probable AM supported by endomyocardial biopsy in 17 (31.5%) patients or magnetic resonance imaging in 50 (92.6%). We analyzed patient characteristics, treatments, and outcomes among all COVID-19-associated AM. RESULTS: AM prevalence among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 was 2.4 per 1000 hospitalizations considering definite/probable and 4.1 per 1000 considering also possible AM. The median age of definite/probable cases was 38 years, and 38.9% were female. On admission, chest pain and dyspnea were the most frequent symptoms (55.5% and 53.7%, respectively). Thirty-one cases (57.4%) occurred in the absence of COVID-19-associated pneumonia. Twenty-one (38.9%) had a fulminant presentation requiring inotropic support or temporary mechanical circulatory support. The composite of in-hospital mortality or temporary mechanical circulatory support occurred in 20.4%. At 120 days, estimated mortality was 6.6%, 15.1% in patients with associated pneumonia versus 0% in patients without pneumonia (P=0.044). During hospitalization, left ventricular ejection fraction, assessed by echocardiography, improved from a median of 40% on admission to 55% at discharge (n=47; P<0.0001) similarly in patients with or without pneumonia. Corticosteroids were frequently administered (55.5%). CONCLUSIONS: AM occurrence is estimated between 2.4 and 4.1 out of 1000 patients hospitalized for COVID-19. The majority of AM occurs in the absence of pneumonia and is often complicated by hemodynamic instability. AM is a rare complication in patients hospitalized for COVID-19, with an outcome that differs on the basis of the presence of concomitant pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Myocarditis/therapy , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
2.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(1): 287-294, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1767496

ABSTRACT

Acute myocarditis is an inflammatory disease of the myocardium, and it can present as severe heart failure in children. Differential diagnosis with genetic cardiomyopathy can be difficult. The objective of this study is to identify patterns of clinical presentation and to assess invasive and non-invasive measures to differentiate patients with acute myocarditis from patients with dilated genetic cardiomyopathy. We performed a retrospective descriptive study of all paediatric patients (0-16 years old) that presented with new-onset heart failure with left ventricle ejection fraction < 35% in whom we performed an endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) during the period from April 2007 to December 2020. The patients were classified into two groups: Group 1 included 18 patients with myocarditis. Group 2 included 9 patients with genetic cardiomyopathy. Findings favouring a diagnosis of myocarditis included a fulminant or acute presentation (77.8% vs 33.3%, p = 0.01), higher degree of cardiac enzyme elevation (p = 0.011), lower left ventricular dimension z-score (2.2 vs 5.4, p = 0.03) increase of ventricular wall thickness (88.8% vs 33.3%, p = 0.03) and oedema in the EMB. Seven (77.8%) patients with genetic cardiomyopathy had inflammation in the endomyocardial biopsy fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of inflammatory cardiomyopathy.Conclusion: Differentiating patients with a myocarditis from those with genetic cardiomyopathy can be challenging, even performing an EMB. Some patients with genetic cardiomyopathy fulfil the diagnostic criteria of inflammatory cardiomyopathy. Using invasive and non-invasive measures may be useful to develop a predictive model to differentiate myocarditis from genetic cardiomyopathy. What is Known: • Acute myocarditis could present with cardiogenic shock in paediatric patients. • Parvovirus B19 is the main cause of myocarditis in this population. What is New: • Current diagnostic criteria for myocarditis have limited use in paediatric patients presenting with new-onset heart failure. • Some patients with a genetic cardiomyopathy and a new-onset heart failure fulfill the diagnostic criteria of inflammatory cardiomyopathy.


Subject(s)
Cardiomyopathy, Dilated , Myocarditis , Adolescent , Biopsy , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/diagnosis , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated/genetics , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocardium , Retrospective Studies , Stroke Volume
4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(7): e024363, 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752956

ABSTRACT

Background The scope of pericardial involvement in COVID-19 infection is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence, associates, and clinical impact of pericardial involvement in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Methods and Results Consecutive patients with COVID-19 underwent clinical and echocardiographic examination, irrespective of clinical indication, within 48 hours as part of a prospective predefined protocol. Protocol included clinical symptoms and signs suggestive of pericarditis, calculation of modified early warning score, ECG and echocardiographic assessment for pericardial effusion, left and right ventricular systolic and diastolic function, and hemodynamics. We identified predictors of mortality and assessed the adjunctive value of pericardial effusion on top of clinical and echocardiographic parameters. The study included 530 patients. Pericardial effusion was found in 75 (14%), but only 17 patients (3.2%) fulfilled the criteria for acute pericarditis. Pericardial effusion was independently associated with modified early warning score, brain natriuretic peptide, and right ventricular function. It was associated with excess mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 2.44; P=0.0005) in nonadjusted analysis. In multivariate analysis adjusted for modified early warning score and echocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters, it was marginally associated with mortality (HR, 1.86; P=0.06) and improvement in the model fit (P=0.07). Combined assessment for pericardial effusion with modified early warning score, left ventricular ejection fraction, and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion was an independent predictor of outcome (HR, 1.86; P=0.02) and improved model fit (P=0.02). Conclusions In hospitalized patients with COVID-19, pericardial effusion is prevalent, but rarely attributable to acute pericarditis. It is associated with myocardial dysfunction and mortality. A limited echocardiographic examination, including left ventricular ejection fraction, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, and assessment for pericardial effusion, can contribute to outcome prediction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
6.
CMAJ Open ; 10(1): E173-E182, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Surgical delay may result in unintended harm to patients needing cardiac surgery, who are at risk for death if their condition is left untreated. Our objective was to derive and internally validate a clinical risk score to predict death among patients awaiting major cardiac surgery. METHODS: We used the CorHealth Ontario Registry and linked ICES health administrative databases with information on all Ontario residents to identify patients aged 18 years or more who were referred for isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), valvular procedures, combined CABG-valvular procedures or thoracic aorta procedures between Oct. 1, 2008, and Sept. 30, 2019. We used a hybrid modelling approach with the random forest method for initial variable selection, followed by backward stepwise logistic regression modelling for clinical interpretability and parsimony. We internally validated the logistic regression model, termed the CardiOttawa Waitlist Mortality Score, using 200 bootstraps. RESULTS: Of the 112 266 patients referred for cardiac surgery, 269 (0.2%) died while awaiting surgery (118/72 366 [0.2%] isolated CABG, 81/24 461 [0.3%] valvular procedures, 63/12 046 [0.5%] combined CABG-valvular procedures and 7/3393 [0.2%] thoracic aorta procedures). Age, sex, surgery type, left main stenosis, Canadian Cardiovascular Society classification, left ventricular ejection fraction, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, dialysis, psychosis and operative priority were predictors of waitlist mortality. The model discriminated (C-statistic 0.76 [optimism-corrected 0.73]). It calibrated well in the overall cohort (Hosmer-Lemeshow p = 0.2) and across surgery types. INTERPRETATION: The CardiOttawa Waitlist Mortality Score is a simple clinical risk model that predicts the likelihood of death while awaiting cardiac surgery. It has the potential to provide data-driven decision support for managing access to cardiac care and preserve system capacity during the COVID-19 pandemic, the recovery period and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Adolescent , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Humans , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
7.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 53(2): 321-334, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729348

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate both the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) admission, and demographic, angiographic, procedural characteristics, and in-hospital clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19 positive STEMI in Turkey. METHODS: This was a multi-center and cross-sectional observational study. The study population included 1788 STEMI patients from 15 centers in Turkey. The patients were divided into two groups: COVID-19 era (March 11st-May 15st, 2020; n = 733) or pre- COVID-19 era group (March 11st-May 15st, 2019; n = 1055). Also, the patients in COVID-19 era were grouped as COVID-19 positive (n = 65) or negative (n = 668). RESULTS: There was a 30.5% drop in STEMI admission during COVID-19 era in comparison to pre-COVID-19 era. The patients admitted to the medical centers during COVID-19 era had a longer symptom-to-first medical contact time [120 (75-240) vs. 100 (60-180) minutes, p < 0.001]. COVID-19 positive STEMI patients had higher thrombus grade and lower left ventricular ejection fraction compared to COVID-19 negative patients. COVID-19 positive patients had higher mortality (28% vs. 6%, p < 0.001) and cardiogenic shock (20% vs. 7%, p < 0.001) rates compared with those without COVID-19. Matching based on propensity scores showed higher mortality and high thrombus grade in STEMI patients who were infected by SARS-COV-2 (each p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We detected significantly lower STEMI hospitalization rates and significant delay in duration of symptom onset to first medical contact in the context of Turkey during the COVID-19 outbreak. Moreover, high thrombus grade and mortality were more common in COVID-19 positive STEMI patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Stroke Volume , Time-to-Treatment , Turkey/epidemiology , Ventricular Function, Left
8.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715767

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study investigated the spontaneous clinical course of patients with endomyocardial biopsy (EMB)-proven lymphocytic myocarditis and cardiac human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) DNA presence, and the effectiveness of steroid-based intervention in HHV6-positive patients. RESULTS: 756 heart failure (HF) patients underwent an EMB procedure to determine the underlying cause of unexplained HF. Low levels of HHV6 DNA, detectable by nested PCR only, were found in 10.4% of the cases (n = 79) of which 62% (n = 49) showed myocardial inflammation. The spontaneous course of patients with EMB-proven HHV6 DNA-associated lymphocytic myocarditis (n = 26) showed significant improvements in the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and clinical symptoms, respectively, in 15/26 (60%) patients, 3-12 months after disease onset. EMB mRNA expression of components of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and protein analysis of cardiac remodeling markers, analyzed by real-time PCR and MALDI mass spectrometry, respectively, did not differ between HHV6-positive and -negative patients. In another cohort of patients with ongoing symptoms related to lymphocytic myocarditis associated with cardiac levels of HHV6-DNA copy numbers <500 copies/µg cardiac DNA, quantified by real-time PCR, the efficacy and safety of steroid-based immunosuppression for six months was investigated. Steroid-based immunosuppression improved the LVEF (≥5%) in 8/10 patients and reduced cardiac inflammation in 7/10 patients, without an increase in cardiac HHV6 DNA levels in follow-up EMBs. CONCLUSION: Low HHV6 DNA levels are frequently detected in the myocardium, independent of inflammation. In patients with lymphocytic myocarditis with low levels of HHV6 DNA, the spontaneous clinical improvement is nearby 60%. In selected symptomatic patients with cardiac HHV6 DNA copy numbers less than 500 copies/µg cardiac DNA and without signs of an active systemic HHV6 infection, steroid-based therapy was found to be effective and safe. This finding needs to be further confirmed in large, randomized trials.


Subject(s)
Herpesvirus 6, Human/physiology , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Myocarditis/drug therapy , Myocarditis/virology , Roseolovirus Infections/drug therapy , Roseolovirus Infections/virology , Steroids/administration & dosage , Adult , Aged , Biopsy , Cohort Studies , DNA, Viral/genetics , Female , Gene Dosage , Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 6, Human/isolation & purification , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/immunology , Roseolovirus Infections/immunology , Roseolovirus Infections/physiopathology , Stroke Volume
9.
Rheumatol Int ; 42(2): 341-348, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694596

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The association between COVID-19 infection and the development of autoimmune diseases is currently unknown, but there are already reports presenting induction of different autoantibodies by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Kikuchi-Fuimoto disease (KFD) as a form of histiocytic necrotizing lymphadenitis of unknown origin. OBJECTIVE: Here we present a rare case of KFD with heart involvement after COVID-19 infection. To our best knowledge only a few cases of COVID-19-associated KFD were published so far. Based on presented case, we summarize the clinical course of KFD and its association with autoimmune diseases, as well we discuss the potential causes of perimyocarditis in this case. METHODS: We reviewed the literature regarding cases of "Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease (KFD)" and "COVID-19" and then "KFD" and "heart" or "myocarditis" by searching medical journal databases written in English in PubMed and Google Scholar. RESULTS: Only two cases of KFD after COVID infection have been described so far. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection can also be a new, potential causative agent of developing KFD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Hepatomegaly/physiopathology , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis/physiopathology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Splenomegaly/physiopathology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Echocardiography , Hepatomegaly/diagnostic imaging , Hepatomegaly/etiology , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis/etiology , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis/pathology , Humans , Male , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Splenomegaly/diagnostic imaging , Splenomegaly/etiology , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology
10.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 25, 2022 Feb 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690897

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a novel condition temporally associated with SARS-CoV2 infection. Cardiovascular involvement is mainly evident as acute myocardial dysfunction in MIS-C. The aim of this study was to describe the cardiac dysfunction in patients with MIS-C, defining the role of severity in the clinical presentations and outcomes in a single cohort of pediatric patients. METHODS: A single-center retrospective study on patients diagnosed with MIS-C, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) definition, and referred to Vittore Buzzi Children's Hospital in Milan from November 2020 to February 2021. Patients were managed according to a local approved protocol. According to the admission cardiac left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), the patients were divided into group A (LVEF < 45%) and group B (LVEF ≥45%). Pre-existing, clinical, and laboratory factors were assessed for evaluating outcomes at discharge. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients were considered. Cardiac manifestations of MIS-C were reported in 26 patients (81%). Group A included 10 patients (9 M/1F, aged 13 years [IQR 5-15]), and group B included 22 patients (15 M/7 M, aged 9 years [IQR 7-13]). Significant differences were noted among clinical presentations (shock, diarrhea, intensive care unit admission), laboratory markers (leucocytes, neutrophils, and protein C-reactive), and cardiac markers (troponin T and N-terminal pro B-type Natriuretic Peptide) between the groups, with higher compromission in Group A. We found electrocardiogram anomalies in 14 patients (44%) and rhythm alterations in 3 patients (9%), without differences between groups. Mitral regurgitation and coronary involvement were more prevalent in group A. Total length of hospital stay and cardiac recovery time were not statistically different between groups. A recovery of cardiac functioning was reached in all patients. CONCLUSION: Despite significant differences in clinical presentations and need for intensive care, all of the MIS-C patients with significant cardiac involvement in this study completely recovered. This suggests that the heart is an involved organ and did not influence prognosis if properly treated and supported in the acute phase.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Ventricular Function, Left
11.
Kardiologiia ; 62(1): 13-23, 2022 Jan 31.
Article in Russian, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1689682

ABSTRACT

Aim    To study changes in clinical and echocardiographic parameters in patients after documented COVID-19 pneumonia at 3 months and one year following discharge from the hospital. Material and methods    The study included 116 patients who have had documented COVID-19 pneumonia. Patients underwent a comprehensive clinical evaluation at 3 months ± 2 weeks (visit 1) and at one year ± 3 weeks after discharge from the hospital (visit 2). Mean age of the patients was 49.0±14.4 years (from 19 to 84 years); 49.6 % were women. Parameters of global and segmentary longitudinal left ventricular (LV) myocardial strain were studied with the optimal quality of visualization during visit 1 in 99 patients and during visit 2 in 80 patients.Results    During the follow-up period, the incidence rate of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) increased primarily due to development of arterial hypertension (AH) (58.6 vs. 64.7 %, р=0.039) and chronic heart failure (CHF) (35.3% vs. 40.5 %, р=0.031). Echocardiography (EchoCG) showed decreases in values of end-diastolic dimension and volume, LV end-systolic and stroke volumes (25.1±2.6 vs. 24.5±2.2 mm /m2, p<0.001; 49.3±11.3 vs. 46.9±9.9 ml /m2, p=0.008; 16.0±5.6 vs. 14.4±4.1 ml /m2, p=0.001; 36.7±12.8 vs. 30.8±8.1 ml /m2, p<0.001, respectively). LV external short-axis area (37.1 [36.6-42.0] vs. 38.7 [35.2-43.1] cm2, р=0.001) and LV myocardial mass index calculated with the area-length formula (70.0 [60.8-84.0] vs. 75.4 [68.2-84.9] g /m², р=0.024) increased. LV early diastolic filling velocity (76.7±17.9 vs. 72.3±16.0 cm /sec, р=0.001) and lateral and septal early diastolic mitral annular velocities decreased (12,10±3,9 vs. 11.5±4.1 cm /sec, р=0.004 and 9.9±3.3 vs. 8.6±3.0 cm /sec, р<0.001, respectively). The following parameters of LV global longitudinal (-20.3±2.2 vs. -19.4±2.7 %, р=0.001) and segmental strain were impaired: apical segments (anterior, from -22.3±5.0 to -20.8±5.2 %, р=0.006; inferior, from -24.6±4.9 to -22.7±4.6, р=0.003; lateral, from -22.7±4.5 to -20.4±4.8 %, р<0.001; septal, from -25.3±4.2 to -23.1±4.4 %, р<0.001; apical, from -23.7±4.1 to -21.8±4.1 %, р<0.001), mid-cavity (anteroseptal, from -21.1±3.3 to -20.4±4.1 %, р=0.039; inferior, from -21.0±2.7 to -20.0±2.9 %, р=0.039; lateral, from -18.4±3.7 to -17.6±4.4 %, р=0.021). RV basal and mid-cavity sphericity indexes increased (0.44±0.07 vs. 0.49±0.07 and 0.37±0.07 vs. 0.41±0.07, respectively, р<0.001 for both). A tendency for increased calculated pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (22.5±7.1 and 23.3±6.3 mm Hg, р=0.076) was observed. Right ventricular outflow tract velocity integral decreased (18.1±4.0 vs. 16.4±3.7 cm, р<0.001).Conclusion    Patients after COVID-19 pneumonia one year after discharge from the hospital, compared to the follow-up data 3 months after the discharge, had an increased incidence of CVD, primarily due to the development of AH and CHF. EchoCG revealed changes in ventricular geometry associated with impairment of LV diastolic and systolic function evident as decreases in LV global longitudinal strain and LV myocardial apical and partially mid-cavity strain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Discharge , Adult , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
12.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 151: w30087, 2021 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687290

ABSTRACT

The benefits of vaccination - regarding COVID-19 infection and transmission, as well as COVID-associated complications - clearly outweigh the potential risk of vaccine-associated inflammation of the heart and other adverse events. Given the current state of knowledge, the outcome of myocarditis and pericarditis following vaccination is generally good. This review aims to guide physicians in the early diagnosis and management of suspected myocarditis following mRNA COVID vaccination. The initial work-up should include detailed history, a 12-lead electrocardiogram and serological biomarkers (high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T/I, natriuretic peptides and markers of inflammation) in accordance with the assessments recommended in current clinical practice guidelines for patients presenting with acute chest pain. In patients with suspected myocarditis, further assessment with transthoracic echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging should be undertaken to confirm peri-/myocarditis and to distinguish the findings from other diseases with similar presentation. Patients with mRNA vaccine-associated myocarditis should be followed-up at least once to exclude chronic myocardial inflammation and deterioration of left ventricular ejection fraction. Consultation with an expert such as an immunologist with experience in vaccination regarding further mRNA vaccinations is advised in all patients with mRNA vaccine-associated perimyocarditis. Reporting of mRNA vaccine-associated myocarditis to Swissmedic is mandatory. Cohort studies prospectively follow-up on young adult and paediatric populations following immunisation with an mRNA COVID vaccine to monitor cardiac and immune parameters would generate valuable knowledge to better understand pathogenesis and risk factors for vaccine-associated perimyocarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Pericarditis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Pericarditis/etiology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Vaccination/adverse effects , Ventricular Function, Left , Young Adult
13.
Clin Cardiol ; 45(2): 180-188, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1664403

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on diet and nutrition among older adults with chronic medical conditions have not been well-described. METHODS: We conducted a survey addressing (1) food access, (2) diet quality and composition, (3) nutritional understanding, and (4) attitudes towards research among adults with heart failure (HF) within an integrated health system. Adults (≥18 years) with diagnosed HF and at least one prior hospitalization for HF within the last 12 months were approached to complete the survey electronically or by mail. Outcomes included all-cause and HF-specific hospitalizations and all-cause death was ascertained via the electronic health record. RESULTS: Among 1212 survey respondents (32.5% of eligible patients) between May 18, 2020 and September 30, 2020, mean ± SD age was 77.9 ± 11.4 years, 50.1% were women, and median (25th-75th) left ventricular ejection fraction was 55% (40%-60%). Overall, 15.1% of respondents were food insecure, and only 65% of participants answered correctly more than half of the items assessing nutritional knowledge. Although most respondents were willing to participate in future research, that number largely declined for studies requiring blood draws (32.2%), study medication (14.4%), and/or behavior change (27.1%). Food security, diet quality, and nutritional knowledge were not independently associated with outcomes at 90 or 180 days. CONCLUSION: In a cohort of older adults with HF and multiple comorbidities, a significant proportion reported issues with food access, diet quality, and nutritional knowledge during the COVID-19 pandemic. Future research should evaluate interventions targeting these domains in at-risk individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Attitude , Diet , Female , Food Security , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Nutritive Value , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
15.
Arch Cardiol Mex ; 91(Supl): 25-33, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650533

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: La pandemia de enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) ha incidido de forma negativa en los programas de rehabilitación cardiaca (PRC) españoles. OBJETIVO: Este trabajo tiene como objetivo fundamental el analizar la posibilidad de mantenerlos abiertos y como secundario valorar si se mantienen los beneficios demostrados a nivel físico y psicológico. MÉTODOS: Analizamos los resultados de nuestro PRC en el año 2020 (119 pacientes) y los comparamos con los del año 2019 (121 pacientes), libre de COVID-19. Se comparan distintas variables generales, y los resultados obtenidos en capacidad física, a nivel psicológico, así como las complicaciones y abandonos. RESULTADOS: No existen diferencias significativas entre ambos grupos en la edad (61.6 vs. 61.5), sexo (mujeres: 12.6 vs. 14.8%), diagnóstico de cardiopatía isquémica (106 vs. 99) y fracción de eyección de ventrículo izquierdo (55.9 vs. 55.8%). La ansiedad media-alta fue superior al inicio (p = 0.02) y final (p = 0.002) del programa en el año 2019, así como las puntuaciones del patrón de conducta tipo A (p = 0.041 vs. 0.034). El porcentaje de depresión fue similar. Más del 95% de los pacientes del año 2020 referían miedo al contagio. La capacidad funcional aumentó, pero menos en el año 2020 (p = 0.001). La duración del programa fue superior en el año 2020 (p = 0.001). Los abandonos (15 vs. 11 pacientes) no mostraron diferencias significativas. CONCLUSIONES: Los PRC en época COVID-19 son posibles y siguen mostrando beneficios. La duración del programa fue mayor por periodos de falta de asistencia. La menor capacidad física puede estar relacionada con el uso de la mascarilla. INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative impact on Spanish Cardiac Rehabilitation Programmes (CRP). OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study is to analyze the possibility of keeping these units open and, secondly, to assess whether demonstrated physical and psychological benefits are preserved. METHODS: We analyzed results of our CRP in 2020 (119 patients) and compared them with those of 2019 (121 patients), year free of Covid. We compare different general variables, and results obtained in physical capacity, psychological level, as well as complications and dropouts. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between two groups in age (61.6 vs. 61.5), sex (women: 12.6% vs. 14.8%), diagnosis of ischemic heart disease (106 vs. 99) and left ventricular ejection fraction (55.9% vs. 55.8%). Mean-high anxiety was higher at baseline (p = 0.02) and endline (p = 0.002) of program in 2019, as well as type A behavior pattern scores (p=0.041 and 0.034). Percentage of depression was similar. More than 95% of patients in 2020 reported fear of infection. Functional capacity increased, but less in 2020 (p = 0.001). Programme duration was longer in 2020 (p=0.001). Dropouts (15 vs. 11 patients) showed no significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: CR programmes in COVID-19 era are possible and continue to show benefits. The duration of programme was longer due to periods of non-attendance. Lower physical capacity may be related to mask use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Rehabilitation , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Dropouts , Retrospective Studies , Spain , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
16.
JAMA Cardiol ; 7(3): 298-308, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620071

ABSTRACT

Importance: Although myocardial injury can occur with acute COVID-19, there is limited understanding of changes with myocardial metabolism in recovered patients. Objective: To examine myocardial metabolic changes early after recovery from COVID-19 using fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (PET) and associate these changes to abnormalities in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based function and tissue characterization measures and inflammatory blood markers. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study took place at a single-center tertiary referral hospital system. A volunteer sample of adult patients within 3 months of a diagnosis of COVID-19 who responded to a mail invitation were recruited for cardiac PET/MRI and blood biomarker evaluation between November 2020 and June 2021. Exposures: Myocardial inflammation as determined by focal fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake on PET. Main Outcomes and Measures: Demographic characteristics, cardiac and inflammatory blood markers, and fasting combined cardiac 18F-FDG PET/MRI imaging were obtained. All patients with focal FDG uptake at baseline returned for repeated PET/MRI and blood marker assessment 2 months later. Results: Of 47 included patients, 24 (51%) were female, and the mean (SD) age was 43 (13) years. The mean (SD) interval between COVID-19 diagnosis and PET/MRI was 67 (16) days. Most patients recovered at home during the acute infection (40 [85%]). Eight patients (17%) had focal FDG uptake on PET consistent with myocardial inflammation. Compared with those without FDG uptake, patients with focal FDG uptake had higher regional T2, T1, and extracellular volume (colocalizing with focal FDG uptake), higher prevalence of late gadolinium enhancement (6 of 8 [75%] vs 9 of 39 [23%], P = .009), lower left ventricular ejection fraction (mean [SD], 55% [4%] vs 62% [5%], P < .001), worse global longitudinal and circumferential strain (mean [SD], -16% [2%] vs -17% [2%], P = .02 and -18% [2%] vs -20% [2%], P = .047, respectively), and higher systemic inflammatory blood markers including interleukin 6, interleukin 8, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Among patients with focal FDG uptake, PET/MRI, and inflammatory blood markers resolved or improved at follow-up performed a mean (SD) of 52 (17) days after baseline PET/MRI. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study of patients recently recovered from COVID-19, myocardial inflammation was identified on PET in a small proportion of patients, was associated with cardiac MRI abnormalities and elevated inflammatory blood markers at baseline, and improved at follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contrast Media , Adult , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Gadolinium , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prospective Studies , Radiopharmaceuticals , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
17.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 45(4): 471-480, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612918

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Restricted outdoor activity during COVID-19 related lockdown may accelerate heart failure (HF) progression and thereby increase cardiac arrhythmias. We analyzed the impact of March/April 2020 lockdown on physical activity and arrhythmia burden in HF patients treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices with daily, automatic remote monitoring (RM) function. METHODS: The study cohort included 405 HF patients enrolled in Observation of Clinical Routine Care for Heart Failure Patients Implanted with BIOTRONIK CRT Devices (BIO|STREAM.HF) registry in 16 countries, who had left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤40% (mean 28.2 ± 6.6%) and NYHA class II/III/IV (47.9%/49.6%/2.5%) before CRT pacemaker/defibrillator implantation. The analyzed RM data comprised physical activity detected by accelerometer, mean heart rate and nocturnal rate, PP variability, percentage of biventricular pacing, atrial high rate episode (AHRE) burden, ventricular extrasystoles and tachyarrhythmias, defibrillator shocks, and number of implant interrogations (i.e., follow-ups). Intraindividual differences in RM parameters before (4-week period) versus during (4-week period) lockdown were tested for statistical significance and independent predictors were identified. RESULTS: There was a significant relative change in activity (mean -6.5%, p < .001), AHRE burden (+17%, p = .013), and follow-up rate (-75%, p < .001) during lockdown, with no significant changes in other RM parameters. Activity decreased by ≥8 min/day in 46.5% of patients; predictors were higher LVEF, lower NYHA class, no defibrillator indication, and more activity before lockdown. AHRE burden increased by ≥17 min/day in 4.7% of patients; predictors were history of atrial fibrillation, higher LVEF, higher body mass index, and activity decrease during lockdown. CONCLUSION: Unfavorable changes in physical activity, AHRE burden, and follow-up rate were observed during lockdown, but not in ventricular arrhythmia.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy , Defibrillators, Implantable , Heart Failure , Atrial Fibrillation/therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Failure/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Stroke Volume , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Function, Left
18.
J Investig Med ; 70(3): 786-791, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605964

ABSTRACT

Hypertension is found frequently in patients with COVID-19 and is often treated with ACE inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). SARS-CoV-2, the pathogen of COVID-19, binds to the receptors of ACE2 to enter the alveolar cells, raising questions on whether these drugs are salutary or harmful with respect to any propensity for COVID-19 or to disease prognosis. We investigated the impact of ACEI/ARB and the clinical prognosis of patients with hypertension with COVID-19. In this study, 250 patients with hypertension (<45 years old) with COVID-19 were recruited. None of these patients had any chronic disease except for hypertension. The study population was grouped according to antihypertensive medication: ACEI/ARB user and non-ACEI/ARB user. Patients were followed for clinical prognosis and biochemical and radiological findings during their hospital stay. Adverse cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, all-cause death, stroke), transfer to the intensive care unit, severity of symptoms during the treatment course, length of hospital stay and effort capacity in the treadmill stress test were recorded. During hospital stay, there was no significant difference in terms of length of hospital stay, medication for COVID-19, left ventricular ejection fraction on echocardiography and metabolic equivalents in the treadmill stress test between patients treated with and without ACEI/ARB. During treatment of COVID-19, there was no significant difference in clinical adverse event, effort capacity and clinical course between patients with and without ACEI/ARB. It appears that patients with COVID-19 may continue to use ACEI/ARB or that ACEI/ARB may be added safely to their antihypertensive treatment.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Antihypertensive Agents , COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/drug therapy , Middle Aged , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume , Ventricular Function, Left
20.
Chest ; 161(1): 54-63, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some patients with COVID-19 who have recovered from the acute infection after experiencing only mild symptoms continue to exhibit persistent exertional limitation that often is unexplained by conventional investigative studies. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the pathophysiologic mechanism of exercise intolerance that underlies the post-COVID-19 long-haul syndrome in patients without cardiopulmonary disease? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This study examined the systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics, ventilation, and gas exchange in 10 patients who recovered from COVID-19 and were without cardiopulmonary disease during invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing (iCPET) and compared the results with those from 10 age- and sex-matched control participants. These data then were used to define potential reasons for exertional limitation in the cohort of patients who had recovered from COVID-19. RESULTS: The patients who had recovered from COVID-19 exhibited markedly reduced peak exercise aerobic capacity (oxygen consumption [VO2]) compared with control participants (70 ± 11% predicted vs 131 ± 45% predicted; P < .0001). This reduction in peak VO2 was associated with impaired systemic oxygen extraction (ie, narrow arterial-mixed venous oxygen content difference to arterial oxygen content ratio) compared with control participants (0.49 ± 0.1 vs 0.78 ± 0.1; P < .0001), despite a preserved peak cardiac index (7.8 ± 3.1 L/min vs 8.4±2.3 L/min; P > .05). Additionally, patients who had recovered from COVID-19 demonstrated greater ventilatory inefficiency (ie, abnormal ventilatory efficiency [VE/VCO2] slope: 35 ± 5 vs 27 ± 5; P = .01) compared with control participants without an increase in dead space ventilation. INTERPRETATION: Patients who have recovered from COVID-19 without cardiopulmonary disease demonstrate a marked reduction in peak VO2 from a peripheral rather than a central cardiac limit, along with an exaggerated hyperventilatory response during exercise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise Tolerance , COVID-19/physiopathology , Connecticut , Female , Hemodynamics/physiology , Humans , Male , Massachusetts , Middle Aged , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Respiratory Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume/physiology
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