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1.
Chest ; 161(1): 54-63, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598167

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some patients with COVID-19 who have recovered from the acute infection after experiencing only mild symptoms continue to exhibit persistent exertional limitation that often is unexplained by conventional investigative studies. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the pathophysiologic mechanism of exercise intolerance that underlies the post-COVID-19 long-haul syndrome in patients without cardiopulmonary disease? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This study examined the systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics, ventilation, and gas exchange in 10 patients who recovered from COVID-19 and were without cardiopulmonary disease during invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing (iCPET) and compared the results with those from 10 age- and sex-matched control participants. These data then were used to define potential reasons for exertional limitation in the cohort of patients who had recovered from COVID-19. RESULTS: The patients who had recovered from COVID-19 exhibited markedly reduced peak exercise aerobic capacity (oxygen consumption [VO2]) compared with control participants (70 ± 11% predicted vs 131 ± 45% predicted; P < .0001). This reduction in peak VO2 was associated with impaired systemic oxygen extraction (ie, narrow arterial-mixed venous oxygen content difference to arterial oxygen content ratio) compared with control participants (0.49 ± 0.1 vs 0.78 ± 0.1; P < .0001), despite a preserved peak cardiac index (7.8 ± 3.1 L/min vs 8.4±2.3 L/min; P > .05). Additionally, patients who had recovered from COVID-19 demonstrated greater ventilatory inefficiency (ie, abnormal ventilatory efficiency [VE/VCO2] slope: 35 ± 5 vs 27 ± 5; P = .01) compared with control participants without an increase in dead space ventilation. INTERPRETATION: Patients who have recovered from COVID-19 without cardiopulmonary disease demonstrate a marked reduction in peak VO2 from a peripheral rather than a central cardiac limit, along with an exaggerated hyperventilatory response during exercise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise Tolerance , COVID-19/physiopathology , Connecticut , Female , Hemodynamics/physiology , Humans , Male , Massachusetts , Middle Aged , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Respiratory Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume/physiology
2.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(9): e008354, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406681

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is important to understand the risk for in-hospital mortality of adults hospitalized with acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection with a history of heart failure (HF). METHODS: We examined patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection from January 1, 2020 to July 22, 2020, from 88 centers across the US participating in the American Heart Association's COVID-19 Cardiovascular Disease registry. The primary exposure was history of HF and the primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. To examine the association between history of HF and in-hospital mortality, we conducted multivariable modified Poisson regression models that included sociodemographics and comorbid conditions. We also examined HF subtypes based on left ventricular ejection fraction in the prior year, when available. RESULTS: Among 8920 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, mean age was 61.4±17.5 years and 55.5% were men. History of HF was present in 979 (11%) patients. In-hospital mortality occurred in 31.6% of patients with history of HF, and 16.9% in patients without a history of HF. In a fully adjusted model, history of HF was associated with increased risk for in-hospital mortality (relative risk: 1.16 [95% CI, 1.03-1.30]). Among 335 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction was significantly associated with in-hospital mortality in a fully adjusted model (heart failure with reduced ejection fraction relative risk: 1.40 [95% CI, 1.10-1.79]; heart failure with mid-range ejection fraction relative risk: 1.06 [95% CI, 0.65-1.73]; heart failure with preserved ejection fraction relative risk, 1.06 [95% CI, 0.84-1.33]). CONCLUSIONS: Risk for in-hospital mortality was substantial among adults with history of HF, in large part due to age and comorbid conditions. History of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction may confer especially elevated risk. This population thus merits prioritization for the COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/mortality , Heart Failure/mortality , Stroke Volume/physiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
3.
JAMA Cardiol ; 6(12): 1446-1450, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349214

ABSTRACT

Importance: The BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) messenger RNA COVID-19 vaccine was authorized on May 10, 2021, for emergency use in children aged 12 years and older. Initial reports showed that the vaccine was well tolerated without serious adverse events; however, cases of myocarditis have been reported since approval. Objective: To review results of comprehensive cardiac imaging in children with myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccine. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study was a case series of children younger than 19 years hospitalized with myocarditis within 30 days of BNT162b2 messenger RNA COVID-19 vaccine. The setting was a single-center pediatric referral facility, and admissions occurred between May 1 and July 15, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: All patients underwent cardiac evaluation including an electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Fifteen patients (14 male patients [93%]; median age, 15 years [range, 12-18 years]) were hospitalized for management of myocarditis after receiving the BNT162b2 (Pfizer) vaccine. Symptoms started 1 to 6 days after receipt of the vaccine and included chest pain in 15 patients (100%), fever in 10 patients (67%), myalgia in 8 patients (53%), and headache in 6 patients (40%). Troponin levels were elevated in all patients at admission (median, 0.25 ng/mL [range, 0.08-3.15 ng/mL]) and peaked 0.1 to 2.3 days after admission. By echocardiographic examination, decreased left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) was present in 3 patients (20%), and abnormal global longitudinal or circumferential strain was present in 5 patients (33%). No patient had a pericardial effusion. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging findings were consistent with myocarditis in 13 patients (87%) including late gadolinium enhancement in 12 patients (80%), regional hyperintensity on T2-weighted imaging in 2 patients (13%), elevated extracellular volume fraction in 3 patients (20%), and elevated LV global native T1 in 2 patients (20%). No patient required intensive care unit admission, and median hospital length of stay was 2 days (range 1-5). At follow-up 1 to 13 days after hospital discharge, 11 patients (73%) had resolution of symptoms. One patient (7%) had persistent borderline low LV systolic function on echocardiogram (EF 54%). Troponin levels remained mildly elevated in 3 patients (20%). One patient (7%) had nonsustained ventricular tachycardia on ambulatory monitor. Conclusions and Relevance: In this small case series study, myocarditis was diagnosed in children after COVID-19 vaccination, most commonly in boys after the second dose. In this case series, in short-term follow-up, patients were mildly affected. The long-term risks associated with postvaccination myocarditis remain unknown. Larger studies with longer follow-up are needed to inform recommendations for COVID-19 vaccination in this population.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Myocarditis/etiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cardiac Imaging Techniques/methods , Child , Echocardiography/methods , Electrocardiography/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart/physiopathology , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Male , Myocarditis/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Stroke Volume/physiology , Troponin/blood , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology
5.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 34(8): 831-838, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210910

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) often have abnormal findings on transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). However, although not all abnormalities on TTE result in changes in clinical management, performing TTE in recently infected patients increases disease transmission risks. It remains unknown whether common biomarker tests, such as troponin and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), can help distinguish in which patients with COVID-19 TTE may be safely delayed until infection risks subside. METHODS: Using electronic health records data and chart review, the authors retrospectively studied all patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in a multisite health care system from March 1, 2020, to January 15, 2021, who underwent TTE within 14 days of their first positive COVID-19 result and had BNP and troponin measured before or within 7 days of TTE. The primary outcome was the presence of one or more urgent echocardiographic findings, defined as left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35%, wall motion score index ≥ 1.5, moderate or greater right ventricular dysfunction, moderate or greater pericardial effusion, intracardiac thrombus, pulmonary artery systolic pressure > 50 mm Hg, or at least moderate to severe valvular disease. Stepwise logistic regression was conducted to determine biomarkers and comorbidities associated with the outcome. The performance of a rule for classifying TTE using troponin and BNP was evaluated. RESULTS: Four hundred thirty-four hospitalized and 151 intensive care unit patients with COVID-19 were included. Urgent findings on TTE were present in 105 patients (24.2%). Troponin and BNP were abnormal in 311 (71.7%). Heart failure (odds ratio, 5.41; 95% CI, 2.61-11.68), troponin > 0.04 ng/mL (odds ratio, 4.40; 95% CI, 2.05-10.05), and BNP > 100 pg/mL (odds ratio, 5.85; 95% CI, 2.35-16.09) remained significant predictors of urgent findings on TTE after stepwise selection. No urgent findings on TTE were seen in 95.1% of all patients and in 91.3% of intensive care unit patients with normal troponin and BNP. CONCLUSIONS: Troponin and BNP were highly associated with urgent echocardiographic findings and may be used in triaging algorithms for determining in which patients TTE can be safely delayed until after their peak infectious window has passed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care/methods , Echocardiography/methods , Emergencies , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Inpatients , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume/physiology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology
6.
Stroke ; 52(7): 2422-2426, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke may complicate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection based on clinical hypercoagulability. We investigated whether transcranial Doppler ultrasound has utility for identifying microemboli and clinically relevant cerebral blood flow velocities (CBFVs) in COVID-19. METHODS: We performed transcranial Doppler for a consecutive series of patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 infection admitted to 2 intensive care units at a large academic center including evaluation for microembolic signals. Variables specific to hypercoagulability and blood flow including transthoracic echocardiography were analyzed as a part of routine care. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were included in this analysis, 16 with confirmed COVID-19 infection. Of those, 2 had acute ischemic stroke secondary to large vessel occlusion. Ten non-COVID stroke patients were included for comparison. Two COVID-negative patients had severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and stroke due to large vessel occlusion. In patients with COVID-19, relatively low CBFVs were observed diffusely at median hospital day 4 (interquartile range, 3-9) despite low hematocrit (29.5% [25.7%-31.6%]); CBFVs in comparable COVID-negative stroke patients were significantly higher compared with COVID-positive stroke patients. Microembolic signals were not detected in any patient. Median left ventricular ejection fraction was 60% (interquartile range, 60%-65%). CBFVs were correlated with arterial oxygen content, and C-reactive protein (Spearman ρ=0.28 [P=0.04]; 0.58 [P<0.001], respectively) but not with left ventricular ejection fraction (ρ=-0.18; P=0.42). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of critically ill patients with COVID-19 infection, we observed lower than expected CBFVs in setting of low arterial oxygen content and low hematocrit but not associated with suppression of cardiac output.


Subject(s)
Blood Flow Velocity , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Blood Gas Analysis , Brain/blood supply , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume/physiology , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial
7.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 34(6): 642-652, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071272

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate sonographic features that may aid in risk stratification and to propose a focused cardiac and lung ultrasound (LUS) algorithm in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. METHODS: Two hundred consecutive hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 underwent comprehensive clinical and echocardiographic examination, as well as LUS, irrespective of clinical indication, within 24 hours of admission as part of a prospective predefined protocol. Assessment included calculation of the modified early warning score (MEWS), left ventricular systolic and diastolic function, hemodynamic and right ventricular assessment, and a calculated LUS score. Outcome analysis was performed to identify echocardiographic and LUS predictors of mortality or the composite event of mortality or need for invasive mechanical ventilation and to assess their adjunctive value on top of clinical parameters and MEWS. RESULTS: A simplified echocardiographic risk score composed of left ventricular ejection fraction < 50% combined with tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion < 18 mm was associated with mortality (P = .0002) and with the composite event (P = .0001). Stepwise analyses evaluating echocardiographic and LUS parameters on top of existing clinical risk scores showed that addition of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and stroke volume index improved prediction of mortality when added to clinical variables but not when added to MEWS. Once echocardiography was added, and patients were recategorized as high risk only if having both high-risk MEWS and high-risk cardiac features, specificity increased from 63% to 87%, positive predictive value from 28% to 48%, and accuracy from 66% to 85%. Although LUS was not associated with incremental risk prediction for mortality above clinical and echocardiographic criteria, it improved prediction of need for invasive mechanical ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: In hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019, a very limited echocardiographic examination is sufficient for outcome prediction. The addition of echocardiography in patients with high-risk MEWS decreases the rate of falsely identifying patients as high risk to die and may improve resource allocation in case of high patient load.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Stroke Volume/physiology , Ultrasonography/methods , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Echocardiography/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2 , Systole
8.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 37(5): 1629-1636, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060600

ABSTRACT

To assess imaging data in COVID-19 patients and its association with clinical course and survival and 86 consecutive patients (52 males, 34 females, mean age = 58.8 year) with documented COVID-19 infection were included. Seventy-eight patients (91%) were in severe stage of the disease. All patients underwent transthoracic echocardiography. Mean LVEF was 48.1% and mean estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) was 27.9 mmHg. LV diastolic dysfunction was mildly abnormal in 49 patients (57.6%) and moderately abnormal in 7 cases (8.2%). Pericardial effusion was present in 5/86 (minimal in size in 3 cases and mild- moderate in 2). In 32/86 cases (37.2%), the severity of infection progressed from "severe" to "critical". Eleven patients (12.8%) died. sPAP and computed tomography score were associated with disease progression (P value = 0.002, 0.002 respectively). Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) was significantly higher in patients with no disease progression compared with those who deteriorated (P value = 0.005). Pericardial effusion (minimal, mild or moderate) was detected more often in progressive disease (P = 0.03). sPAP was significantly lower among survivors (P value = 0.007). Echocardiographic findings (including systolic PAP, TAPSE and pericardial effusion), total CT score may have prognostic and therapeutic implication in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Echocardiography , Pericardial Effusion/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Blood Pressure/physiology , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pericardial Effusion/physiopathology , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke Volume/physiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/physiopathology
9.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging ; 37(5): 1539-1550, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002114

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) for left atrial appendage thrombosis (LAAT) detection should be limited to situations of absolute necessity. We sought to identify the main conventional and functional echocardiographic parameters associated with LAAT on TEE in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients planned for electrical cardioversion (ECV). This retrospective study included 125 consecutive NVAF patients (71.5±7.8 yrs, 75 males), who underwent TEE at our Institution between April 2016 and January 2020, to exclude LAAT before scheduled ECV. All patients underwent a transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) implemented with speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) analysis of left atrial (LA) strain and strain rate (SR) parameters. 28% of patients were diagnosed with LAAT, while 72% without LAAT. Compared to controls, patients with LAAT had significantly higher CHA2DS2-Vasc Score and average E/e' ratio, and significantly lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Moreover, LA-peak positive global atrial strain (GSA+) and LA-SR parameters were significantly reduced in patients with LAAT. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that, differently from CHA2DS2-Vasc Score, LVEF (OR 0.88, 95%CI 0.81-0.97, p = 0.01), average E/e' ratio (OR 2.36, 95%CI 1.41-3.98, p = 0.001), and LA-GSA+ (OR 0.57, 95%CI 0.36-0-90, p = 0.01) were independently associated with LAAT. LA-GSA+ (optimal cut-off ≤ 9.1%, AUC 0.95) showed the highest diagnostic performance. Finally, a strong linear correlation of LA peak-to-peak SR with both LA appendage filling (r = 0.86) and emptying (r = 0.83) velocities was demonstrated. TTE implemented with STE analysis of LA mechanics improves thrombotic risk assessment of NVAF patients.


Subject(s)
Atrial Appendage/diagnostic imaging , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , Risk Assessment , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Atrial Appendage/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Echocardiography , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Electric Countershock , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Stroke Volume/physiology , Thrombosis/physiopathology
10.
Echocardiography ; 38(2): 222-229, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-991342

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The aim of this investigation was to evaluate echocardiographic parameters of cardiac function and in particular right ventricular (RV) function as a predictor of mortality in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. METHODS AND RESULTS: This prospective observational study included 35 patients admitted to a UK district general hospital with COVID-19 and evidence of cardiac involvement, that is, raised Troponin I levels or clinical evidence of heart failure during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic (March-May 2020). All patients underwent echocardiography including speckle tracking for right ventricular longitudinal strain (RVLS) providing image quality was sufficient (30 out of 35 patients). Upon comparison of patients who survived COVID-19 with non-survivors, survivors had significantly smaller RVs (basal RV diameter 38.2 vs 43.5 mm P = .0295) with significantly better RV function (Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE): 17.5 vs 15.3 mm P = .049; average RVLS: 24.3% vs 15.6%; P = .0018). Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) maximal velocity was higher in survivors (2.75 m/s vs 2.11 m/s; P = .0045) indicating that pressure overload was not the predominant driver of this effect and there was no significant difference in left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analysis of patients split into groups according to average RVLS above or below 20% revealed significantly increased 30-day mortality in patients with average RVLS under 20% (HR: 3.189; 95% CI: 1.297-12.91; P = .0195). CONCLUSION: This study confirms that RVLS is a potent and independent predictor of outcome in COVID-19 patients with evidence of cardiac involvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional/methods , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , Stroke Volume/physiology , Ventricular Function, Right/physiology , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Pilot Projects , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(19): e017126, 2020 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-852817

ABSTRACT

Background After the coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak, social isolation measures were introduced to contain infection. Although there is currently a slowing down of the infection, a reduction of hospitalizations, especially for myocardial infarction, was observed. The aim of our study is to evaluate the impact of the infectious disease on ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) care during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, through the analysis of recent cases of patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. Methods and Results Consecutive patients affected by STEMI from March 1 to 31, 2020, during social restrictions of Italian government, were collected and compared with patients with STEMI treated during March 2019. During March 2020, we observed a 63% reduction of patients with STEMI who were admitted to our catheterization laboratory, when compared with the same period of 2019 (13 versus 35 patients). Changes in all time components of STEMI care were notably observed, particularly for longer median time in symptom-to-first medical contact, spoke-to-hub, and the cumulative symptom-to-wire delay. Procedural data and in-hospital outcomes were similar between the 2 groups, whereas the length of hospitalization was longer in patients of 2020. In this group, we also observed higher levels of cardiac biomarkers and a worse left ventricular ejection fraction at baseline and discharge. Conclusions The coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak induced a reduction of hospital access for STEMI with an increase in treatment delay, longer hospitalization, higher levels of cardiac biomarkers, and worse left ventricular function.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Echocardiography, Doppler, Color , Electrocardiography , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Stroke Volume/physiology , Survival Rate/trends
13.
G Ital Cardiol (Rome) ; 21(10): 739-749, 2020 Oct.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-792878

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, can lead to cardiac impairment with various types of clinical manifestations, including heart failure and cardiogenic shock. A possible expression of cardiac impairment is non-ischemic ventricular dysfunction, which can be related to different pathological conditions, such as myocarditis, stress and cytokine-related ventricular dysfunction. The diagnosis of these pathological conditions can be challenging during COVID-19; furthermore, their prevalence and prognostic significance have not been elucidated yet. The purpose of this review is to take stock of the various aspects of non-ischemic ventricular dysfunction that may occur during COVID-19 and of the diagnostic implications related to the use of cardiac imaging techniques.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/diagnostic imaging , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/diagnostic imaging , Acute Disease , Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , Echocardiography , Electrocardiography , Heart Failure/etiology , Humans , Myocarditis/blood , Myocarditis/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume/physiology , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/diagnostic imaging , Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy/etiology , Troponin/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/etiology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/blood , Ventricular Dysfunction, Right/etiology
14.
Circulation ; 142(5): 429-436, 2020 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiac injury and myocarditis have been described in adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children is typically minimally symptomatic. We report a series of febrile pediatric patients with acute heart failure potentially associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children as defined by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. METHODS: Over a 2-month period, contemporary with the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in France and Switzerland, we retrospectively collected clinical, biological, therapeutic, and early outcomes data in children who were admitted to pediatric intensive care units in 14 centers for cardiogenic shock, left ventricular dysfunction, and severe inflammatory state. RESULTS: Thirty-five children were identified and included in the study. Median age at admission was 10 years (range, 2-16 years). Comorbidities were present in 28%, including asthma and overweight. Gastrointestinal symptoms were prominent. Left ventricular ejection fraction was <30% in one-third; 80% required inotropic support with 28% treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Inflammation markers were suggestive of cytokine storm (interleukin-6 median, 135 pg/mL) and macrophage activation (D-dimer median, 5284 ng/mL). Mean BNP (B-type natriuretic peptide) was elevated (5743 pg/mL). Thirty-one of 35 patients (88%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection by polymerase chain reaction of nasopharyngeal swab or serology. All patients received intravenous immunoglobulin, with adjunctive steroid therapy used in one-third. Left ventricular function was restored in the 25 of 35 of those discharged from the intensive care unit. No patient died, and all patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were successfully weaned. CONCLUSIONS: Children may experience an acute cardiac decompensation caused by severe inflammatory state after SARS-CoV-2 infection (multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children). Treatment with immunoglobulin appears to be associated with recovery of left ventricular systolic function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Failure/virology , Inflammation/virology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Adolescent , COVID-19/virology , Child , Female , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/drug therapy , Male , Retrospective Studies , Stroke Volume/physiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , Ventricular Dysfunction, Left/drug therapy , Ventricular Function, Left/immunology
15.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 33(10): 1278-1284, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714636

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite growing evidence of cardiovascular complications associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), there are few data regarding the performance of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and the spectrum of echocardiographic findings in this disease. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed among adult patients admitted to a quaternary care center in New York City between March 1 and April 3, 2020. Patients were included if they underwent TTE during the hospitalization after a known positive diagnosis for COVID-19. Demographic and clinical data were obtained using chart abstraction from the electronic medical record. RESULTS: Of 749 patients, 72 (9.6%) underwent TTE following positive results on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 polymerase chain reaction testing. The most common clinical indications for TTE were concern for a major acute cardiovascular event (45.8%) and hemodynamic instability (29.2%). Although most patients had preserved biventricular function, 34.7% were found to have left ventricular ejection fractions ≤ 50%, and 13.9% had at least moderately reduced right ventricular function. Four patients had wall motion abnormalities suggestive of stress-induced cardiomyopathy. Using Spearman rank correlation, there was an inverse relationship between high-sensitivity troponin T and left ventricular ejection fraction (ρ = -0.34, P = .006). Among 20 patients with prior echocardiograms, only two (10%) had new reductions in LVEF of >10%. Clinical management was changed in eight individuals (24.2%) in whom TTE was ordered for concern for acute major cardiovascular events and three (14.3%) in whom TTE was ordered for hemodynamic evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes the clinical indications for use and diagnostic performance of TTE, as well as findings seen on TTE, in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. In appropriately selected patients, TTE can be an invaluable tool for guiding COVID-19 clinical management.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Echocardiography/methods , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Heart Diseases/etiology , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Heart Ventricles/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke Volume/physiology , Ventricular Function, Left/physiology , Ventricular Function, Right/physiology , Young Adult
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