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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(12)2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598246

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of neck stabilization exercise on respiratory function in stroke patients through longitudinal observation and determine whether there is a difference in its effect based on the side of paralysis in the patients. It is difficult to observe the amount of change observed in individuals and groups as most intergroup comparison studies only use mean values. To address these shortcomings, this study adopted a hierarchical linear model (HLM) in our trajectory analysis. Materials and Methods: We conducted neck stabilization training three times a week for four weeks in a single group of 21 stroke patients. To evaluate respiratory function, their forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), forced expiration ratio (FEV1/FVC), and peak cough flow (PCF) were measured. Data analysis was performed using HLM 8.0. Results: A significant increase was found in the respiratory function after neck stabilization training (p < 0.05). While neck stabilization training overall was longitudinally effective, the growth rate of respiratory function in left-sided paralytic patients was less than the whole group value. Conversely, the growth rate of respiratory function in right-sided paralytic patients was greater than the whole group value. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that neck stabilization training is longitudinally effective in improving respiratory function in stroke patients. Additionally, the growth rate of respiratory function was greater in patients with right side paralysis than in patients with left side paralysis.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Muscles , Stroke , Exercise Therapy , Humans , Linear Models , Respiration , Stroke/complications
2.
Neurologist ; 26(6): 276-280, 2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501230

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Protein S deficiency and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are rare etiologies of ischemic stroke. We describe a case of an ischemic stroke revealing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in a patient with a history of protein S deficiency and cerebral imaging suggestive of vasculitis. CASE REPORT: A 52-year-old woman, with history of protein S deficiency, was admitted for right hemiparesis and aphasia that happened 6 hours before her consultation. Her National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was 11. She had hypoxia (SpO2 93%). COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction was positive. Cerebral computed tomography scan showed an ischemic stroke in the territory of the superficial left middle cerebral artery. The recommended time period for thrombolysis was exceeded and we did not dispose of sufficient resources to deliver thrombectomy. She was treated with aspirin, statins, antibiotic therapy, and oxygen. Considering the high risk of thromboembolic complications and the history of protein S deficiency, anticoagulation treatment with heparin followed by acenocoumarol was started. Evolution was marked by the appearance of 24 hours regressive, acute symptoms of confusion. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed new ischemic strokes in both anterior cerebral arteries and on magnetic resonance angiography narrowing of the left internal carotid artery and both anterior cerebral arteries suggestive of vasculitis was seen. We maintained anticoagulation and prescribed methylprednisolone 500 mg daily for 3 days. Evolution was marked by improvement of clinical deficit and respiratory status. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection potentializes the prothrombotic effect and vascular inflammation by accentuating protein S deficit. The place of steroids seems justifiable in the presence of symptoms of vasculitis in brain imaging.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Protein S Deficiency , Stroke , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Stroke/diagnostic imaging
4.
Am J Cardiol ; 160: 106-111, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450050

ABSTRACT

The occurrence of venous thromboembolisms in patients with COVID-19 has been established. We sought to evaluate the clinical impact of thrombosis in patients with COVID-19 over the span of the pandemic to date. We analyzed patients with COVID-19 with a diagnosis of thrombosis who presented to the MedStar Health system (11 hospitals in Washington, District of Columbia, and Maryland) during the pandemic (March 1, 2020, to March 31, 2021). We compared the clinical course and outcomes based on the presence or absence of thrombosis and then, specifically, the presence of cardiac thrombosis. The cohort included 11,537 patients who were admitted for COVID-19. Of these patients, 1,248 had noncardiac thrombotic events and 1,009 had cardiac thrombosis (myocardial infarction) during their hospital admission. Of the noncardiac thrombotic events, 562 (45.0%) were pulmonary embolisms, 480 (38.5%) were deep venous thromboembolisms, and 347 (27.8%) were strokes. In the thrombosis arm, the mean age of the cohort was 64.5 ± 15.3 years, 53.3% were men, and the majority were African-American (64.9%). Patients with thrombosis tended to be older with more co-morbidities. The in-hospital mortality rate was significantly higher (16.0%) in patients with COVID-19 with concomitant non-cardiac thrombosis than in those without thrombosis (7.9%, p <0.001) but lower than in patients with COVID-19 with cardiac thrombosis (24.7%, p <0.001). In conclusion, patients with COVID-19 with thrombosis, especially cardiac thrombosis, are at higher risk for in-hospital mortality. However, this prognosis is not as grim as for patients with COVID-19 and cardiac thrombosis. Efforts should be focused on early recognition, evaluation, and intensifying antithrombotic management for these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Coronary Thrombosis/physiopathology , Hospital Mortality , Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology , Pulmonary Embolism/physiopathology , Stroke/physiopathology , Venous Thrombosis/physiopathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Coronary Thrombosis/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Venous Thrombosis/complications
5.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 145(1): 47-52, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367290

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator is the core medical therapy of acute ischaemic stroke (AIS). COVID-19 infection negatively modifies acute stroke procedures and, due to its pro-coagulative effect, may potentially impact on IVT outcome. Thus, short-term efficacy and safety of IVT were compared in patients with and without evidence of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: An observational, retrospective study included 70 patients with AIS, including 22 subjects (31%) with evidence of acute COVID-19 infection, consecutively treated with IVT in 4 stroke centres between 15 September and 30 November 2020. RESULTS: Patients infected with COVID-19 were characterized by higher median of National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (11.0 vs. 6.5; p < .01) and D-dimers (870 vs. 570; p = .03) on admission, higher presence of pneumonia (47.8% vs. 12%; p < .01) and lower percentage of 'minor stroke symptoms' (NIHSS 1-5 pts.) (2% vs., 18%; p < .01). Hospitalizations were longer in patients with COVID-19 than in those without it (17 vs. 9 days, p < .01), but impact of COVID-19 infection on patients' in-hospital mortality or functional status on dismission has been confirmed neither in uni- or multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection prolongs length of stay in hospital after IVT, but does not influence in-hospital outcome.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Stroke/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
6.
J Headache Pain ; 22(1): 93, 2021 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357018

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We report the first case of a patient who suffered transient focal neurological deficit mimicking stroke following CoronaVac vaccination. However, instead of an ischemic stroke, motor aura was suspected. CASE PRESENTATIONS: A 24 year-old Thai female presented with left hemiparesis fifteen minutes after receiving CoronaVac. She also had numbness of her left arm and legs, flashing lights, and headaches. On physical examination, her BMI was 32.8. Her vital signs were normal. She had moderate left hemiparesis (MRC grade III), numbness on her left face, arms, and legs. Her weakness continued for 5 days. A brain CT scan was done showing no evidence of acute infarction. Acute treatment with aspirin was given. MRI in conjunction with MRA was performed in which no restricted diffusion was seen. A SPECT was performed to evaluate the function of the brain showing significant hypoperfusion of the right hemisphere. The patient gradually improved and was discharged. DISCUSSIONS: In this study, we present the first case of stroke mimic after CoronaVac vaccination. After negative imaging studies had been performed repeatedly, we reach a conclusion that stroke is unlikely to be the cause. Presumably, this phenomenon could possibly have abnormal functional imaging study. Therefore, we believed that it might be due to cortical spreading depression, like migraine aura, which we had conducted a literature review.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Ischemic Stroke , Migraine with Aura , Stroke , Adult , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Vaccination , Young Adult
7.
Eur Neurol ; 84(6): 418-425, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344010

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While the most common neurologic symptoms reported in patients affected by SARS-CoV-2 are headache, dizziness, myalgia, mental fog, and anosmia, there is a growing basis of published peer-reviewed cases reporting stroke in the setting of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The peer-reviewed literature suggests an increased risk of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in the setting of COVID-19 infection. METHODS: We searched 3 databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, and CINAHL) with search terms COVID-19, novel coronavirus, stroke, and cerebrovascular accident. Case series and case studies presenting patients positive for both COVID-19 and CVA published from January 1 through September 1, 2020, were included. Data collection and analysis was completed and risk of bias assessed. RESULTS: The search identified 28 studies across 7 counties comprising 73 patients. Amongst patients hospitalized for COVID-19 infection and CVA, the average age was 60; the most common preexisting conditions were hypertension and diabetes mellitus, and those without preexisting conditions were significantly younger with an average age of 47. Amongst hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and CVA, there was a bimodal association with COVID-19 infection severity with majority of patients classified with mild or critical COVID-19 infection. DISCUSSION: The data suggest SARS-CoV-2 is a risk factor for developing stroke, particularly in patients with hypertension and diabetes. Furthermore, the younger average age of stroke in patients with SARS-CoV-2, particularly those patients with zero identifiable preexisting conditions, creates high suspicion that SARS-CoV-2 is an independent risk factor for development of stroke; however, this cannot yet be proven without comparable control population. The data suggest the risk of developing CVA in the setting of COVID-19 infection is not dependent upon severity of illness. Continued studies must be done to understand the epidemiologic factors of COVID-19 infection and stroke and the pathophysiology of the COVID-associated hypercoagulable state.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Headache , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Stroke/epidemiology
11.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e043488, 2021 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259007

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Stroke is a common cause of epilepsy that may be mediated via glutamate dysregulation. There is currently no evidence to support the use of antiseizure medications as primary prevention against poststroke epilepsy. Perampanel has a unique antiglutamatergic mechanism of action and may have antiepileptogenic properties. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of perampanel as an antiepileptogenic treatment in patients at high risk of poststroke epilepsy. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Up to 328 patients with cortical ischaemic stroke or lobar haemorrhage will be enrolled, and receive their first treatment within 7 days of stroke onset. Patients will be randomised (1:1) to receive perampanel (titrated to 6 mg daily over 4 weeks) or matching placebo, stratified by stroke subtype (ischaemic or haemorrhagic). Treatment will be continued for 12 weeks after titration. 7T MRI will be performed at baseline for quantification of cerebral glutamate by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and glutamate chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging. Blood will be collected for measurement of plasma glutamate levels. Participants will be followed up for 52 weeks after randomisation.The primary study outcome will be the proportion of participants in each group free of late (more than 7 days after stroke onset) poststroke seizures by the end of the 12-month study period, analysed by Fisher's exact test. Secondary outcomes will include time to first seizure, time to treatment withdrawal and 3-month modified Rankin Scale score. Quality of life, cognitive function, mood and adverse events will be assessed by standardised questionnaires. Exploratory outcomes will include correlation between cerebral and plasma glutamate concentration and stroke and seizure outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the Alfred Health Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC No 44366, Reference 287/18). TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12618001984280; Pre-results.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Stroke , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Nitriles , Pyridones , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Stroke/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
13.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 15(5): 577-588, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1214796

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is important that population cohorts at increased risk of hospitalisation and death following a COVID-19 infection are identified and protected. OBJECTIVES: We identified risk factors associated with increased risk of hospitalisation, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and mortality in inner North East London (NEL) during the first UK COVID-19 wave. METHODS: Multivariate logistic regression analysis on linked primary and secondary care data from people aged 16 or older with confirmed COVID-19 infection between 01/02/2020 and 30/06/2020 determined odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (CI) and P-values for the association between demographic, deprivation and clinical factors with COVID-19 hospitalisation, ICU admission and mortality. RESULTS: Over the study period, 1781 people were diagnosed with COVID-19, of whom 1195 (67%) were hospitalised, 152 (9%) admitted to ICU and 400 (23%) died. Results confirm previously identified risk factors: being male, or of Black or Asian ethnicity, or aged over 50. Obesity, type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) increased the risk of hospitalisation. Obesity increased the risk of being admitted to ICU. Underlying CKD, stroke and dementia increased the risk of death. Having learning disabilities was strongly associated with increased risk of death (OR = 4.75, 95% CI = [1.91, 11.84], P = .001). Having three or four co-morbidities increased the risk of hospitalisation (OR = 2.34, 95% CI = [1.55, 3.54], P < .001; OR = 2.40, 95% CI = [1.55, 3.73], P < .001 respectively) and death (OR = 2.61, 95% CI = [1.59, 4.28], P < .001; OR = 4.07, 95% CI = [2.48, 6.69], P < .001 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: We confirm that age, sex, ethnicity, obesity, CKD and diabetes are important determinants of risk of COVID-19 hospitalisation or death. For the first time, we also identify people with learning disabilities and multi-morbidity as additional patient cohorts that need to be actively protected during COVID-19 waves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Care , Hospitalization , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Dementia/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Secondary Care , Stroke/complications , Young Adult
14.
J Neurol ; 268(12): 4443-4447, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206873

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has a diverse constellation of neurological manifestations that include encephalopathy, stroke, Guillain-Barré syndrome, myelitis, and encephalitis. Intraluminal carotid thrombi (ILT) are infrequent lesions seen in only 1.6% of patients with acute ischemic stroke. Underlying atherosclerosis is the most common lesion associated with ILT formation. However, with COVID-19, we have encountered ILT in patients without significant atherosclerotic disease. The endothelial inflammation and hypercoagulable state associated with COVID-19 pose a risk of arterial and venous thromboembolism and could have contributed to this presentation although the exact pathophysiology and optimal treatment of ILT in COVID-19 remain elusive. Herein, we present a series of ischemic stroke patients with carotid ILT in the setting of a recent SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Carotid Artery Thrombosis , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/complications , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications
15.
J Emerg Med ; 61(1): 29-36, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188737

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), most frequently presents with respiratory symptoms, such as fever, dyspnea, shortness of breath, cough, or myalgias. There is now a growing body of evidence that demonstrates that severe SARS-CoV-2 infections can develop clinically significant coagulopathy, inflammation, and cardiomyopathy, which have been implicated in COVID-19-associated cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). CASE REPORT: We report an uncommon presentation of a 32-year-old man who sustained a large vessel cerebellar stroke associated with a severe COVID-19 infection. He presented with a headache, worse than his usual migraine, dizziness, rotary nystagmus, and dysmetria on examination, but had no respiratory symptoms initially. He was not a candidate for thrombolytic therapy or endovascular therapy and was managed with clopidogrel, aspirin, and atorvastatin. During hospital admission he developed COVID-19-related hypoxia and pneumonia, but ultimately he was discharged to home rehabilitation. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: We present this case to increase awareness among emergency physicians of the growing number of reports of neurologic and vascular complications, such as ischemic CVAs, in otherwise healthy individuals who are diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. A brief review of the current literature will help elucidate possible mechanisms, risk factors, and current treatments for CVA associated with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Adult , Cough , Fever , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications
16.
Trends Neurosci ; 44(7): 527-537, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171720

ABSTRACT

Prior to COVID-19, only two human-tropic coronaviruses resulted in epidemics and cerebrovascular disease was rarely reported. Evidence now suggests that 1-6% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients develop stroke. According to some reports, stroke risk is more than sevenfold greater in patients with COVID-19 than influenza. Concerningly, outcomes of COVID-19-related stroke are often worse than in stroke patients without COVID-19 from the same cohorts. In this review, we highlight the emerging association between COVID-19 and stroke and discuss putative pathogenetic mechanisms. Etiology of stroke in COVID-19 patients is likely multifactorial, related to coagulopathy, inflammation, platelet activation, and alterations to the vascular endothelium. Significant work remains to be done to better understand the pathogenesis of COVID-19-related stroke and for designing optimal primary and secondary prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/complications , Stroke/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , Stroke/mortality , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/mortality , Thrombosis/virology
17.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 62(1): 119-125, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171631

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A previous study revealed a preliminary trend towards higher in hospital mortality in patients admitted as an emergency with acute stroke during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. The current study aimed to further examine the possible impact of a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection on in hospital mortality. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of health insurance claims data from the second largest insurance fund in Germany, BARMER. Patients hospitalised for ST elevation (STEMI) and non-ST elevation (NSTEMI) myocardial infarction, acute limb ischaemia (ALI), aortic rupture, acute stroke, or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) between 1 January 2017, and 31 October 2020, were included. Admission rates per 10 000 insured and mortality were compared between March - June 2017 - 2019 (pre-COVID) and March - June 2020 (COVID). Mortality rates were determined by the occurrence of a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: A total of 316 718 hospitalisations were included (48.7% female, mean 72.5 years), and 21 191 (6.7%, 95% CI 6.6% - 6.8%) deaths occurred. In hospital mortality increased during the COVID-19 pandemic when compared with the three previous years for patients with acute stroke from 8.3% (95% CI 8.0 - 8.5) to 9.6% (95% CI 9.1 - 10.2), while no statistically significant changes were observed for STEMI, NSTEMI, ALI, aortic rupture, and TIA. When comparing patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (2.4%, 95% CI 2.3 - 2.5) vs. non-infected patients, a higher in hospital mortality was observed for acute stroke (12.4% vs. 9.0%), ALI (14.3% vs. 5.0%), and TIA (2.7% vs. 0.3%), while no statistically significant differences were observed for STEMI, NSTEMI, and aortic rupture. CONCLUSION: This retrospective analysis of claims data has provided hints of an association between the COVID-19 pandemic and increased in hospital mortality in patients with acute stroke. Furthermore, confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with increased mortality in patients with stroke, TIA, and ALI. Future studies are urgently needed to better understand the underlying mechanism and relationship between the new coronavirus and acute stroke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Attack, Transient/mortality , Peripheral Arterial Disease/mortality , Stroke/mortality , Administrative Claims, Healthcare/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergencies/epidemiology , Extremities/blood supply , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , Ischemic Attack, Transient/complications , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Peripheral Arterial Disease/complications , Peripheral Arterial Disease/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stroke/complications , Stroke/therapy
18.
J Neurol ; 268(11): 3988-3991, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163035

ABSTRACT

There have been considerations since the beginning of the Coronavirus pandemic that COVID-19 infection, like any other viral illness, can trigger neurological and metabolic decompensation in patients with mitochondrial diseases. At the time of writing, there were no published reports reviewing experiences and guidelines about management of COVID-19 infection in this patient population. We present a challenging case of an adult patient with a known diagnosis of Mitochondrial Encephalomyopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like Episodes (MELAS) complicated by COVID-19 infection. She initially presented with altered mental status and vomiting and went on to develop a stroke-like episode, pancreatitis, and pneumatosis intestinalis. We review salient features of her hospitalization, including initiation of thromboprophylaxis in relation to intravenous arginine therapy, caution regarding medications such as remdesivir, and the incidence of gastrointestinal complications.


Subject(s)
Acidosis, Lactic , COVID-19 , MELAS Syndrome , Stroke , Venous Thromboembolism , Adult , Anticoagulants , Female , Humans , MELAS Syndrome/complications , MELAS Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications
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