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1.
Trials ; 23(1): 518, 2022 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317491

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a pressing need for scalable healthcare solutions and a shift in the rehabilitation paradigm from hospitals to homes to tackle the increase in stroke incidence while reducing the practical and economic burden for patients, hospitals, and society. Digital health technologies can contribute to addressing this challenge; however, little is known about their effectiveness in at-home settings. In response, we have designed the RGS@home study to investigate the effectiveness, acceptance, and cost of a deep tech solution called the Rehabilitation Gaming System (RGS). RGS is a cloud-based system for delivering AI-enhanced rehabilitation using virtual reality, motion capture, and wearables that can be used in the hospital and at home. The core principles of the brain theory-based RGS intervention are to deliver rehabilitation exercises in the form of embodied, goal-oriented, and task-specific action. METHODS: The RGS@home study is a randomized longitudinal clinical trial designed to assess whether the combination of the RGS intervention with standard care is superior to standard care alone for the functional recovery of stroke patients at the hospital and at home. The study is conducted in collaboration with hospitals in Spain, Sweden, and France and includes inpatients and outpatients at subacute and chronic stages post-stroke. The intervention duration is 3 months with assessment at baseline and after 3, 6, and 12 months. The impact of RGS is evaluated in terms of quality of life measurements, usability, and acceptance using standardized clinical scales, together with health economic analysis. So far, one-third of the patients expected to participate in the study have been recruited (N = 90, mean age 60, days after stroke ≥ 30 days). The trial will end in July 2023. DISCUSSION: We predict an improvement in the patients' recovery, high acceptance, and reduced costs due to a soft landing from the clinic to home rehabilitation. In addition, the data provided will allow us to assess whether the prescription of therapy at home can counteract deterioration and improve quality of life while also identifying new standards for online and remote assessment, diagnostics, and intervention across European hospitals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: C linicalTrials.gov NCT04620707. Registered on November 3, 2020.


Subject(s)
Stroke Rehabilitation , Stroke , Telemedicine , Humans , Middle Aged , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Recovery of Function , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods
2.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 32(6): 107140, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291491

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study factors associated with systolic blood pressure(SBP) control for patients post-discharge from an ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack(TIA) during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to pre-pandemic periods within the Veterans Health Administration(VHA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed retrospective data from patients discharged from Emergency Departments or inpatient admissions after an ischemic stroke or TIA. Cohorts consisted of 2,816 patients during March-September 2020 and 11,900 during the same months in 2017-2019. Outcomes included primary care or neurology clinic visits, recorded blood pressure readings and average blood pressure control in the 90-days post-discharge. Random effect logit models were used to compare clinical characteristics of the cohorts and relationships between patient characteristics and outcomes. RESULTS: The majority (73%) of patients with recorded readings during the COVID-19 period had a mean post-discharge SBP within goal (<140 mmHg); this was slightly lower than the pre-COVID-19 period (78%; p=0.001). Only 38% of the COVID-19 cohort had a recorded SBP in the 90-days post-discharge compared with 83% of patients during the pre-pandemic period (p=0.001). During the pandemic period, 29% did not have follow-up primary care or neurologist visits, and 33% had a phone or video visit without a recorded SBP reading. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with an acute cerebrovascular event during the initial COVID-19 period were less likely to have outpatient visits or blood pressure measurements than during the pre-pandemic period; patients with uncontrolled SBP should be targeted for follow-up hypertension management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , Blood Pressure/physiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/diagnosis , Ischemic Attack, Transient/epidemiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Aftercare , Patient Discharge , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy
3.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 27(7): 3208-3217, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302653

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Healthcare systems have been put under intense pressure by the COVID-19 pandemic, although some studies have shown a decline in hospital admissions for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases during the first and second wave of the pandemic. In addition, studies analyzing gender and procedural differences are scarce. The present study aimed to determine the impact of the pandemic on hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in Andalusia (Spain) and analyzed differences by gender and by percutaneous coronary interventions performed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An interrupted time series analysis of AMI and CVD hospital admissions in Andalusia (Spain) was carried out to measure the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak. AMI and CVD cases admitted daily in public hospitals of Andalusia between January 2018 and December 2020 were included. RESULTS: During the pandemic, significant reductions in AMI [-19%; 95% confidence interval (CI): (-29%, -9%), p<0.001] and CVD [-17%; 95% CI: (-26%, -9%); p<0.01] in daily hospital admissions were observed. Differences were also produced according to the diagnosis (ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction, Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction, other AMI and stroke), with a greater reduction in females for AMI and in males for CVD. Although there were more percutaneous coronary interventions during the pandemic, no significant reductions were observed. CONCLUSIONS: A decline in AMI and CVD daily hospital admissions during the first and second wave of COVID-19 pandemic was noted. Gender differences were observed, but no clear impact was observed in percutaneous interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Stroke , Male , Female , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronary Vessels , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Spain/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/diagnosis
4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 32(6): 107138, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302577

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic public health restrictions on our drip and ship mechanical thrombectomy program in Santiago Chile. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database comparing two cohorts, one during a two-year period before COVID-19 and the second during the two years of the pandemic at our metropolitan stroke program. RESULTS: A total of 100 patients were included in the pre COVID-19 cohort (cohort 1) and 121 in the COVID-19 cohort (cohort 2). There was a significant difference between cohorts, with older patients, different occlusion sites and higher door to arterial puncture time during the COVID-19 period. A non-significant trend for worse 90-day outcomes and higher mortality was present in cohort 2. There were no statistical differences in safety treatment parameters. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pandemic has had a measurable impact on our mechanical thrombectomy program. Results showed similarities to other reported Latin American series, where less robust health systems could adapt less efficiently compared to developed countries. After two years of public health restrictions, there were changes in the treatment population characteristics, delay in some internal management metrics and a non-significant trend to worse 90-day outcomes and higher mortality.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Stroke , Humans , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Thrombectomy/methods , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Public Health , Treatment Outcome , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy , Stroke/epidemiology
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(16): 431-436, 2023 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2306053

ABSTRACT

Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death and a leading cause of long-term disability in the United States (1). Although stroke death rates have declined since the 1950s, age-adjusted rates remained higher among non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black) adults than among non-Hispanic White (White) adults (1,2). Despite intervention efforts to reduce racial disparities in stroke prevention and treatment through reducing stroke risk factors, increasing awareness of stroke symptoms, and improving access to treatment and care for stroke (1,3), Black adults were 45% more likely than were White adults to die from stroke in 2018.* In 2019, age-adjusted stroke death rates (AASDRs) (stroke deaths per 100,000 population) were 101.6 among Black adults and 69.1 among White adults aged ≥35 years. Stroke deaths increased during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic (March-August 2020), and minority populations experienced a disproportionate increase (4). The current study examined disparities in stroke mortality between Black and White adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Analysts used National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) mortality data accessed via CDC WONDER† to calculate AASDRs among Black and White adults aged ≥35 years prepandemic (2015-2019) and during the pandemic (2020-2021). Compared with that during the prepandemic period, the absolute difference in AASDR between Black and White adults during the pandemic was 21.7% higher (31.3 per 100,000 versus 38.0). During the pandemic period, an estimated 3,835 excess stroke deaths occurred among Black adults (9.4% more than expected) and 15,125 among White adults (6.9% more than expected). These findings underscore the importance of identifying the major factors contributing to the widened disparities; implementing prevention efforts, including the management and control of hypertension, high blood cholesterol, and diabetes; and developing tailored interventions to reduce disparities and advance health equity in stroke mortality between Black and White adults. Stroke is a serious medical condition that requires emergency care. Warning signs of a stroke include sudden face drooping, arm weakness, and speech difficulty. Immediate notification of Emergency Medical Services by calling 9-1-1 is critical upon recognition of stroke signs and symptoms.


Subject(s)
Black or African American , COVID-19 , Health Status Disparities , Stroke , White , Adult , Humans , Black or African American/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/ethnology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/mortality , United States/epidemiology , White/statistics & numerical data
6.
Stroke ; 54(5): e194-e198, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256504

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of nationally representative data regarding the impact of COVID-19 on acute ischemic stroke (AIS) outcome. METHODS: We created a cross-sectional cohort of nationally weighted National Inpatient Sample nonelective hospital discharges aged ≥18 years with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke from 2016 to 2020. The outcome was in-hospital mortality and exposure was COVID-19 status. To understand the effect of COVID-19 on AIS severity, we report National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale by exposure status. In a final analysis, we used a nationally weighted logistic regression and marginal effects to compare April to December 2020 to the same period in 2019 to understand how the pandemic modified the effect of race and ethnicity and median household income on in-hospital AIS mortality. RESULTS: We observed significantly higher AIS mortality in 2020 than prior years (2020 versus 2016-19, 7.3% versus 6.3%, P<0.001) and higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale in those with COVID-19 than those without (mean: 9.7±9.1 versus 6.6±7.4, P<0.001), but patients with AIS without COVID in 2020 had only marginally higher mortality (2020 versus 2016-2019, 6.6% versus 6.3%, P=0.001). Comparing April to December 2020 to 2019, the adjusted risk of in-hospital AIS mortality was most notably increased in Hispanics (2020 versus 2019: 9.2% versus 5.8%, P<0.001) and the lowest quartile of income (2020 versus 2019: 8.0% versus 6.0%, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In-hospital stroke mortality increased in 2020 in the United States because of comorbid AIS and COVID-19, which had higher stroke severity. The increase in AIS mortality during April-December 2020 was significantly more pronounced in Hispanics and those in the lowest quartile of household income.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , United States , Adolescent , Adult , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Inpatients , Cross-Sectional Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Hospital Mortality , Treatment Outcome , Retrospective Studies
7.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 16(5): e009652, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has evolved through multiple phases characterized by new viral variants, vaccine development, and changes in therapies. It is unknown whether rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profiles and complications have changed over time. METHODS: We analyzed the American Heart Association COVID-19 CVD registry, a national multicenter registry of hospitalized adults with active COVID-19 infection. The time period from April 2020 to December 2021 was divided into 3-month epochs, with March 2020 analyzed separately as a potential outlier. Participating centers varied over the study period. Trends in all-cause in-hospital mortality, CVD risk factors, and in-hospital CVD outcomes, including a composite primary outcome of cardiovascular death, cardiogenic shock, new heart failure, stroke, and myocardial infarction, were evaluated across time epochs. Risk-adjusted analyses were performed using generalized linear mixed-effects models. RESULTS: A total of 46 007 patient admissions from 134 hospitals were included (mean patient age 61.8 years, 53% male, 22% Black race). Patients admitted later in the pandemic were younger, more likely obese, and less likely to have existing CVD (Ptrend ≤0.001 for each). The incidence of the primary outcome increased from 7.0% in March 2020 to 9.8% in October to December 2021 (risk-adjusted Ptrend=0.006). This was driven by an increase in the diagnosis of myocardial infarction and stroke (Ptrend<0.0001 for each). The overall rate of in-hospital mortality was 14.2%, which declined over time (20.8% in March 2020 versus 10.8% in the last epoch; adjusted Ptrend<0.0001). When the analysis was restricted to July 2020 to December 2021, no temporal change in all-cause mortality was seen (adjusted Ptrend=0.63). CONCLUSIONS: Despite a shifting risk factor profile toward a younger population with lower rates of established CVD, the incidence of diagnosed cardiovascular complications of COVID increased from the onset of the pandemic through December 2021. All-cause mortality decreased during the initial months of the pandemic and thereafter remained consistently high through December 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Myocardial Infarction , Stroke , Adult , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Female , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/therapy , Risk Factors , Pandemics , American Heart Association , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Registries , Hospital Mortality , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Heart Disease Risk Factors
8.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 32(5): 107082, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271864

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To compare quality of life (QOL) of individuals with stroke three months after hospital discharge, using generic and specific QOL measures, before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Individuals, who were admitted to a public hospital, were recruited and evaluated before (G1) and during (G2) the COVID-19 pandemic. The groups were matched for age, sex, socio-economic status, and levels of stroke severity (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale) and functional dependence (Modified Barthel Index). After three months of hospital discharge, they were evaluated and compared using generic (Short-form Health Survey 36: SF-36) and specific (Stroke Specific Quality of Life: SSQOL) QOL measures. RESULTS: Seventy individuals were included (35 in each group). Statistically significant between-group differences were found for both total SF-36 (p=0.008) and SSQOL (p=0.001) scores, indicating that individuals reported worse QOL during the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, G2 also reported worse generic QOL related to the SF-36 domains of physical functioning, bodily pain, general health perception, and emotional role limitations (p < 0.01) and worse specific QOL related to following SSQOL domains: Family roles, mobility, mood, personality, and social roles (p < 0.05). Finally, G2 reported better QOL related to energy and thinking (p < 0.05) SSQOL domains. CONCLUSION: In general, individuals with stroke, who were evaluated during the COVID-19 pandemic three months after hospital discharge, reported worse perceptions of QOL in several domains of both generic and specific QOL measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Humans , Quality of Life/psychology , Patient Discharge , Pandemics , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy , Hospitals
9.
BMJ Open ; 13(3): e062734, 2023 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285149

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted insufficiencies and gaps within healthcare systems globally. In most countries, including high-income countries, healthcare facilities were over-run and occupied with too few resources beyond capacity. We carried out a systematic review with a primary aim to identify the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on the presentation and treatment of stroke globally in populations≥65 years of age. DESIGN: A systematic review was completed. In total, 38 papers were included following full-text screening. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, MEDLINE and Embase. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Eligible studies included observational and real-world evidence publications with a population who have experienced stroke treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic. Exclusion criteria included studies comparing the effect of the COVID-19 infection on stroke treatment and outcomes. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Primary outcome measures extracted were the number of admissions, treatment times and patient outcome. Secondary outcomes were severity on admission, population risk factors and destination on discharge. No meta-analysis was performed. RESULTS: This review demonstrated that 84% of studies reported decreased admissions rates during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, among those admitted, on average, had higher severity of stroke. Additionally, in-hospital stroke treatment pathways were affected by the implementation of COVID-19 protocols, which resulted in increased treatment times in 60% of studies and increased in-hospital mortality in 82% of studies by 100% on average. The prevalence of stroke subtype (ischaemic or haemorrhagic) and primary treatment methods (thrombectomy or thrombolysis) did not vary due to the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, many populations hesitated to seek medical attention, decreasing hospital admissions for less severe strokes and increasing hospitalisation of more severe cases and mortality. The effect of the pandemic on society and healthcare systems needs to be addressed to improve stroke treatment pathways and prepare for potential future epidemics. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42021248564.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Stroke/diagnosis , Hospitalization , Thrombectomy
10.
Semin Pediatr Neurol ; 44: 100997, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2283454

ABSTRACT

Global awareness of stroke as a significant cause of neurologic sequelae and death in children has increased over the years as more data in this field becomes available. However, most published literature on pediatric stroke have limited geographic representation. Data on childhood stroke from developing countries remains limited. Thus, this paper reviewed geographic/ethnic differences in pediatric stroke risk factors highlighting those reported in low- and middle-income countries, and proposes a childhood arterial ischemic stroke diagnostic algorithm for resource limited settings. Stroke risk factors include cardiac disorders, infectious diseases, cerebral arteriopathies, hematologic disorders, inflammatory diseases, thrombophilia and genetic conditions. Infection of the central nervous system particularly tuberculous meningitis, is a leading cause of pediatric arterial ischemic stroke in developing countries. Stroke should be considered in children with acute focal neurologic deficit especially in the presence of aforementioned risk factors. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging with angiography is the neuroimaging modality of choice but if unavailable, cranial computed tomography with angiography may be performed as an alternative. If both are not available, transcranial doppler together with neurologic exam may be used to screen children for arterial ischemic stroke. Etiological diagnosis follows with the aid of appropriate laboratory tests that are available in each level of care. International collaborative research on stroke risk factors that are prevalent in low and middle income countries will provide information for drafting of stroke care guidelines that are universal yet inclusive taking into consideration regional differences in available resources with the goal of reducing global stroke burden.


Subject(s)
Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Child , Humans , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial , Neurologic Examination , Central Nervous System
11.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 32(4): 107036, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273586

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Early in the pandemic, there was a substantial increase in telestroke uptake among hospitals. The motivations for using telestroke during the pandemic might have been different than for hospitals that adopted telestroke previously. We compared stroke care at hospitals that adopted telestroke prior to the pandemic to care at hospitals that adopted telestroke during the pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stroke episodes and telestroke use were identified in Medicare Fee-for-Service Data. Hospital and episode characteristics were compared between pre-pandemic (Jan. 2019-Mar. 2020) and pandemic (Apr. 2020-Dec. 2020) adopters. RESULTS: Hospital bed counts, critical access statuses, stroke volumes, clinical operating margins, shares of stroke care via telestroke, and vascular neurology consult rates did not differ significantly between pre-pandemic and pandemic-adopting hospitals. Hospitals that never adopted telestroke during the study period were more likely to be small critical access hospitals with low clinical operating margins. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to hospitals that adopted telestroke before the pandemic, hospitals that adopted telestroke during the pandemic were similar in characteristics and how they used telestroke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Telemedicine , Aged , Humans , United States/epidemiology , Pandemics , Medicare , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy
12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 32(3): 106918, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2246647

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study is to reveal the association between the risk of stroke using ABCD2 score and COVID-19 in patients who presented to our emergency department during the pandemic and were diagnosed with TIA. METHODS: According to the recommendations of the European Stroke Association, patients with an ABCD2 score of <4 were classified as low-risk, and patients with an ABCD2 score of ≥4 were classified as high-risk. Within 90 days of the patient's admission to the emergency room, the development of stroke was tracked and recorded on the system. RESULTS: Stroke occurred in 35.78% of the patients. Regarding COVID-19, 75.34% of stroke patients were positive for COVID-19 and 65.75% had COVID-19 compatible pneumonia on 'thoracic CT'. Regarding mortality, 16.4% of the patients who were positive for COVID-19 and developed a stroke died. The presence of COVID-19 compatible pneumonia on thorax CT, PCR test result and ABCD2 score were determined as independent risk factors for the development of stroke. According to the PCR test results, the probability of having a stroke decreases 0.283 times in patients who are negative for COVID-19. According to the PCR test results, the probability of having a stroke increased 2.7 times in COVID-19 positive patients. CONCLUSIONS: Adding the presence of COVID-19 and the presence of COVID-19 pneumonia to the ABCD2 score, based on the information about the increased risk of stroke in TIA patients, improves the predictive power of the score. More studies are needed in this regard.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Stroke , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/diagnosis , Ischemic Attack, Transient/epidemiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Risk Factors , Emergency Service, Hospital
13.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 225: 107565, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245704

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Public knowledge and recognition of stroke and prompt calls to ambulance services when stroke is suspected are vital to the survival of stroke patients and to minimize their disability. In this study, our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of an online education session to increase middle school (11-14-year-old) students' awareness of stroke. METHODS: An interactive education session was organized for students using the online education portal of a local middle school. The effectiveness of this intervention was measured using knowledge measurement tests before, immediately after, and three months after the session. The compliance of the data with the normal distribution was checked with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The McNemar chi-square analysis was used to compare the distribution of correct and incorrect answers among the tests, and one-way analysis of variance was conducted to compare the mean values of correct answers. RESULTS: The students' stroke knowledge levels were found to be higher in both tests applied after the educational session and all the questions compared to the baseline evaluation. Stroke awareness was also determined to be higher among the students living with a family member aged over 65 years. CONCLUSIONS: Online interactive education can increase students' awareness of stroke. Such programs can be included in the education curriculum of schools. Public awareness of vital diseases should continue even in extraordinary situations, such as pandemics.


Subject(s)
Health Education , Stroke , Humans , Aged , Child , Adolescent , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Surveys and Questionnaires , Students , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy
14.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 32(5): 107059, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245435

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has heightened awareness of health disparities associated with socioeconomic status (SES) across the United States. We examined whether household income is associated with functional outcomes after stroke and COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a multi-institutional, retrospective cohort study of consecutively hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 and radiographically confirmed stroke presenting from March through November 2020 to any of five comprehensive stroke centers in metropolitan Chicago, Illinois, USA. Zip-code-derived household income was dichotomized at the Chicago median. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between household income and good functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale 0-3 at discharge, after ischemic stroke). RESULTS: Across five hospitals, 159 patients were included. Black patients comprised 48.1%, White patients 38.6%, and Hispanic patients 27.7%. Median household income was $46,938 [IQR: $32,460-63,219]. Ischemic stroke occurred in 115 (72.3%) patients (median NIHSS 7, IQR: 0.5-18.5) and hemorrhagic stroke in 37 (23.7%). When controlling for age, sex, severe COVID-19, and NIHSS, patients with ischemic stroke and household income above the Chicago median were more likely to have a good functional outcome at discharge (OR 7.53, 95% CI 1.61 - 45.73; P=0.016). Race/ethnicity were not included in final adjusted models given collinearity with income. CONCLUSIONS: In this multi-institutional study of hospitalized patients with stroke, those residing in higher SES zip codes were more likely to have better functional outcomes, despite controlling for stroke severity and COVID-19 severity. This suggests that area-based SES factors may play a role in outcomes from stroke and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Income
15.
Circulation ; 147(8): e93-e621, 2023 02 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236409

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The American Heart Association, in conjunction with the National Institutes of Health, annually reports the most up-to-date statistics related to heart disease, stroke, and cardiovascular risk factors, including core health behaviors (smoking, physical activity, diet, and weight) and health factors (cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose control) that contribute to cardiovascular health. The Statistical Update presents the latest data on a range of major clinical heart and circulatory disease conditions (including stroke, congenital heart disease, rhythm disorders, subclinical atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, heart failure, valvular disease, venous disease, and peripheral artery disease) and the associated outcomes (including quality of care, procedures, and economic costs). METHODS: The American Heart Association, through its Epidemiology and Prevention Statistics Committee, continuously monitors and evaluates sources of data on heart disease and stroke in the United States to provide the most current information available in the annual Statistical Update with review of published literature through the year before writing. The 2023 Statistical Update is the product of a full year's worth of effort in 2022 by dedicated volunteer clinicians and scientists, committed government professionals, and American Heart Association staff members. The American Heart Association strives to further understand and help heal health problems inflicted by structural racism, a public health crisis that can significantly damage physical and mental health and perpetuate disparities in access to health care, education, income, housing, and several other factors vital to healthy lives. This year's edition includes additional COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) publications, as well as data on the monitoring and benefits of cardiovascular health in the population, with an enhanced focus on health equity across several key domains. RESULTS: Each of the chapters in the Statistical Update focuses on a different topic related to heart disease and stroke statistics. CONCLUSIONS: The Statistical Update represents a critical resource for the lay public, policymakers, media professionals, clinicians, health care administrators, researchers, health advocates, and others seeking the best available data on these factors and conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Heart Diseases , Stroke , Humans , United States/epidemiology , American Heart Association , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Heart Diseases/epidemiology
17.
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 450, 2022 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2171258

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Recently, stroke prognosis estimation has received much attention. This study investigates the prognostic role of aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase (De Ritis, AAR), alkaline phosphatase/alanine transaminase (ALP/ALT), and aspartate transaminase/alkaline phosphatase (AST/ALP) ratios in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study involved patients who experienced their first-ever AIS between September 2019 and June 2021. Clinical and laboratory data were collected within the first 24 hours after admission. Functional and mortality outcomes were evaluated 90 days after hospital discharge in clinical follow-up. Functional outcome was assessed by a modified Rankin Scale (mRS). The correlation between the laboratory data and study outcomes was evaluated using univariate analysis. In addition, regression models were developed to evaluate the predictive role of AST/ALP, ALP/ALT, and AAR ratios on the study outcomes. RESULTS: Two hundred seventy-seven patients (mean age 69.10 ± 13.55, 53.1% female) were included. According to univariate analysis, there was a weak association between 3-months mRS, and both AST/ALT (r = 0.222, P < 0.001), and AST/ALP (r = 0.164, P = 0.008). Subsequently, higher levels of these ratios and absolute values of AST, ALT, and ALP were reported in deceased patients. Based on regression models adjusted with co-variable (age, gender, underlying disease, and history of smoking) AST/ALT and AST/ALP ratios had a significant independent association with 3-month mRS (CI:1.37-4.52, p = 0.003, and CI: 4.45-11,547.32, p = 0.007, respectively) and mortality (CI: 0.17-1.06, adjusted R2 = 0.21, p = 0.007, and CI: 0.10-2.91, p = 0.035, adjusted R2 = 0.20, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated AST/ALP and AAR ratios at admission were correlated with poorer outcomes at 3 months in patients with first-ever AIS. Prospective studies in larger cohorts are required to confirm our findings and to evaluate further whether the AST/ALP and De Ritis ratios may represent a useful tool for determining the prognosis of AIS patients.


Subject(s)
Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , Female , Male , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Alkaline Phosphatase , Alanine Transaminase , Prospective Studies , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Stroke/diagnosis
18.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 32(3): 106987, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2181009

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies from early in the COVID-19 pandemic showed that patients with ischemic stroke and concurrent SARS-CoV-2 infection had increased stroke severity. We aimed to test the hypothesis that this association persisted throughout the first year of the pandemic and that a similar increase in stroke severity was present in patients with hemorrhagic stroke. METHODS: Using the National Institute of Health National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) database, we identified a cohort of patients with stroke hospitalized in the United States between March 1, 2020 and February 28, 2021. We propensity score matched patients with concurrent stroke and SARS-COV-2 infection and available NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores to all other patients with stroke in a 1:3 ratio. Nearest neighbor matching with a caliper of 0.25 was used for most factors and exact matching was used for race/ethnicity and site. We modeled stroke severity as measured by admission NIHSS and the outcomes of death and length of stay. We also explored the temporal relationship between time of SARS-COV-2 diagnosis and incidence of stroke. RESULTS: Our query identified 43,295 patients hospitalized with ischemic stroke (5765 with SARS-COV-2, 37,530 without) and 18,107 patients hospitalized with hemorrhagic stroke (2114 with SARS-COV-2, 15,993 without). Analysis of our propensity matched cohort revealed that stroke patients with concurrent SARS-COV-2 had increased NIHSS (Ischemic stroke: IRR=1.43, 95% CI:1.33-1.52, p<0.001; hemorrhagic stroke: IRR=1.20, 95% CI:1.08-1.33, p<0.001), length of stay (Ischemic stroke: estimate = 1.48, 95% CI: 1.37, 1.61, p<0.001; hemorrhagic stroke: estimate = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.47, p=0.007) and higher odds of death (Ischemic stroke: OR 2.19, 95% CI: 1.79-2.68, p<0.001; hemorrhagic stroke: OR 2.19, 95% CI: 1.79-2.68, p<0.001). We observed the highest incidence of stroke diagnosis on the same day as SARS-COV-2 diagnosis with a logarithmic decline in counts. CONCLUSION: This retrospective observational analysis suggests that stroke severity in patients with concurrent SARS-COV-2 was increased throughout the first year of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemorrhagic Stroke , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Hemorrhagic Stroke/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Stroke/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Stroke/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy , Stroke/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
20.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 122(11. Vyp. 2): 34-37, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145658

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with ischemic stroke associated with COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all cases of COVID-19, including those complicated with ischemic stroke, admitted to the multispecialty infectious hospital in Ufa (Russia) in 2020, was performed. Multivariate analysis was used to identify the independent predictors of the development of ischemic stroke in patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: Eleven thousand forty hundred and thirty-two patients were admitted to the multidisciplinary infectious hospital during 2020, 1226 of them also suffered from ischemic stroke. Independent predictors of ischemic stroke in COVID-19 included age and laboratory parameters: increase in number of leucocytes, erythrocytes and platelets, increase of the level of creatinine, glucose, total bilirubin and decrease of the level of total protein, and activated partial thromboplastin time. CONCLUSION: Elderly people, patients with prominent systemic inflammatory response, which presented with leukocytosis, hypercoagulation, multiorgan failure of different severity and hypoproteinemia, were at higher risk of the development of ischemic stroke in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , Aged , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization
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