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1.
Can J Neurol Sci ; 50(3): 462-463, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20241298
2.
Clin Neuroradiol ; 33(2): 499-507, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240288

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare clinical, neuroimaging, and laboratory features of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) in COVID-19 patients with and without ischemic stroke complications. METHODS: This observational study was conducted between August and December 2021 and 48 patients who had confirmed ROCM due to COVID-19, according to neuroimaging and histopathology/mycology evidence were included. Brain, orbit and paranasal sinus imaging was performed in all included patients. Data pertaining to clinical, neuroimaging, and laboratory characteristics and risk factors were collected and compared between patients with and without ischemic stroke complications. RESULTS: Of the patients 17 were diagnosed with ischemic stroke. Watershed infarction was the most common pattern (N = 13, 76.4%). Prevalence of conventional risk factors of stroke showed no significant differences between groups (patients with stroke vs. without stroke). Cavernous sinus (p = 0.001, odds ratio, OR = 12.8, 95% confidence interval, CI: 2.3-72) and ICA (p < 0.001, OR = 16.31, 95%CI: 2.91-91.14) involvement was more common in patients with stroke. Internal carotid artery (ICA) size (on the affected side) in patients with ischemic stroke was significantly smaller than in patients without stroke (median = 2.4 mm, interquartile range, IQR: 1.3-4 vs. 3.8 mm, IQR: 3.2-4.3, p = 0.004). Superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) size (on the affected side) in patients with stroke was significantly larger than patients without stroke (2.2 mm, IQR: 1.5-2.5 vs. 1.45 mm IQR: 1.1-1.8, p = 0.019). Involvement of the ethmoid and frontal sinuses were higher in patients with stroke (p = 0.007, OR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.37-2.49 and p = 0.011, OR = 5, 95% CI: 1.4-18.2, respectively). Patients with stroke had higher D­dimer levels, WBC counts, neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios, and BUN/Cr ratio (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Stroke-related ROCM was not associated with conventional ischemic stroke risk factors. Neuroimaging investigations including qualitative and quantitative parameters of cavernous sinus, ICA and SOV are useful to better understand the mechanism of stroke-related ROCM in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Mucormycosis , Orbital Diseases , Stroke , Humans , Mucormycosis/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Orbital Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/complications , Neuroimaging
3.
J Med Case Rep ; 17(1): 223, 2023 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234800

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-19 infection is associated with an increased risk of thrombotic events. We present a case of acute middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke in a patient with SARS-CoV-19 infection despite being on warfarin with supratherapeutic INR (International Normalized Ratio). CASE PRESENTATION: A 68-year-old Caucasian female with multiple comorbidities was admitted to the hospital with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection. A rapid antigen test confirmed the diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia, and intravenous remdesivir was initiated. On the fifth day of admission, the patient experienced sudden onset confusion, slurred speech, left-sided hemiplegia, right-sided eye deviation, and left-sided facial droop. Imaging studies revealed an occlusion of the distal anterior M2 segment of the right middle cerebral artery, and an MRI of the brain confirmed an acute right MCA infarction. Notably, the patient was receiving warfarin therapy with a supratherapeutic INR of 3.2. CONCLUSIONS: This case report highlights the potential for thromboembolic events, including stroke, in patients with COVID-19 infection, even when receiving therapeutic anticoagulation therapy. Healthcare providers should be vigilant for signs of thrombosis in COVID-19 patients, particularly those with pre-existing risk factors. Further research is necessary to understand the pathophysiology and optimal management of thrombotic complications in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , Female , Aged , Warfarin/therapeutic use , International Normalized Ratio/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/complications
5.
Neurol Sci ; 44(6): 1855-1860, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2276116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS: Several neurological manifestations, including stroke, have been reported in COVID-19 patients. The putative role of the COVID-19-related hyperinflammatory state in cerebrovascular disorders remains unclear. METHODS: From March 2020 to September 2021, we searched for patients who exhibited an ischemic stroke related to carotid free-floating thrombus (CFFT) to investigate its incidence and relationship with COVID-19. RESULTS: Of 853 ischemic strokes referred to our Stroke Centre during the study period, 5.7% (n = 49) were positive for SARS-CoV-2. Six had CFFT, of which two tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (2/49 = 4.1%), and four did not (4/802 = 0.5%). The former were two middle-aged men suffering from COVID-19 pneumonia. Floating thrombi were promptly extracted by endarterectomy and endovascular thrombectomy, respectively, with no early and long-term complications. Notably, our COVID-19 patients exhibited little or no atherosclerosis burden on CT angiography, markedly elevated D-dimer levels, and extensive thrombus length. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19-induced immunothrombosis possibly played a significant pathogenic role in CFFT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Thrombosis , Male , Middle Aged , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Thromboinflammation , Cytokine Release Syndrome/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging
6.
J Neurol ; 270(5): 2349-2359, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infection which can affect the central nervous system. In this study, we sought to investigate associations between neuroimaging findings with clinical, demographic, blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) parameters, pre-existing conditions and the severity of acute COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective multicenter data retrieval from 10 university medical centers in Germany, Switzerland and Austria between February 2020 and September 2021. We included patients with COVID-19, acute neurological symptoms and cranial imaging. We collected demographics, neurological symptoms, COVID-19 severity, results of cranial imaging, blood and CSF parameters during the hospital stay. RESULTS: 442 patients could be included. COVID-19 severity was mild in 124 (28.1%) patients (moderate n = 134/30.3%, severe n = 43/9.7%, critical n = 141/31.9%). 220 patients (49.8%) presented with respiratory symptoms, 167 (37.8%) presented with neurological symptoms first. Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) was detected in 70 (15.8%), intracranial hemorrhage (IH) in 48 (10.9%) patients. Typical risk factors were associated with AIS; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy and invasive ventilation with IH. No association was found between the severity of COVID-19 or blood/CSF parameters and the occurrence of AIS or IH. DISCUSSION: AIS was the most common finding on cranial imaging. IH was more prevalent than expected but a less common finding than AIS. Patients with IH had a distinct clinical profile compared to patients with AIS. There was no association between AIS or IH and the severity of COVID-19. A considerable proportion of patients presented with neurological symptoms first. Laboratory parameters have limited value as a screening tool.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Hemorrhages/epidemiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Neuroimaging , Risk Factors , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/complications , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/epidemiology
7.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 32(2): 106819, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Angio-invasive Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) producing strokes is a less explored entity. Our hospital, a stroke-ready one, had an opportunity to manage mucormycosis when it was identified as the nodal center for mucormycosis management. We are sharing our experiences and mistakes in managing the cerebrovascular manifestations of ROCM. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic from 1st May 2021 to 30th September 2021, where consecutive patients aged more than 18 years with microbiologically confirmed cases of ROCM were included. Clinical details (timing of stroke onset after ROCM symptoms, GCS, NIHSS), imaging findings (ASPECTS, the territory of stroke, the pattern of infarct, hemorrhagic transformation, cavernous sinus thrombosis), angiogram findings, management details (IV thrombolysis), and outcomes (mRS at discharge and duration of hospital stay) were documented. We also compared the demographics, clinical features (NIHSS), radiological findings, treatment details, duration of hospital stay, and functional outcome at the discharge of the ROCM stroke patients with stroke patients without ROCM. RESULTS: Stroke developed in 42% of patients with ROCM, predominantly anterior circulation border zone ischemic infarcts. Strokes occurred after a median of five days from the onset of ROCM symptoms. The most common vessel involved was the ophthalmic artery, followed by the cavernous ICA. We could not thrombolyse ROCM stroke patients. ROCM patients who developed stroke compared with patients without stroke had a more infiltrative fungal infection and higher inflammatory markers. Mucormycosis associated stroke patients had higher in-hospital mortality and poor functional outcomes. T CONCLUSION: Due to delayed recognition of stroke symptoms, none received reperfusion strategies, leading to poor functional outcomes. For early stroke detection, ROCM cases need frequent monitoring and education of patients and their relatives about the ALS acronym (loss of ambulation, limb weakness, and loss of speech).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormycosis , Pandemics , Stroke , Humans , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Learning Curve , Mucormycosis/diagnosis , Mucormycosis/epidemiology , Mucormycosis/therapy , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/epidemiology
8.
Am J Emerg Med ; 38(7): 1548.e5-1548.e7, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2220380

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To present guidance for clinicians caring for adult patients with acuteischemic stroke with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 infection. METHODS: The summary was prepared after review of systematic literature reviews,reference to previously published stroke guidelines, personal files, and expert opinionby members from 18 countries. RESULTS: The document includes practice implications for evaluation of stroke patientswith caution for stroke team members to avoid COVID-19 exposure, during clinicalevaluation and conduction of imaging and laboratory procedures with specialconsiderations of intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy in strokepatients with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: Conclusions-The summary is expected to guide clinicians caring for adult patientswith acute ischemic stroke who are suspected of, or confirmed, with COVID-19infection.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Infection Control , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Stroke/therapy , Betacoronavirus , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , Disease Management , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging
9.
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) ; 24(1): 72-74, 2023 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198255

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease increases risk of venous thromboembolisms (VTE), primarily deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Only a few cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) in association with a COVID-19 infection have been reported and are limited to acute COVID-19 disease. Hypercoagulable conditions persist in postacute COVID-19 disease, which carries an increased risk of VTE. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of CVST and stroke 56 days post-COVID-19 infection presenting with an atypical clinical picture. DISCUSSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is one of the first observations of CVST in the postacute phase of COVID-19 disease. Clinicians should be aware of this potential late complication and should consider appropriate diagnostic imaging techniques in patients with COVID-19-infection history.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial , Stroke , Venous Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/diagnostic imaging , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/drug therapy , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology
10.
Neurosciences (Riyadh) ; 28(1): 62-65, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204425

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported in the literature to be associated with a higher risk of stroke in young individuals with no previous risk factors. We present here one such case of a 15-year-old girl with posterior circulation ischemic stroke resulting in dense right hemiplegia and cerebellar incoordination. The patient tested positive for COVID-19 infection without displaying any symptoms of active COVID-19 infection at the time of the stroke. An MRI brain scan showed acute infarcts in the pons and left cerebellar hemisphere, and a CT angiogram of the cerebrovascular system showed occluded left vertebral and basilar arteries.The most salient feature of this case is COVID-19 infection manifesting clinically as cerebrovascular thrombosis in an otherwise healthy young girl with no pre-existing comorbidities and no laboratory findings of coagulopathy except for mildly elevated D-dimer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Stroke/complications , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Brain Stem
11.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 32(4): 107031, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2181010

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Cerebrovascular stroke (CVS) is one of the well-known complications of coronavirus-2019 (Covid-19), but less is known about the outcome and safety of thrombolytic therapy in these patients. In this study we compare the efficacy and safety of Tissue plasminogen activator (rTPA) in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients with or without Covid-19 infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comparative prospective study in which all patients who presented with AIS and eligible for rTPA were recruited from the emergency department and classified into 2 groups (AIS with Covid-19 infection and AIS without Covid-19 as controls). Demographic data, symptoms of Covid-19, clinical examination, neuroimaging, and laboratory investigations were obtained in each patient. National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and the Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were assessed before, immediately after rTPA, and 3 months later. RESULTS: There were 22 patients in the COVID-19 group and 25 control patients. Those with COVID-19 were more likely to have a history of smoking and Diabetes Mellitus than controls. On admission, motor symptoms were more severe in patients with COVID-19. COVID-19 patients were more likely to have symptomatic intra-cerebral hemorrhage and radiological hemorrhagic transformation than controls. Onset to door time (ODT) and onset to successful reperfusion time were significantly longer in Covid-19 patients than controls. Clinical improvement and frequency of re-occlusion and recurrent ischemic stroke at 3 months follow-up did not differ between groups, although there was higher number of deaths (27.3%) in the Covid-19 group than controls (16%). CONCLUSIONS: Using rTPA is safe and effective in patients with AIS with or without COVID-19 infection despite the high frequency of hemorrhagic transformation and high number of deaths.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/adverse effects , Fibrinolytic Agents/adverse effects , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/adverse effects , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Treatment Outcome , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy
12.
Neuroimaging Clin N Am ; 33(1): 57-68, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2131970

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted many lives globally. Neurologic manifestations have been observed among individuals at various stages and severity of the disease, the most common being stroke. Prompt identification of these neurologic diagnoses can affect patient management and prognosis. This article discusses the acute neuroradiological features typical of COVID-19, including cerebrovascular disease, intracerebral hemorrhage, leukoencephalopathy, and sensory neuropathies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Humans , COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Stroke/complications , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Prognosis
13.
J Neurol Sci ; 444: 120515, 2023 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2131619

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Thrombotic complications including stroke were previously described following Covid-19. We aim to describe the clinical and radiological characteristics of Covid-19 related with acutely symptomatic carotid stenosis (aSCS). METHOD: All patients presenting with an aSCS were prospectively enrolled in an ongoing institutional database. Inclusion criteria for the Covid-19-aSCS group were a combination of both antigen test and a positive reverse-transcriptase (PCR) test for Covid-19 upon admission. Patients with additional potential etiologies for stroke including cardioembolism, carotid dissection or patients with stenosis of <50% on CTA were excluded. A cohort of non-Covid-19 related aSCS patients admitted to the same institution before the pandemic during 2019 served as controls. RESULTS: Compared to controls (n = 31), Covid-19-aSCS (n = 8), were younger (64.2 ± 10.7 vs 73.5 ± 10, p = 0.027), and less frequently had hypertension (50% vs 90%, p = 0.008) or hyperlipidemia (38% vs 77%, p = 0.029) before admission. Covid-19-aSCS patients had a higher admission NIHSS score (mean 9 ± 7 vs 3 ± 4, p = 0.004) and tended to present more often with stroke (88% vs 55%, p = 0.09) rather than a TIA. Covid-19-aSCS patients had higher rates of free-floating thrombus and clot burden on CTA (88% vs 6.5%, p = 0.002). Covid-19 patients also less often achieved excellent outcomes, with lower percentage of mRS score of 0 after 90-days (13% vs 58%, p = 0.022). CONCLUSION: Covid-19- aSCS may occur in a younger and healthier subpopulation. Covid-19- aSCS patients may have higher tendencies for developing complex clots and less often achieve excellent outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carotid Stenosis , Endarterectomy, Carotid , Stroke , Thrombosis , Humans , Carotid Stenosis/complications , Carotid Stenosis/diagnostic imaging , Risk Factors , COVID-19/complications , Stroke/complications , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/complications , Treatment Outcome , Endarterectomy, Carotid/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Stents/adverse effects
14.
Psychiatr Danub ; 34(Suppl 8): 256-261, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2045549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Up to 45% of ischemic strokes are cryptogenic, which is an impediment to proposing preventative measures. In this investigation we aimed to study underlying heart arrhythmias in patients with cryptogenic stroke, taking into consideration the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and stressful lockdown conditions. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study we observed 52 patients with cryptogenic stroke >1 month after acute presentation, and a control group consisting of 88 patients without stroke. All patients undewent the laboratory and instrumental investigation consisting of the following: lipid spectrum; hemostasiograms; hemoglobin A1c; transthoracic or/and transesophageal echocardiography; 24-hours monitoring of ECG; computer tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. We studied the hemodynamics of the common carotid arteries using Doppler ultrasound imaging and digital sphygmography (SG). RESULTS: The groups were indentical with respect to the preponderance of study parameters (sex, age, comorbidities, instrumental and laboratory data). The ischemic stroke group had a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of the first type of extrasystolic arrhythmia according to our gradation of extrasystoles, which are ventricular systoles of extrasystolic contraction appearing before the transmitral blood flow peak (peak E in echocardiography). We observed that earlier ventricular systoles of extrasystole in the cardiac cycle predicted for greater growth of hemodynamic and kinetic parameters. Calculating the indices of a four-field table established the significant relationship between the moment of appearance of extrasystolic ventricular contraction in the cardiac cycle and the risk for cryptogenic stroke (normalized value of the Pearson coefficient (C`) of the two paramaters was 0.318). CONCLUSIONS: Extrasystolic arrhythmia appeared as an additional risk factor of earlier stroke. The most dangerous type of arrhythmia was when the ventricular contraction of the extrasystole appeared before the transmitral blood flow peak in the cardiac cycle. This observation could present a risk-marker for brain-related cardiovascular complications such as stroke, which might be patients suffering from different internal diseases, especially in the context of environmental stress conditions of the current pandemic and its related lockdown measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiac Complexes, Premature/complications , Cardiac Complexes, Premature/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Glycated Hemoglobin , Hemodynamics , Humans , Lipids , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/epidemiology
16.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(16): 5946-5955, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026356

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate acute cerebrovascular diseases (stroke and intracranial hemorrhage) by cranial radiologic examinations of patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and with neurological signs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between March 2020 and May 2021, patients who were admitted to the Emergency Department and had a positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test and underwent Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) and/or Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI), and/or diffusion MRI due to neurological findings were included in the study. RESULTS: The study reviewed a total of 925 patients, including 404 (43.67%) female and 521 (56.32%) male patients. The distribution of imaging methods was as follows: 805 (71%) patients had cranial MDCT, 71 (6.35%) patients had MRI, and 241 (21.57%) patients had diffusion MRI. Of the total 925 patients, 128 (13.8%) patients were detected with cerebrovascular diseases, 92 (9.9%) patients were detected with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, 37 (4%) patients were detected with intraparenchymal hemorrhage, 10 (1.1%) patients were detected with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and four (0.43%) patients were detected with subdural hemorrhage. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of subdural, subarachnoid, parenchymal hemorrhage, and stroke in terms of gender. While there was a significant difference in stroke according to age, there was no statistically significant difference in subdural, subarachnoid, and parenchymal hemorrhagic. Three (0.32%) patients were diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)'s-like demyelinating lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Cerebrovascular diseases, which may cause severe disability and even threaten the patient's life, should be kept in mind, especially in COVID-19 patients who present with neurological symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Stroke , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Radiography , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/epidemiology
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1036, 2022 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002173

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke requires early medical imaging with a computed tomography (CT) scan and immediate thrombolysis treatment. In rural areas, the long distance to the nearest hospital reduce the patients' probability of receiving medical assistance within the 4.5-h period. The aim of this study was to assess how the service was set-up, and how managers and personnel experience the organisation and value of a rural telemedicine, remote controlled CT stroke service. METHODS: Ten semi-structured individual interviews and one semi-structured focus group interview were conducted. The sample included 15 participants involved in the telemedicine service in Hallingdal, Norway. The interview guide consisted of questions on the service, experience of working with the service, value and quality, management, and challenges. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic content analysis was used to develop a narrative of the findings. RESULTS: Findings were categorised into three main categories; value of the service, organisation of the project, and from project to permanent service. Participants perceived the service to be valuable for patients and the local community. The service included task shifting from radiographers and junior doctors to the local paramedics. To enable long- term operation of the service the participants suggested management, coordination, and continuous training as important factors. CONCLUSIONS: The service was perceived as valuable to the local community, providing a sense of healthcare security and equitability. Management's involvement, flexibility, and coordination appears to be a key factor for successful implementation and long-term sustainability of the service.


Subject(s)
Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Telemedicine , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Qualitative Research , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/therapy
19.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 40: 40-43, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966537

ABSTRACT

Pediatric stroke is considered an infrequent complication of COVID-19. Focal cerebral arteriopathy (FCA) is one of the most common causes of arterial ischemic stroke in a previously healthy child. The present report describes a toddler with FCA most likely induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection who showed significant clinical improvement that may be related to injection of intra-arterial nimodipine. To our knowledge, this is the first reported use of nimodipine in this setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebral Arterial Diseases , Stroke , COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Arterial Diseases/complications , Cerebral Arterial Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Arterial Diseases/drug therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Nimodipine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/etiology
20.
Rev Neurol ; 75(4): 97-100, 2022 08 16.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1965112

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Infection by coronavirus type 2, which is the cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2), gives rise to thromboembolic complications, including acute cerebrovascular disease. Due to the hypercoagulable state that accompanies pregnancy, the thrombotic risk in these patients may be particularly significant. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 41-year-old woman, 34+1 weeks pregnant, diagnosed with bilateral interstitial pneumonia, caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The patient presented with severe respiratory failure, and so the decision was made to perform an emergency caesarean section and she was transferred to the intensive care unit. During her stay in hospital, the patient suffered a sudden episode of decreased level of consciousness, and magnetic resonance angiography revealed thrombosis in the left vertebral artery and in the basilar artery, with the presence of acute ischaemic infarction in both cerebellar hemispheres and bilateral involvement of the brainstem. CONCLUSION: Severe SARS-CoV-2 disease results in a prothrombotic state that correlates with the prognosis of the disease. The last trimester of pregnancy and the puerperium are known prothrombotic risk factors. Recommendations for anticoagulation management in pregnant patients with COVID-19 are based on limited evidence. This is the first case to be published in Spain involving cerebral arterial thrombosis in a pregnant patient with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


TITLE: Ictus isquémico por oclusión de la arteria basilar en una paciente puérpera con infección por SARS-CoV-2.Introducción. La infección por coronavirus de tipo 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causante del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (COVID-19), produce complicaciones tromboembólicas, incluyendo casos de enfermedad cerebrovascular aguda. Debido al estado de hipercoagulabilidad que acompaña al embarazo, el riesgo trombótico en estas pacientes puede ser especialmente relevante. Caso clínico. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 41 años, gestante de 34 + 1 semanas, diagnosticada de neumonía intersticial bilateral, SARS-CoV-2. La paciente presentó insuficiencia respiratoria grave, por lo que se decidió la realización de una cesárea urgente y se trasladó a la unidad de cuidados intensivos. Durante su estancia en ésta, la paciente presentó un episodio brusco de disminución del nivel de consciencia, y se evidenció por angiorresonancia magnética una trombosis en la arteria vertebral izquierda y en la arteria basilar, con presencia de infarto isquémico agudo en ambos hemisferios cerebelosos y afectación bilateral del tronco del encéfalo. Conclusión. La enfermedad grave por el SARS-CoV-2 produce un estado protrombótico que se correlaciona con el pronóstico de la enfermedad. El último trimestre del embarazo y el puerperio son factores de riesgo protrombóticos conocidos. Las recomendaciones del manejo de anticoagulación en pacientes embarazadas con COVID-19 se basan en una evidencia limitada. Éste es el primer caso publicado en España de trombosis arterial cerebral en una paciente embarazada con infección por el SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Thrombosis , Adult , Basilar Artery/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Cesarean Section , Female , Humans , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology
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