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1.
Neurologist ; 26(6): 276-280, 2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501230

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Protein S deficiency and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are rare etiologies of ischemic stroke. We describe a case of an ischemic stroke revealing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in a patient with a history of protein S deficiency and cerebral imaging suggestive of vasculitis. CASE REPORT: A 52-year-old woman, with history of protein S deficiency, was admitted for right hemiparesis and aphasia that happened 6 hours before her consultation. Her National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was 11. She had hypoxia (SpO2 93%). COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction was positive. Cerebral computed tomography scan showed an ischemic stroke in the territory of the superficial left middle cerebral artery. The recommended time period for thrombolysis was exceeded and we did not dispose of sufficient resources to deliver thrombectomy. She was treated with aspirin, statins, antibiotic therapy, and oxygen. Considering the high risk of thromboembolic complications and the history of protein S deficiency, anticoagulation treatment with heparin followed by acenocoumarol was started. Evolution was marked by the appearance of 24 hours regressive, acute symptoms of confusion. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed new ischemic strokes in both anterior cerebral arteries and on magnetic resonance angiography narrowing of the left internal carotid artery and both anterior cerebral arteries suggestive of vasculitis was seen. We maintained anticoagulation and prescribed methylprednisolone 500 mg daily for 3 days. Evolution was marked by improvement of clinical deficit and respiratory status. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection potentializes the prothrombotic effect and vascular inflammation by accentuating protein S deficit. The place of steroids seems justifiable in the presence of symptoms of vasculitis in brain imaging.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Protein S Deficiency , Stroke , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Stroke/diagnostic imaging
2.
Neurologist ; 26(6): 271-273, 2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501227

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Wake-up strokes are challenging to manage due to unknown time of onset. Recently, the wake-up trial demonstrated that recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) could be administered based on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)- diffusion weighted imaging/fluid attenuated inversion recovery mismatch. Many still doubt the safety results due to the higher rate of hemorrhagic conversion reported. Although it was statistically insignificant, the study was terminated early. Furthermore, Corona virus disease-19 is associated with coagulopathy and a higher risk of hemorrhagic conversion. CASE REPORT: A 46-year-old fully functioning male presented with a wake-up right hemiparesis, right facial droop, and expressive aphasia. His National Institute of Health Stroke Scale was 4 upon arrival. Last known well state was >4.5 hours. He tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 viral infection. He had left distal-M2 occlusion. He was deemed not a candidate for rtPA. Hyperacute-MRI protocol showed diffusion weighted imaging/fluid attenuated inversion recovery mismatch. The patient received rtPA at 6.5 hours from the last knwn well state. Follow-up MRI-susceptibility weighted imaging revealed fragmented clot. The stroke burden was less than that shown on the initial computed tomography-perfusion scans implying saved penumbra. There was no hemorrhagic conversion despite low fibrinogen levels. CONCLUSION: The hyperacute-MRI protocol for wake-up COVID-19 associated strokes might be a safe option.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use
4.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 42(5): 808-814, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376688

ABSTRACT

Robotic interventional neuroradiology is an emerging field with the potential to enhance patient safety, reduce occupational hazards, and expand systems of care. Endovascular robots allow the operator to precisely control guidewires and catheters from a lead-shielded cockpit located several feet (or potentially hundreds of miles) from the patient. This has opened up the possibility of expanding telestroke networks to patients without access to life-saving procedures such as stroke thrombectomy and cerebral aneurysm occlusion by highly-experienced physicians. The prototype machines, first developed in the early 2000s, have evolved into machines capable of a broad range of techniques, while incorporating newly automated maneuvers and safety algorithms. In recent years, preliminary clinical research has been published demonstrating the safety and feasibility of the technology in cerebral angiography and intracranial intervention. The next step is to conduct larger, multisite, prospective studies to assess generalizability and, ultimately, improve patient outcomes in neurovascular disease.


Subject(s)
Nervous System Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Interventional/methods , Robotics/methods , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/surgery , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/surgery , Telemedicine , Thrombectomy
5.
J Headache Pain ; 22(1): 93, 2021 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357018

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We report the first case of a patient who suffered transient focal neurological deficit mimicking stroke following CoronaVac vaccination. However, instead of an ischemic stroke, motor aura was suspected. CASE PRESENTATIONS: A 24 year-old Thai female presented with left hemiparesis fifteen minutes after receiving CoronaVac. She also had numbness of her left arm and legs, flashing lights, and headaches. On physical examination, her BMI was 32.8. Her vital signs were normal. She had moderate left hemiparesis (MRC grade III), numbness on her left face, arms, and legs. Her weakness continued for 5 days. A brain CT scan was done showing no evidence of acute infarction. Acute treatment with aspirin was given. MRI in conjunction with MRA was performed in which no restricted diffusion was seen. A SPECT was performed to evaluate the function of the brain showing significant hypoperfusion of the right hemisphere. The patient gradually improved and was discharged. DISCUSSIONS: In this study, we present the first case of stroke mimic after CoronaVac vaccination. After negative imaging studies had been performed repeatedly, we reach a conclusion that stroke is unlikely to be the cause. Presumably, this phenomenon could possibly have abnormal functional imaging study. Therefore, we believed that it might be due to cortical spreading depression, like migraine aura, which we had conducted a literature review.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Ischemic Stroke , Migraine with Aura , Stroke , Adult , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Vaccination , Young Adult
6.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256116, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354767

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has delayed the management of other serious medical conditions. This study presents an efficient method to prevent the degradation of the quality of diagnosis and treatment of other critical diseases during the pandemic. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study. The primary outcome was ED length of stay (ED LOS). The secondary outcomes were the door-to-balloon time in patients with suspected ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and door-to-brain computed tomography time for patients with suspected stroke. The outcome measures were compared between patients who were treated in the red and orange zones designated as the changeable isolation unit and those who were treated in the non-isolation care unit. To control confounding factors, we performed propensity score matching, following which, outcomes were analyzed for non-inferiority. RESULTS: The mean ED LOS for hospitalized patients in the isolation and non-isolation care units were 406.5 min (standard deviation [SD], 237.9) and 360.2 min (SD, 226.4), respectively. The mean difference between the groups indicated non-inferiority of the isolation care unit (p = 0.037) but not in the patients discharged from the ED (p>0.999). The mean difference in the ED LOS for patients admitted to the ICU between the isolation and non-isolation care units was -22.0 min (p = 0.009). The mean difference in the door-to-brain computed tomography time between patients with suspected stroke in the isolation and non-isolation care units was 7.4 min for those with confirmed stroke (p = 0.013), and -20.1 min for those who were discharged (p = 0.012). The mean difference in the door-to-balloon time between patients who underwent coronary angiography in the isolation and non-isolation care units was -2.1 min (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Appropriate and efficient handling of a properly planned ED plays a key role in improving the quality of medical care for other critical diseases during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Length of Stay , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/therapy
8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(5)2021 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219151

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a 57-year-old man who presented overnight to a district general hospital as a primary percutaneous coronary intervention alert for an inferior ST elevation myocardial infarction. On presentation to cardiac catheterisation lab, he had ongoing chest pain but began to complain of left-sided limb weakness and pain in his right leg. He was found to have dense hemiparesis on examination with an National Institute of Health Stroke Scale of 8 and an absent right femoral pulse. During the procedure, his common iliac arteries were imaged showing a complete occlusion of his right common iliac. After stenting the culprit lesion in his right coronary artery, he was transferred to a different hospital within the trust where he could receive thrombolysis for his stroke. Unfortunately, after thrombolysis, he went on to develop haemorrhagic transformation of his stroke and an upper gastrointestinal bleed with prolonged recovery of his neurological symptoms after a 27-day hospital stay; but CT arterial imaging showed resolution of right common iliac occlusion predischarge. Here, we discuss the best possible approach to management with simultaneous thrombotic events.


Subject(s)
Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Stroke , Coronary Vessels , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology
9.
Epilepsy Res ; 174: 106650, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Post COVID-19 seizures are relatively rare. The aim of the present study was to estimate the frequency of acute symptomatic seizures among patients with COVID-19 and to discuss possible pathophysiological mechanisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Out of 439 cases with COVID-19 that were admitted to Assiut and Aswan University hospitals during the period from 1 June to 10 August 2020, 19 patients (4.3 %) presented with acute symptomatic seizures. Each patient underwent computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and conventional electroencephalography (EEG). Laboratory investigations included: blood gases, complete blood picture, serum D-Dimer, Ferritin, C-reactive protein, renal and liver functions, and coagulation profile. RESULTS: Of the 19 patients, 3 had new onset seizures without underlying pathology (0.68 % out of the total 439 patients); 2 others (0.46 %) had previously diagnosed controlled epilepsy with breakthrough seizures. The majority of cases (14 patients, 3.19 %) had primary pathology that could explain the occurrence of seizures: 5 suffered a post COVID-19 stroke (3 ischemic and 2 hemorrhagic stroke); 6 patients had COVID-related encephalitis; 2 patients were old ischemic stroke patients; 1 patient had a brain tumor and developed seizures post COVID-19. CONCLUSION: acute symptomatic seizure is not a rare complication of post COVID-19 infection. Both new onset seizures and seizures secondary to primary brain insult (post COVID encephalitis or recent stroke) were observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Encephalitis, Viral/epidemiology , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Seizures/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Egypt/epidemiology , Electroencephalography , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/physiopathology , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(6): 105731, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142090

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated the potential usefulness of delayed-phase, low-dose, non-gated, chest spectral CT scans (DSCT) for the early triage of cardioembolic (CE) sources in patients admitted with acute ischemic stroke (AIS), and for the simultaneous detection of myocardial disease and thrombotic complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Since July 2020 and promoted by the COVID-19 pandemic, we implemented the use of DSCT after cerebrovascular CT angiography (CTA) among patients with AIS using a dual-layer spectral CT. We explored the presence of CE sources, as well as late myocardium iodine enhancement (LIE) and pulmonary thromboembolism. Among patients further undergoing transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) or cardiac CTA, we explored the diagnostic performance. RESULTS: Fifty consecutive patients with AIS who underwent DSCT after cerebrovascular CTA comprised the patient population. The confidence degree for excluding cardiac thrombi was significantly higher than for LIE (4.4±0.8 vs. 3.4±1.3, p<0.0001). DSCT identified a CE source in 4 (8%) and LIE in 24 (48%) patients. The iodine ratio of CE sources was significantly lower compared to the left atrial appendage of patients with no CE sources (0.25±0.1 mg/mL vs. 0.91±0.2 mg/mL, p<0.0001). TEE/cardiac CT, performed in 20 (40%) patients, identified a CE source in 5 (25%) cases, whereas DSCT identified 4 (20%), leading to a sensitivity and specificity of 80% (95% CI 28-99%) and 100% (95% CI 78-100%) respectively (kappa 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, we identified DSCT as a potential unsophisticated approach for the early triage of CE sources among patients with AIS undergoing CTA upon admission.


Subject(s)
Embolism/diagnostic imaging , Heart Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Triage/methods , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Embolism/therapy , Female , Heart Diseases/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Admission , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thorax
14.
Biomech Model Mechanobiol ; 20(3): 1087-1100, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1107829

ABSTRACT

It is essential to study the viral droplet's uptake in the human respiratory system to better control, prevent, and treat diseases. Micro-droplets can easily pass through ordinary respiratory masks. Therefore, the SARS-COV-2 transmit easily in conversation with a regular mask with 'silent spreaders' in the most physiological way of breathing through the nose, indoor and at rest condition. The results showed that the amount of deposited micro-droplets in the olfactory epithelium area is low. Also, due to receptors and long droplet residence time in this region, the possibility of absorption increases in the cribriform plate. This phenomenon eventually could lead to brain lesion damage and, in some cases, leads to stroke. In all inlet flow rates lower than 30 L/min inlet boundary conditions, the average percentage of viral contamination for upper respiratory tract is always less than 50% and more than 50% for the lungs. At 6L/min and 15L/min flow rates, the average percentage of lung contamination increases to more than 87%, which due to the presence of the Coronavirus receptor in the lungs, the involvement of the lungs increases significantly. This study's other achievements include the inverse relationship between droplets deposition efficiency in some parts of the upper airway, which have the most deformation in the tract. Also, the increased deformities per minute applied to the trachea and nasal cavity, which is 1.5 times more than usual, could lead to chest and head bothers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Models, Biological , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Air Microbiology , Algorithms , Biomechanical Phenomena , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Computer Simulation , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydrodynamics , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Inhalation , Male , Models, Anatomic , Nose/virology , Pandemics , Particle Size , Respiratory Rate , Respiratory System/anatomy & histology , Respiratory System/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099753

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is well known for its respiratory symptoms, but severe presentations can alter haemostasis, causing acute end-organ damage with poor outcomes. Among its various neurological presentations, cerebrovascular events often present as small-vessel strokes. Although uncommon, in predisposed individuals, large-vessel occlusions (LVOs) can occur as a possible consequence of direct viral action (viral burden or antigenic structure) or virus-induced cytokine storm. Subtle presentations and complicated stroke care pathways continue to exist, delaying timely care. We present a unique case of COVID-19 LVO manifesting as an acute confusional state in an elderly man in April 2020. CT angiography revealed 'de novo' occlusions of the left internal carotid artery and proximal right vertebral artery, effectively blocking anterior and posterior circulations. Delirium can lead to inaccurate stroke scale assessments and prolong initiation of COVID-19 stroke care pathways. Future studies are needed to look into the temporal relationship between confusion and neurological manifestations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Delirium/virology , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Carotid Artery, Internal/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery, Internal/pathology , Computed Tomography Angiography , Delirium/diagnostic imaging , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Stroke/virology , Vertebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Vertebral Artery/pathology
16.
Stroke ; 52(4): 1527-1531, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085244

ABSTRACT

Informed consent is a key concept to ensure patient autonomy in clinical trials and routine care. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has complicated informed consent processes, due to physical distancing precautions and increased physician workload. As such, obtaining timely and adequate patient consent has become a bottleneck for many clinical trials. However, this challenging situation might also present an opportunity to rethink and reappraise our approach to consent in clinical trials. This viewpoint discusses the challenges related to informed consent during the COVID-19 pandemic, whether it could be acceptable to alter current consent processes under these circumstances, and outlines a possible framework with predefined criteria and a system of checks and balances that could allow for alterations of existing consent processes to maximize patient benefit under exceptional circumstances such as the COVID-19 pandemic without undermining patient autonomy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Informed Consent/standards , Pandemics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/standards , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/therapy , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Stroke/epidemiology , Time Factors
17.
Neurosci Lett ; 743: 135564, 2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084434

ABSTRACT

Acute cerebrovascular disease, particularly ischemic stroke, has emerged as a serious complication of infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent of the Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Accumulating data on patients with COVID-19-associated stroke have shed light on specificities concerning clinical presentation, neuroimaging findings, and outcome. Such specificities include a propensity towards large vessel occlusion, multi-territory stroke, and involvement of otherwise uncommonly affected vessels. Conversely, small-vessel brain disease, cerebral venous thrombosis, and intracerebral hemorrhage appear to be less frequent. Atypical neurovascular presentations were also described, ranging from bilateral carotid artery dissection to posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), and vasculitis. Cases presenting with encephalopathy or encephalitis with seizures heralding stroke were particularly challenging. The pathogenesis and optimal management of ischemic stroke associated with COVID-19 still remain uncertain, but emerging evidence suggest that cytokine storm-triggered coagulopathy and endotheliopathy represent possible targetable mechanisms. Some specific management issues in this population include the difficulty in identifying clinical signs of stroke in critically ill patients in the intensive care unit, as well as the need for a protected pathway for brain imaging, intravenous thrombolysis, and mechanical thrombectomy, keeping in mind that "time is brain" also for COVID-19 patients. In this review, we discuss the novel developments and challenges for the diagnosis and treatment of stroke in patients with COVID-19, and delineate the principles for a rational approach toward precision medicine in this emerging field.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/pathology , Stroke/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Neuroradiology ; 63(9): 1419-1427, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060974

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The fear of COVID-19 infection may discourage patients from going to the hospital even in case of sudden onset of disabling symptoms. There is growing evidence of the reduction of stroke admissions and higher prevalence of severe clinical presentation. Yet, no studies have investigated the perfusion pattern of acute strokes admitted during the lockdown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on hyper-acute stroke CT perfusion (CTP) pattern during the first months of the pandemic in Italy. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, we analyzed CTP images and clinical data of ischemic stroke patients admitted between 9 March and 2 June 2020 that underwent CTP (n = 30), to compare ischemic volumes and clinical features with stroke patients admitted during the same period in 2019 (n = 51). In particular, CTP images were processed to calculate total hypoperfused volumes, core volumes, and mismatch. The final infarct volumes were calculated on follow-up CT. RESULTS: Significantly higher total CTP hypoperfused volume (83.3 vs 18.5 ml, p = 0.003), core volume (27.8 vs 1.0 ml, p < 0.001), and unfavorable mismatch (0.51 vs 0.91, p < 0.001) were found during the COVID-19 period compared to no-COVID-19 one. The more unfavorable perfusion pattern at admission resulted in higher infarct volume on follow-up CT during COVID-19 (35.5 vs 3.0 ml, p < 0.001). During lockdown, a reduction of stroke admissions (- 37%) and a higher prevalence of severe clinical presentation (NIHSS ≥ 10; 53% vs 36%, p = 0.029) were observed. CONCLUSION: The results of CTP analysis provided a better insight in the higher prevalence of major severity stroke patients during the COVID-19 period.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Communicable Disease Control , Fear , Humans , Pandemics , Perfusion , Perfusion Imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
19.
Int J Stroke ; 16(2): 137-149, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic, affecting millions of people. However, the relationship between COVID-19 and acute cerebrovascular diseases is unclear. AIMS: We aimed to characterize the incidence, risk factors, clinical-radiological manifestations, and outcome of COVID-19-associated stroke. METHODS: Three medical databases were systematically reviewed for published articles on acute cerebrovascular diseases in COVID-19 (December 2019-September 2020). The review protocol was previously registered (PROSPERO ID = CRD42020185476). Data were extracted from articles reporting ≥5 stroke cases in COVID-19. We complied with the PRISMA guidelines and used the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to assess data quality. Data were pooled using a random-effect model. SUMMARY OF REVIEW: Of 2277 initially identified articles, 61 (2.7%) were entered in the meta-analysis. Out of 108,571 patients with COVID-19, acute CVD occurred in 1.4% (95%CI: 1.0-1.9). The most common manifestation was acute ischemic stroke (87.4%); intracerebral hemorrhage was less common (11.6%). Patients with COVID-19 developing acute cerebrovascular diseases, compared to those who did not, were older (pooled median difference = 4.8 years; 95%CI: 1.7-22.4), more likely to have hypertension (OR = 7.35; 95%CI: 1.94-27.87), diabetes mellitus (OR = 5.56; 95%CI: 3.34-9.24), coronary artery disease (OR = 3.12; 95%CI: 1.61-6.02), and severe infection (OR = 5.10; 95%CI: 2.72-9.54). Compared to individuals who experienced a stroke without the infection, patients with COVID-19 and stroke were younger (pooled median difference = -6.0 years; 95%CI: -12.3 to -1.4), had higher NIHSS (pooled median difference = 5; 95%CI: 3-9), higher frequency of large vessel occlusion (OR = 2.73; 95%CI: 1.63-4.57), and higher in-hospital mortality rate (OR = 5.21; 95%CI: 3.43-7.90). CONCLUSIONS: Acute cerebrovascular diseases are not uncommon in patients with COVID-19, especially in those whom are severely infected and have pre-existing vascular risk factors. The pattern of large vessel occlusion and multi-territory infarcts suggests that cerebral thrombosis and/or thromboembolism could be possible causative pathways for the disease.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Observational Studies as Topic/methods , Risk Factors , Stroke/metabolism
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