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1.
Psychiatr Danub ; 34(Suppl 8): 256-261, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2045549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Up to 45% of ischemic strokes are cryptogenic, which is an impediment to proposing preventative measures. In this investigation we aimed to study underlying heart arrhythmias in patients with cryptogenic stroke, taking into consideration the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and stressful lockdown conditions. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study we observed 52 patients with cryptogenic stroke >1 month after acute presentation, and a control group consisting of 88 patients without stroke. All patients undewent the laboratory and instrumental investigation consisting of the following: lipid spectrum; hemostasiograms; hemoglobin A1c; transthoracic or/and transesophageal echocardiography; 24-hours monitoring of ECG; computer tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. We studied the hemodynamics of the common carotid arteries using Doppler ultrasound imaging and digital sphygmography (SG). RESULTS: The groups were indentical with respect to the preponderance of study parameters (sex, age, comorbidities, instrumental and laboratory data). The ischemic stroke group had a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of the first type of extrasystolic arrhythmia according to our gradation of extrasystoles, which are ventricular systoles of extrasystolic contraction appearing before the transmitral blood flow peak (peak E in echocardiography). We observed that earlier ventricular systoles of extrasystole in the cardiac cycle predicted for greater growth of hemodynamic and kinetic parameters. Calculating the indices of a four-field table established the significant relationship between the moment of appearance of extrasystolic ventricular contraction in the cardiac cycle and the risk for cryptogenic stroke (normalized value of the Pearson coefficient (C`) of the two paramaters was 0.318). CONCLUSIONS: Extrasystolic arrhythmia appeared as an additional risk factor of earlier stroke. The most dangerous type of arrhythmia was when the ventricular contraction of the extrasystole appeared before the transmitral blood flow peak in the cardiac cycle. This observation could present a risk-marker for brain-related cardiovascular complications such as stroke, which might be patients suffering from different internal diseases, especially in the context of environmental stress conditions of the current pandemic and its related lockdown measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiac Complexes, Premature/complications , Cardiac Complexes, Premature/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Hemodynamics , Humans , Lipids , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/epidemiology
3.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(16): 5946-5955, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026356

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate acute cerebrovascular diseases (stroke and intracranial hemorrhage) by cranial radiologic examinations of patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and with neurological signs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between March 2020 and May 2021, patients who were admitted to the Emergency Department and had a positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test and underwent Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) and/or Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI), and/or diffusion MRI due to neurological findings were included in the study. RESULTS: The study reviewed a total of 925 patients, including 404 (43.67%) female and 521 (56.32%) male patients. The distribution of imaging methods was as follows: 805 (71%) patients had cranial MDCT, 71 (6.35%) patients had MRI, and 241 (21.57%) patients had diffusion MRI. Of the total 925 patients, 128 (13.8%) patients were detected with cerebrovascular diseases, 92 (9.9%) patients were detected with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, 37 (4%) patients were detected with intraparenchymal hemorrhage, 10 (1.1%) patients were detected with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and four (0.43%) patients were detected with subdural hemorrhage. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of subdural, subarachnoid, parenchymal hemorrhage, and stroke in terms of gender. While there was a significant difference in stroke according to age, there was no statistically significant difference in subdural, subarachnoid, and parenchymal hemorrhagic. Three (0.32%) patients were diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)'s-like demyelinating lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Cerebrovascular diseases, which may cause severe disability and even threaten the patient's life, should be kept in mind, especially in COVID-19 patients who present with neurological symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Stroke , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Radiography , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/epidemiology
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 1036, 2022 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002173

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute ischemic stroke requires early medical imaging with a computed tomography (CT) scan and immediate thrombolysis treatment. In rural areas, the long distance to the nearest hospital reduce the patients' probability of receiving medical assistance within the 4.5-h period. The aim of this study was to assess how the service was set-up, and how managers and personnel experience the organisation and value of a rural telemedicine, remote controlled CT stroke service. METHODS: Ten semi-structured individual interviews and one semi-structured focus group interview were conducted. The sample included 15 participants involved in the telemedicine service in Hallingdal, Norway. The interview guide consisted of questions on the service, experience of working with the service, value and quality, management, and challenges. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic content analysis was used to develop a narrative of the findings. RESULTS: Findings were categorised into three main categories; value of the service, organisation of the project, and from project to permanent service. Participants perceived the service to be valuable for patients and the local community. The service included task shifting from radiographers and junior doctors to the local paramedics. To enable long- term operation of the service the participants suggested management, coordination, and continuous training as important factors. CONCLUSIONS: The service was perceived as valuable to the local community, providing a sense of healthcare security and equitability. Management's involvement, flexibility, and coordination appears to be a key factor for successful implementation and long-term sustainability of the service.


Subject(s)
Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Telemedicine , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Qualitative Research , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/therapy
6.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 40: 40-43, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966537

ABSTRACT

Pediatric stroke is considered an infrequent complication of COVID-19. Focal cerebral arteriopathy (FCA) is one of the most common causes of arterial ischemic stroke in a previously healthy child. The present report describes a toddler with FCA most likely induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection who showed significant clinical improvement that may be related to injection of intra-arterial nimodipine. To our knowledge, this is the first reported use of nimodipine in this setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebral Arterial Diseases , Stroke , COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Arterial Diseases/complications , Cerebral Arterial Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Arterial Diseases/drug therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Nimodipine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/etiology
7.
Rev Neurol ; 75(4): 97-100, 2022 08 16.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1965112

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Infection by coronavirus type 2, which is the cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2), gives rise to thromboembolic complications, including acute cerebrovascular disease. Due to the hypercoagulable state that accompanies pregnancy, the thrombotic risk in these patients may be particularly significant. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 41-year-old woman, 34+1 weeks pregnant, diagnosed with bilateral interstitial pneumonia, caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The patient presented with severe respiratory failure, and so the decision was made to perform an emergency caesarean section and she was transferred to the intensive care unit. During her stay in hospital, the patient suffered a sudden episode of decreased level of consciousness, and magnetic resonance angiography revealed thrombosis in the left vertebral artery and in the basilar artery, with the presence of acute ischaemic infarction in both cerebellar hemispheres and bilateral involvement of the brainstem. CONCLUSION: Severe SARS-CoV-2 disease results in a prothrombotic state that correlates with the prognosis of the disease. The last trimester of pregnancy and the puerperium are known prothrombotic risk factors. Recommendations for anticoagulation management in pregnant patients with COVID-19 are based on limited evidence. This is the first case to be published in Spain involving cerebral arterial thrombosis in a pregnant patient with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


TITLE: Ictus isquémico por oclusión de la arteria basilar en una paciente puérpera con infección por SARS-CoV-2.Introducción. La infección por coronavirus de tipo 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causante del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (COVID-19), produce complicaciones tromboembólicas, incluyendo casos de enfermedad cerebrovascular aguda. Debido al estado de hipercoagulabilidad que acompaña al embarazo, el riesgo trombótico en estas pacientes puede ser especialmente relevante. Caso clínico. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 41 años, gestante de 34 + 1 semanas, diagnosticada de neumonía intersticial bilateral, SARS-CoV-2. La paciente presentó insuficiencia respiratoria grave, por lo que se decidió la realización de una cesárea urgente y se trasladó a la unidad de cuidados intensivos. Durante su estancia en ésta, la paciente presentó un episodio brusco de disminución del nivel de consciencia, y se evidenció por angiorresonancia magnética una trombosis en la arteria vertebral izquierda y en la arteria basilar, con presencia de infarto isquémico agudo en ambos hemisferios cerebelosos y afectación bilateral del tronco del encéfalo. Conclusión. La enfermedad grave por el SARS-CoV-2 produce un estado protrombótico que se correlaciona con el pronóstico de la enfermedad. El último trimestre del embarazo y el puerperio son factores de riesgo protrombóticos conocidos. Las recomendaciones del manejo de anticoagulación en pacientes embarazadas con COVID-19 se basan en una evidencia limitada. Éste es el primer caso publicado en España de trombosis arterial cerebral en una paciente embarazada con infección por el SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Thrombosis , Adult , Basilar Artery/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Cesarean Section , Female , Humans , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology
8.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(8): 106522, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956243

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Transient ischemic attack (TIA) serves a precursor for an acute ischemic stroke (AIS); however, not all TIA patients harbor the same risk for subsequent AIS. We aimed to investigate expediting outpatient management of low-risk TIA patients (ABCD: Giles and Rothwell, 2007 score ≤ 3) via our "Fast-Track" TIA Protocol (FTTP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed on patients who presented to our academic network 04/2020 - 2/2021. Patients who presented with ABCD: Giles and Rothwell, 2007 scores ≤ 3 without large vessel occlusion or flow limiting stenosis were eligible for the FTTP. These patients were discharged on dual antiplatelet therapy and statin and received prescriptions for transthoracic echo, holter monitor, LDL, and A1c along with a scheduled follow-up appointment 30 days from presentation. RESULTS: 182 consecutive patients were evaluated during this period, 21 (11%) were excluded from analysis due to NIHSS > 0 and/or infarct present on MRI. 35 (22%) patients qualified for FTTP and were directly discharged from the ED. Median ABCD2 score was 2 for the discharge group and 4 for the admitted group. There was a significant difference with respect to age and hypertension. Additionally, the FTTP patient population were more likely to be smokers than the admitted patient population. 3 FTTP patients re-presented to the ED, but none of them suffered a symptomatic stroke. CONCLUSIONS: A FTTP demonstrated feasibility and safety with low rates of re-presentation and ischemic stroke. Further research is warranted to determine an optimal patient population that can be safely managed in an outpatient setting.


Subject(s)
Ischemic Attack, Transient , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Hospitalization , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/drug therapy
9.
Behav Neurol ; 2022: 7725597, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807706

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the latest technologies gives rise to the usage of noninvasive techniques for assisting health-care systems. Amongst the four major cardiovascular diseases, stroke is one of the most dangerous and life-threatening disease, but the life of a patient can be saved if the stroke is detected during early stage. The literature reveals that the patients always experience ministrokes which are also known as transient ischemic attacks (TIA) before experiencing the actual attack of the stroke. Most of the literature work is based on the MRI and CT scan images for classifying the cardiovascular diseases including a stroke which is an expensive approach for diagnosis of early strokes. In India where cases of strokes are rising, there is a need to explore noninvasive cheap methods for the diagnosis of early strokes. Hence, this problem has motivated us to conduct the study presented in this paper. A noninvasive approach for the early diagnosis of the strokes is proposed. The cascaded prediction algorithms are time-consuming in producing the results and cannot work on the raw data and without making use of the properties of EEG. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to devise mechanisms to forecast strokes on the basis of processed EEG data. This paper is proposing time series-based approaches such as LSTM, biLSTM, GRU, and FFNN that can handle time series-based predictions to make useful decisions. The experimental research outcome reveals that all the algorithms taken up for the research study perform well on the prediction problem of early stroke detection, but GRU performs the best with 95.6% accuracy, whereas biLSTM gives 91% accuracy and LSTM gives 87% accuracy and FFNN gives 83% accuracy. The experimental outcome is able to measure the brain waves to predict the signs of strokes. The findings can certainly assist the physicians to detect the stroke at early stages to save the lives of the patients.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Stroke , Algorithms , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/prevention & control
10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(7): 106512, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796417

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate how COVID-19 affects patients with acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was performed on adult patients (> 18 years old) with stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic) who were admitted to hospital with or without COVID-19. The primary outcome was stroke-related disability, which was measured by mRS at baseline and discharge. Hospital duration, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and mortality were considered the secondary outcomes. RESULTS: From February 2019 until August 2020, we recruited and analyzed 151 patients, 42 of whom had COVID-19 based on RT-PCR tests or lung CT scan findings. COVID-19 positive patients had higher baseline and final mRS scores than the control group (4.46 ± 0.67 vs 4.79 ± 0.61, P: 0.001, 3.83 ± 1.22 vs 4.46 ± 0.67, P: 0.001). Moreover, stroke patients with COVID-19 experienced a more severe disease and required a higher rate of ICU admission (17 vs 0, P:0.001) and longer hospitalization compared to those without COVID-19 (8.50 ± 7.86 vs 7.5 ± 11.20, P: 0.021). Also, mortality was higher in the COVID-19 group (19 vs 13, P:0.001). There was not any significant differences between the two groups in terms of the involvement of cerebral arteries and type of stroke. Male sex, COVID-19, and ICU admission were the main independent risk factors for death. CONCLUSION: The results of the study showed stroke patients (ischemic or hemorrhagic) with COVID-19 can have more disabilities and incur more hospital complications and mortality than non-COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemorrhagic Stroke , Stroke , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/therapy
11.
Neurol Neurochir Pol ; 56(2): 163-170, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753880

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to assess the clinical profiles and outcomes of patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection and acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) treated with mechanical thrombectomy (MT) at the Comprehensive Stroke Centre (CSC) of the University Hospital in Krakow. CLINICAL RATIONALE FOR THE STUDY: COVID-19 is a risk factor for AIS and worsens prognosis in patients with large artery occlusions. During the pandemic, the global number of MT has dropped. At the same time, studies assessing outcomes of this treatment in COVID-19-associated AIS have produced divergent results. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this single-centre study, we retrospectively analysed and compared the clinical profiles (age, sex, presence of cardiovascular risk factors, neurological deficit at admission), stroke size (measured using postprocessing analysis of perfusion CT with RAPID software), time from stroke onset to arrival at the CSC, time from arrival at the CSC to groin puncture, treatment with intravenous thrombolysis, length of hospitalisation, laboratory test results, and short-term outcomes (measured with Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction scale, modified Rankin Scale and National Health Institute Stroke Scale) in patients with AIS treated with MT during the pandemic. A comparison between patients with and without concomitant SARS-CoV2 infection was then performed. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between 15 COVID (+) and 167 COVID (-) AIS patients treated with AIS with respect to clinical profiles (p > 0.05), stroke size (p > 0.05) or outcomes (NIHSS at discharge, 8.1 (SD = 7.1) vs. 8.8 (SD = 9.6), p = 0.778, mRS at discharge 2.9 (SD = 2) vs. 3.1 (SD = 2.1), p = 0.817, death rate 6.7% vs. 12.6%, p = 0.699). There was a significant difference between patients with and without COVID-19 concerning time from arrival at the CSC to groin puncture [104.27 (SD = 51.47) vs. 97.63 (SD = 156.94) min., p = 0.044] and the length of hospitalisation [23.7 (SD = 11.9) vs. 10.5 (SD = 6.9) days, p < 0.001]. CONCLUSION: In AIS patients treated with MT, concomitant SARS-CoV2 infection did not affect the outcome. Our observations need to be confirmed in larger, and preferably multicentre, studies.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/surgery , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/surgery , RNA, Viral/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/surgery , Thrombectomy/methods , Treatment Outcome
12.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 14(9): 858-862, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745670

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on the frequency and outcome of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) for large vessel occlusion (LVO) in patients with COVID-19 is limited. Addressing this subject, we report our multicenter experience. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed of consecutive acute stroke patients with COVID-19 infection treated with MT at 26 tertiary care centers between January 2020 and November 2021. Baseline demographics, angiographic outcome and clinical outcome evaluated by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at discharge and 90 days were noted. RESULTS: We identified 111 out of 11 365 (1%) patients with acute or subsided COVID-19 infection who underwent MT due to LVO. Cardioembolic events were the most common etiology for LVO (38.7%). Median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score were 16 (IQR 11.5-20) and 9 (IQR 7-10), respectively. Successful reperfusion (mTICI ≥2b) was achieved in 97/111 (87.4%) patients and 46/111 (41.4%) patients were reperfused completely. The procedure-related complication rate was 12.6% (14/111). Functional independence was achieved in 20/108 (18.5%) patients at discharge and 14/66 (21.2%) at 90 days follow-up. The in-hospital mortality rate was 30.6% (33/108). In the subgroup analysis, patients with severe acute COVID-19 infection requiring intubation had a mortality rate twice as high as patients with mild or moderate acute COVID-19 infection. Acute respiratory failure requiring ventilation and time interval from symptom onset to groin puncture were independent predictors for an unfavorable outcome in a logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: Our study showed a poor clinical outcome and high mortality, especially in patients with severe acute COVID-19 infection undergoing MT due to LVO.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/surgery , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
13.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 80(5): 490-496, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707124

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A variety of neurological manifestations have been attributed to COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence of neurological symptoms and neuroimaging findings in patients hospitalized in two Brazilian reference centers. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients who had laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 presenting in two hospitals in Brazil between March 4 and July 7, 2020, who underwent brain imaging. RESULTS: We recorded 1,359 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Brain imaging was performed in 250 (18.4%) patients with neurological symptoms, and nine of them (3.6%) had acute or subacute ischemic stroke neuroimaging findings. Six of the nine patients initially presented with respiratory symptoms while the other three patients presented to the emergency room with acute stroke signs. CONCLUSIONS: We described the neuroimaging findings of patients infected with COVID-19 who presented with neurological symptoms in two major hospitals in Brazil. We reinforce the importance of being aware of cerebrovascular complications, both in severe hospitalized patients and in patients who present to the emergency room with acute neurological symptoms, even in the elderly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Neuroimaging/methods , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology
14.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 172(4): 402-406, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699129

ABSTRACT

We analyzed characteristics of diffusion and its kurtosis obtained using diffusion-kurtosis MRI in the hemisphere contralateral to the one affected by acute cerebrovascular accident. Diffusion characteristics in the white and gray matter were compared using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) in healthy subjects and stroke patients with consideration for the age and sex factors. Significant differences between the groups were revealed for apparent diffusion coefficient and mean kurtosis in the white matter. Age dependence was studied using regression analysis and, according to the results of ANCOVA, this factor was found to be significant for apparent diffusion coefficient and diffusion kurtosis in the white matter. Metrics are proposed that can be used to determine the risk of stroke.


Subject(s)
Stroke , White Matter , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Gray Matter/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , White Matter/diagnostic imaging
15.
J Headache Pain ; 23(1): 13, 2022 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643106

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After the initiation of the COVID-19 vaccination program in Thailand, thousands of patients have experienced unusual focal neurological symptoms. We report 8 patients with focal neurological symptoms after receiving inactivated virus vaccine, CoronaVac. CASE SERIES: Patients were aged 24-48 years and 75% were female. Acute onset of focal neurological symptoms occurred within the first 24 h after vaccination in 75% and between 1-7d in 25%. All presented with lateralized sensory deficits, motor deficits, or both, of 2-14 day duration. Migraine headache occurred in half of the patients. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain during and after the attacks did not demonstrate any abnormalities suggesting ischemic stroke. All patients showed moderately large regions of hypoperfusion and concurrent smaller regions of hyperperfusion on SPECT imaging while symptomatic. None developed permanent deficits or structural brain injury. DISCUSSIONS: Here, we present a case series of transient focal neurological syndrome following Coronavac vaccination. The characteristic sensory symptoms, history of migraine, female predominant, and abnormal functional brain imaging without structural changes suggest migraine aura as pathophysiology. We propose that pain related to vaccine injection, component of vaccine, such as aluminum, or inflammation related to vaccination might trigger migraine aura in susceptible patients.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Ischemic Stroke , Migraine Disorders , Migraine with Aura , Stroke , Adult , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/etiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Young Adult
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(44): e27542, 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570143

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: This is a case report describing delayed complications of COVID-19 pneumonia, which evolved into the vascular-ischemic complications leading to quadrantanopia and MRI findings consistent with recent ischemic event in the occipital pole of the brain. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of a 46-year-old woman with quadrantanopia due to stroke confirmed with brain MRI, secondary to COVID-19 infection with chronically elevated D-dimers and treated with anticoagulation/antithrombotic modalities. Quadrantanopia was the only symptom recognized by the patient of a stroke localized in the occipital pole of the brain. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with quadrantanopia due to stroke confirmed with brain MRI, secondary to COVID-19 infection. INTERVENTION: Patient underwent ophthalmological examination and MRI. OUTCOMES: A thrombotic or ischemic risks in the chronic recovery from COVID-19 should be considered in patients with elevated D-dimers. LESSONS: An MRI should be considered as a long term follow up for post-COVID-19 patients reporting ophthalmic or neurologic complains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemianopsia , Stroke , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hemianopsia/diagnosis , Hemianopsia/virology , Humans , Middle Aged , Occipital Lobe/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/virology
18.
Neurologist ; 27(4): 218-221, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546091

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with hypercoagulability which can predispose infected patients to both arterial and venous thromboembolic complications. Despite therapeutic anticoagulation, there remains a risk of ischemic strokes, which may lead to adverse patient outcomes. Only a few cases are described in the literature regarding SARS-CoV-2 positive patients developing thrombotic ischemic strokes despite therapeutic anticoagulation. CASE REPORT: The following is a case discussion regarding a 71-year-old female with past medical history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus type 2, hyperlipidemia, and hypothyroidism who was admitted with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection to the intensive care unit and later developed acute left upper extremity weakness on the 5th day of her admission. Initial National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) was 15. Subsequent brain imaging was significant for right middle cerebral artery ischemic stroke. The patient was therapeutically anticoagulated with 1.5 mg/kg subcutaneous dose of Enoxaparin since day 1 of her admission. D-dimer upon admission was 1.84 mg/L (<0.59) and fibrinogen 783.1 mg/dL (200 to 450). Other than past medical comorbidities, our patient had no other known stroke risk factors. Unfortunately, despite early transcatheter thrombectomy, the patient remained comatose and eventually expired after withdrawal of ventilatory support and compassionate extubation. CONCLUSION: Because of the severity of inflammation and coagulopathic sequelae of coronavirus disease 2019, anticoagulation failure may occur and lead to adverse patient outcomes. Our case report is one of the few discussions in the current literature regarding large vessel thromboembolic ischemic strokes despite therapeutic anticoagulation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Thromboembolism , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/complications , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery/drug therapy , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Middle Cerebral Artery , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/etiology , Thromboembolism/complications
19.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 31(2): 106233, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525872

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: There have been no reports suggesting a relationship between the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines that encodes the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 and cerebrovascular disease. A case of repeated cardioembolic stroke after vaccination with the BNT162b2 (Pfizer) COVID-19 mRNA vaccine is presented. METHODS: Imaging and laboratory findings, treatment decisions, and the outcome of this case are presented. RESULTS: An 83-year-old Japanese woman developed right hemiplegia and motor aphasia three days after receiving her first dose of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer) COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. She had been taking rivaroxaban for persistent atrial fibrillation for 10 years, but had no symptomatic ischemic strokes. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) was occluded. Intravenous recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator (rt-PA) therapy and mechanical thrombectomy were performed, and she recovered almost fully. However, three days after the second dose, she developed left hemiplegia and left hemispatial neglect. MRI showed occlusion of the right MCA. Only mechanical thrombectomy was performed again, but it could not be resumed due to the hard thrombus. DISCUSSION: In this case, it is difficult to exclude a causal relationship between the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine and ischemic stroke. This association needs to be carefully monitored.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Embolic Stroke/complications , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Embolic Stroke/etiology , Embolic Stroke/therapy , Female , Hemiplegia , Humans , Ischemic Stroke , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology , Thrombectomy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator , Vaccination/adverse effects
20.
Neurologist ; 26(6): 276-280, 2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501230

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Protein S deficiency and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are rare etiologies of ischemic stroke. We describe a case of an ischemic stroke revealing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in a patient with a history of protein S deficiency and cerebral imaging suggestive of vasculitis. CASE REPORT: A 52-year-old woman, with history of protein S deficiency, was admitted for right hemiparesis and aphasia that happened 6 hours before her consultation. Her National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was 11. She had hypoxia (SpO2 93%). COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction was positive. Cerebral computed tomography scan showed an ischemic stroke in the territory of the superficial left middle cerebral artery. The recommended time period for thrombolysis was exceeded and we did not dispose of sufficient resources to deliver thrombectomy. She was treated with aspirin, statins, antibiotic therapy, and oxygen. Considering the high risk of thromboembolic complications and the history of protein S deficiency, anticoagulation treatment with heparin followed by acenocoumarol was started. Evolution was marked by the appearance of 24 hours regressive, acute symptoms of confusion. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed new ischemic strokes in both anterior cerebral arteries and on magnetic resonance angiography narrowing of the left internal carotid artery and both anterior cerebral arteries suggestive of vasculitis was seen. We maintained anticoagulation and prescribed methylprednisolone 500 mg daily for 3 days. Evolution was marked by improvement of clinical deficit and respiratory status. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection potentializes the prothrombotic effect and vascular inflammation by accentuating protein S deficit. The place of steroids seems justifiable in the presence of symptoms of vasculitis in brain imaging.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Protein S Deficiency , Stroke , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Stroke/diagnostic imaging
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