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1.
BMC Neurol ; 22(1): 22, 2022 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622217

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We investigated the impact of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the resulting lockdown on reperfusion treatments and door-to-treatment times during the first surge in Dutch comprehensive stroke centers. Furthermore, we studied the association between COVID-19-status and treatment times. METHODS: We included all patients receiving reperfusion treatment in 17 Dutch stroke centers from May 11th, 2017, until May 11th, 2020. We collected baseline characteristics, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at admission, onset-to-door time (ODT), door-to-needle time (DNT), door-to-groin time (DGT) and COVID-19-status at admission. Parameters during the lockdown (March 15th, 2020 until May 11th, 2020) were compared with those in the same period in 2019, and between groups stratified by COVID-19-status. We used nationwide data and extrapolated our findings to the increasing trend of EVT numbers since May 2017. RESULTS: A decline of 14% was seen in reperfusion treatments during lockdown, with a decline in both IVT and EVT delivery. DGT increased by 12 min (50 to 62 min, p-value of < 0.001). Furthermore, median NIHSS-scores were higher in COVID-19 - suspected or positive patients (7 to 11, p-value of 0.004), door-to-treatment times did not differ significantly when stratified for COVID-19-status. CONCLUSIONS: During the first surge of the COVID-19 pandemic, a decline in acute reperfusion treatments and a delay in DGT was seen, which indicates a target for attention. It also appeared that COVID-19-positive or -suspected patients had more severe neurologic symptoms, whereas their EVT-workflow was not affected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endovascular Procedures , Stroke , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
2.
Neurologist ; 26(6): 271-273, 2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501227

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Wake-up strokes are challenging to manage due to unknown time of onset. Recently, the wake-up trial demonstrated that recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) could be administered based on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)- diffusion weighted imaging/fluid attenuated inversion recovery mismatch. Many still doubt the safety results due to the higher rate of hemorrhagic conversion reported. Although it was statistically insignificant, the study was terminated early. Furthermore, Corona virus disease-19 is associated with coagulopathy and a higher risk of hemorrhagic conversion. CASE REPORT: A 46-year-old fully functioning male presented with a wake-up right hemiparesis, right facial droop, and expressive aphasia. His National Institute of Health Stroke Scale was 4 upon arrival. Last known well state was >4.5 hours. He tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 viral infection. He had left distal-M2 occlusion. He was deemed not a candidate for rtPA. Hyperacute-MRI protocol showed diffusion weighted imaging/fluid attenuated inversion recovery mismatch. The patient received rtPA at 6.5 hours from the last knwn well state. Follow-up MRI-susceptibility weighted imaging revealed fragmented clot. The stroke burden was less than that shown on the initial computed tomography-perfusion scans implying saved penumbra. There was no hemorrhagic conversion despite low fibrinogen levels. CONCLUSION: The hyperacute-MRI protocol for wake-up COVID-19 associated strokes might be a safe option.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use
3.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 145(1): 47-52, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367290

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator is the core medical therapy of acute ischaemic stroke (AIS). COVID-19 infection negatively modifies acute stroke procedures and, due to its pro-coagulative effect, may potentially impact on IVT outcome. Thus, short-term efficacy and safety of IVT were compared in patients with and without evidence of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: An observational, retrospective study included 70 patients with AIS, including 22 subjects (31%) with evidence of acute COVID-19 infection, consecutively treated with IVT in 4 stroke centres between 15 September and 30 November 2020. RESULTS: Patients infected with COVID-19 were characterized by higher median of National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (11.0 vs. 6.5; p < .01) and D-dimers (870 vs. 570; p = .03) on admission, higher presence of pneumonia (47.8% vs. 12%; p < .01) and lower percentage of 'minor stroke symptoms' (NIHSS 1-5 pts.) (2% vs., 18%; p < .01). Hospitalizations were longer in patients with COVID-19 than in those without it (17 vs. 9 days, p < .01), but impact of COVID-19 infection on patients' in-hospital mortality or functional status on dismission has been confirmed neither in uni- or multivariate analysis. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection prolongs length of stay in hospital after IVT, but does not influence in-hospital outcome.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Stroke/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
4.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(1): 105-113, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348130

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Many countries worldwide, including Germany, reported that the first wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in early 2020 influenced the care of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients, but data are lacking for further pandemic wave periods. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide, retrospective, cross-sectional study of all hospitalized patients with the main diagnosis of AIS in 2019 and 2020. Primary outcomes were the number of hospitalizations for AIS, the application of stroke unit care, intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), and mechanical thrombectomy (MT), as well as the in-hospital mortality during the different pandemic periods in 2020 compared to the corresponding periods in 2019. Secondarily, we analyzed differences in outcomes between patients with and without concurrent COVID-19. RESULTS: We included 429,841 cases with AIS, of which 1268 had concurrent COVID-19. Hospitalizations for AIS declined during both pandemic wave periods in 2020 (first wave: -10.9%, second wave: -4.6%). MT rates were consistently higher throughout 2020 compared to 2019, whereas the IVT rate dropped during the second wave period (16.0% vs. 17.0%, p < 0.001). AIS patients with concurrent COVID-19 frequently received recanalization treatments, with an overall MT rate of 8.4% and IVT rate of 15.9%. The in-hospital mortality was high (22.8% vs. 7.5% in noninfected AIS patients, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate a smaller decline in hospitalizations for AIS in the more severe second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. AIS patients with and without concurrent COVID-19 who did seek acute care continued to receive recanalization treatments in Germany.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Care , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(8)2021 Aug 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341318

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has proven its versatility in host presentations; one such presentation is a hypercoagulable state causing large-vessel thrombosis. We report a case on a previously asymptomatic COVID-19-positive patient presenting with an acute ischaemic stroke and an incidental left internal carotid artery thrombus. The patient's medical, social and family history and hypercoagulability screening excluded any other explanation for the left carotid thrombus or stroke, except for testing positive for the COVID-19. This case explores the known hypercoagulable state associated with COVID-19 and the effect of the virus on the host's immune response. It also questions whether administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA), according to the American Heart Association guidelines, following a negative head CT for haemorrhagic stroke is safe without prior extended imaging in this patient population. We recommend, in addition to obtaining a non-contrast CT scan of the brain, a CT angiogram or carotid duplex of the neck be obtained routinely in patients with COVID-19 exhibiting stroke symptoms before t-PA administration as the effects may be detrimental. This recommendation will likely prevent fragmentation and embolisation of an undetected carotid thrombus.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Carotid Artery Thrombosis , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/complications , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery Thrombosis/drug therapy , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/etiology , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use
6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334544

ABSTRACT

A 64-year-old female nurse was admitted to hospital following fever, cough, shortness of breath and low blood pressure. She tested positive for COVID-19 and was treated on a high-dependency unit and prescribed enoxaparin, a prophylactic anticoagulant. Eight days later, she suffered a left middle cerebral artery ischaemic stroke. Over the next 2 weeks, her condition fluctuated, eventually leading to her death. We report her case from clinical history to investigations and outcomes, and explore the potential link between coronavirus, the use of anticoagulation and ischaemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/etiology
7.
Neurology ; 96(23): e2824-e2838, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261288

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To measure the global impact of COVID-19 pandemic on volumes of IV thrombolysis (IVT), IVT transfers, and stroke hospitalizations over 4 months at the height of the pandemic (March 1 to June 30, 2020) compared with 2 control 4-month periods. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study across 6 continents, 70 countries, and 457 stroke centers. Diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes or classifications in stroke databases. RESULTS: There were 91,373 stroke admissions in the 4 months immediately before compared to 80,894 admissions during the pandemic months, representing an 11.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] -11.7 to -11.3, p < 0.0001) decline. There were 13,334 IVT therapies in the 4 months preceding compared to 11,570 procedures during the pandemic, representing a 13.2% (95% CI -13.8 to -12.7, p < 0.0001) drop. Interfacility IVT transfers decreased from 1,337 to 1,178, or an 11.9% decrease (95% CI -13.7 to -10.3, p = 0.001). Recovery of stroke hospitalization volume (9.5%, 95% CI 9.2-9.8, p < 0.0001) was noted over the 2 later (May, June) vs the 2 earlier (March, April) pandemic months. There was a 1.48% stroke rate across 119,967 COVID-19 hospitalizations. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was noted in 3.3% (1,722/52,026) of all stroke admissions. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of stroke hospitalizations, IVT, and interfacility IVT transfers. Primary stroke centers and centers with higher COVID-19 inpatient volumes experienced steeper declines. Recovery of stroke hospitalization was noted in the later pandemic months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombolytic Therapy
8.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e043488, 2021 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259007

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Stroke is a common cause of epilepsy that may be mediated via glutamate dysregulation. There is currently no evidence to support the use of antiseizure medications as primary prevention against poststroke epilepsy. Perampanel has a unique antiglutamatergic mechanism of action and may have antiepileptogenic properties. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of perampanel as an antiepileptogenic treatment in patients at high risk of poststroke epilepsy. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Up to 328 patients with cortical ischaemic stroke or lobar haemorrhage will be enrolled, and receive their first treatment within 7 days of stroke onset. Patients will be randomised (1:1) to receive perampanel (titrated to 6 mg daily over 4 weeks) or matching placebo, stratified by stroke subtype (ischaemic or haemorrhagic). Treatment will be continued for 12 weeks after titration. 7T MRI will be performed at baseline for quantification of cerebral glutamate by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and glutamate chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging. Blood will be collected for measurement of plasma glutamate levels. Participants will be followed up for 52 weeks after randomisation.The primary study outcome will be the proportion of participants in each group free of late (more than 7 days after stroke onset) poststroke seizures by the end of the 12-month study period, analysed by Fisher's exact test. Secondary outcomes will include time to first seizure, time to treatment withdrawal and 3-month modified Rankin Scale score. Quality of life, cognitive function, mood and adverse events will be assessed by standardised questionnaires. Exploratory outcomes will include correlation between cerebral and plasma glutamate concentration and stroke and seizure outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the Alfred Health Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC No 44366, Reference 287/18). TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12618001984280; Pre-results.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Stroke , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Nitriles , Pyridones , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Stroke/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
10.
Molecules ; 25(22)2020 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917015

ABSTRACT

Flavonoids are phytochemical compounds present in many plants, fruits, vegetables, and leaves, with potential applications in medicinal chemistry. Flavonoids possess a number of medicinal benefits, including anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral properties. They also have neuroprotective and cardio-protective effects. These biological activities depend upon the type of flavonoid, its (possible) mode of action, and its bioavailability. These cost-effective medicinal components have significant biological activities, and their effectiveness has been proved for a variety of diseases. The most recent work is focused on their isolation, synthesis of their analogs, and their effects on human health using a variety of techniques and animal models. Thousands of flavonoids have been successfully isolated, and this number increases steadily. We have therefore made an effort to summarize the isolated flavonoids with useful activities in order to gain a better understanding of their effects on human health.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids/chemistry , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Alzheimer Disease/prevention & control , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antimalarials/chemistry , Antimalarials/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemistry , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antioxidants/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cardiovascular System/drug effects , Flavonoids/economics , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/chemistry , Hypoglycemic Agents/pharmacology , Mice , Nervous System/drug effects , Neurons/drug effects , Neuroprotective Agents/chemistry , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Plant Leaves/chemistry , Plants/chemistry , Polyphenols/chemistry , Polyphenols/pharmacology , Quercetin/chemistry , Quercetin/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Rats, Wistar , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/prevention & control
11.
Neurology ; 96(23): e2824-e2838, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154058

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To measure the global impact of COVID-19 pandemic on volumes of IV thrombolysis (IVT), IVT transfers, and stroke hospitalizations over 4 months at the height of the pandemic (March 1 to June 30, 2020) compared with 2 control 4-month periods. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study across 6 continents, 70 countries, and 457 stroke centers. Diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes or classifications in stroke databases. RESULTS: There were 91,373 stroke admissions in the 4 months immediately before compared to 80,894 admissions during the pandemic months, representing an 11.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] -11.7 to -11.3, p < 0.0001) decline. There were 13,334 IVT therapies in the 4 months preceding compared to 11,570 procedures during the pandemic, representing a 13.2% (95% CI -13.8 to -12.7, p < 0.0001) drop. Interfacility IVT transfers decreased from 1,337 to 1,178, or an 11.9% decrease (95% CI -13.7 to -10.3, p = 0.001). Recovery of stroke hospitalization volume (9.5%, 95% CI 9.2-9.8, p < 0.0001) was noted over the 2 later (May, June) vs the 2 earlier (March, April) pandemic months. There was a 1.48% stroke rate across 119,967 COVID-19 hospitalizations. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was noted in 3.3% (1,722/52,026) of all stroke admissions. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of stroke hospitalizations, IVT, and interfacility IVT transfers. Primary stroke centers and centers with higher COVID-19 inpatient volumes experienced steeper declines. Recovery of stroke hospitalization was noted in the later pandemic months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombolytic Therapy
12.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 134: 150-159, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141962

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We apply a general case replacement framework for quantifying the robustness of causal inferences to characterize the uncertainty of findings from clinical trials. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We express the robustness of inferences as the amount of data that must be replaced to change the conclusion and relate this to the fragility of trial results used for dichotomous outcomes. We illustrate our approach in the context of an RCT of hydroxychloroquine on pneumonia in COVID-19 patients and a cumulative meta-analysis of the effect of antihypertensive treatments on stroke. RESULTS: We developed the Robustness of an Inference to Replacement (RIR), which quantifies how many treatment cases with positive outcomes would have to be replaced with hypothetical patients who did not receive a treatment to change an inference. The RIR addresses known limitations of the Fragility Index by accounting for the observed rates of outcomes. It can be used for varying thresholds for inference, including clinical importance. CONCLUSION: Because the RIR expresses uncertainty in terms of patient experiences, it is more relatable to stakeholders than P-values alone. It helps identify when results are statistically significant, but conclusions are not robust, while considering the rareness of events in the underlying data.


Subject(s)
Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Research Design , Stroke/drug therapy , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Neurol Sci ; 42(1): 15-20, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064519

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has changed routine clinical practice worldwide with major impacts on the provision of care and treatment for stroke patients. METHODS: This retrospective observational study included all patients admitted to the Royal Stoke University Hospital in Stoke-on-Trent, UK, with a stroke or transient ischaemic attack between March 15th and April 14th, 2020 (COVID). Patient demographics, characteristics of the stroke, treatment details and logistics were compared with patients admitted in the corresponding weeks in the year before (2019). RESULTS: There was a 39.5% (n = 101 vs n = 167) reduction in admissions in the COVID cohort compared with 2019 with more severe strokes (median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) 7 vs 4, p = 0.02), and fewer strokes with no visible acute pathology (21.8 vs 37.1%, p = 0.01) on computed tomography. There was no statistically significant difference in the rates of thrombolysis (10.9 vs 13.2%, p = 0.72) and/or thrombectomy (5.9 vs 4.8%, p = 0.90) and no statistically significant difference in time from stroke onset to arrival at hospital (734 vs 576 min, p = 0.34), door-to-needle time for thrombolysis (54 vs 64 min, p = 0.43) and door-to-thrombectomy time (181 vs 445 min, p = 0.72). Thirty-day mortality was not significantly higher in the COVID year (10.9 vs 8.9%, p = 0.77). None of the 7 stroke patients infected with COVID-19 died. CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of stroke admissions fell, and stroke severity increased. There was no statistically significant change in the delivery of thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy and no increase in mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Mechanical Thrombolysis/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Stroke/therapy , Tertiary Care Centers/statistics & numerical data , Thrombolytic Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/drug therapy , Male , Mechanical Thrombolysis/trends , Middle Aged , Patient Admission/trends , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke/drug therapy , Tertiary Care Centers/trends , Thrombolytic Therapy/trends , United Kingdom
15.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(3): 317-325, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic lockdown (CPL) lead to a significant decrease in emergency admissions worldwide. We performed a timely analysis of ischemic stroke (IS) and related consultations using the telestroke TEMPiS "working diagnosis" database prior (PL), within (WL), and after easing (EL) of CPL. METHODS: Twelve hospitals were selected and data analyzed regarding IS (including intravenous thrombolysis [intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen; IV rtPA] and endovascular thrombectomy [EVT]) and related events from February 1 to June 15 during 2017-2020. In addition, we aimed to correlate events to various mobile phone mobility data. RESULTS: Following the significant reduction of IS, IV rtPA, and EVT cases during WL compared to PL in 2020 longitudinally (p values <0.048), we observed increasing numbers of consultations, IS, recommendations for EVT, and IV rtPA with the network in EL over WL not reaching PL levels yet. Absolute numbers of all consultations paralleled best to mobility data of public transportation over walking and driving mobility. CONCLUSIONS: While the decrease in emergency admissions including stroke during CPL can only be in part attributed by patients not seeking medical attention, stroke awareness in the pandemic, and direct COVID-19 triggered stroke remains of high importance. The number of consultations in TEMPiS during the lockdown parallels best with mobility of public transportation. As a consequence, exposure to common viruses, well-known triggers for acute cerebrovascular events and other diseases, are reduced and may add to the decline in stroke consultations. Further studies comparing national responses toward the course of the COVID-19 pandemic and stroke incidences are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/virology , COVID-19/therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Time-to-Treatment , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use
16.
J Neurovirol ; 27(1): 35-51, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061059

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 2019, it is gaining worldwide attention at the moment. Apart from respiratory manifestations, neurological dysfunction in COVID-19 patients, especially the occurrence of cerebrovascular diseases (CVD), has been intensively investigated. In this review, the effects of COVID-19 infection on CVD were summarized as follows: (I) angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) may be involved in the attack on vascular endothelial cells by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), leading to endothelial damage and increased subintimal inflammation, which are followed by hemorrhage or thrombosis; (II) SARS-CoV-2 could alter the expression/activity of ACE2, consequently resulting in the disruption of renin-angiotensin system which is associated with the occurrence and progression of atherosclerosis; (III) upregulation of neutrophil extracellular traps has been detected in COVID-19 patients, which is closely associated with immunothrombosis; (IV) the inflammatory cascade induced by SARS-CoV-2 often leads to hypercoagulability and promotes the formation and progress of atherosclerosis; (V) antiphospholipid antibodies are also detected in plasma of some severe cases, which aggravate the thrombosis through the formation of immune complexes; (VI) hyperglycemia in COVID-19 patients may trigger CVD by increasing oxidative stress and blood viscosity; (VII) the COVID-19 outbreak is a global emergency and causes psychological stress, which could be a potential risk factor of CVD as coagulation, and fibrinolysis may be affected. In this review, we aimed to further our understanding of CVD-associated COVID-19 infection, which could improve the therapeutic outcomes of patients. Personalized treatments should be offered to COVID-19 patients at greater risk for stroke in future clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/complications , COVID-19/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Hemorrhage/complications , Hyperglycemia/complications , Stroke/complications , Thrombosis/complications , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Atherosclerosis/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Extracellular Traps/drug effects , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Hemorrhage/virology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hyperglycemia/virology , Inflammation , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/virology , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/virology
17.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 201: 106436, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059739

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate overall ischemic stroke volumes and rates, specific subtypes, and clinical presentation during the COVID-19 pandemic in a multicenter observational study from eight states across US. METHODS: We compared all ischemic strokes admitted between January 2019 and May 2020, grouped as; March-May 2020 (COVID-19 period) and March-May 2019 (seasonal pre-COVID-19 period). Primary outcome was stroke severity at admission measured by NIHSS stratified as mild (0-7), moderate [8-14], and severe (>14). Secondary outcomes were volume of large vessel occlusions (LVOs), stroke etiology, IV-tPA rates, and discharge disposition. RESULTS: Of the 7969 patients diagnosed with acute ischemic stroke during the study period, 933 (12 %) presented in the COVID-19 period while 1319 (17 %) presented in the seasonal pre-COVID-19 period. Significant decline was observed in the mean weekly volumes of newly diagnosed ischemic strokes (98 ± 3 vs 50 ± 20,p = 0.003), LVOs (16.5 ± 3.8 vs 8.3 ± 5.9,p = 0.008), and IV-tPA (10.9 ± 3.4 vs 5.3 ± 2.9,p = 0.0047), whereas the mean weekly proportion of LVOs (18 % ±5 vs 16 % ±7,p = 0.24) and IV-tPA (10.4 % ±4.5 vs. 9.9 % ±2.4,p = 0.66) remained the same, when compared to the seasonal pre-COVID-19 period. Additionally, an increased proportion of patients presented with a severe disease (NIHSS > 14) during the COVID-19 period (29.7 % vs 24.5 %,p < 0.025). The odds of being discharged to home were 26 % greater in the COVID-19 period when compared to seasonal pre-COVID-19 period (OR:1.26, 95 % CI:1.07-1.49,p = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: During COVID-19 period there was a decrease in volume of newly diagnosed ischemic stroke cases and IV-tPA administration. Patients admitted to the hospital had severe neurological clinical presentation and were more likely to discharge home.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neurology/trends , Societies, Medical/trends , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombolytic Therapy/trends , Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/administration & dosage , United States/epidemiology , Vascular Diseases/drug therapy , Vascular Diseases/epidemiology
19.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0243603, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033061

ABSTRACT

Most clinical research stopped during COVID due to possible impact on data quality and personnel safety. We aimed to assess the impact of COVID on acute stroke clinical trial conduct at sites that continued to enroll patients during the pandemic. BEST-MSU is an ongoing study of Mobile Stroke Units (MSU) vs standard management of tPA-eligible acute stroke patients in the pre-hospital setting. MSU personnel include a vascular neurologist via telemedicine, and a nurse, CT technologist, paramedics and emergency medicine technicians on-board. During COVID, consent, 90-day modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and EQ5D were obtained by phone instead of in-person, but other aspects of management were similar to the pre-COVID period. We compared patient demographics, study metrics, and infection of study personnel during intra- vs pre-COVID eras. Five of 6 BEST-MSU sites continued to enroll during COVID. There were no differences in intra- (n = 57) vs pre- (n = 869) COVID enrolled tPA eligible patients' age, sex, race (38.6% vs 38.0% Black), ethnicity (15.8% vs 18.6% Hispanic), or NIHSS (median 11 vs 9). The percent of screened patients enrolled and adjudicated tPA eligible declined from 13.6% to 6.6% (p < .001); study enrollment correlated with local stay-at-home and reopening orders. There were no differences in alert to MSU arrival or arrival to tPA times, but MSU on-scene time was 5 min longer (p = .01). There were no differences in ED door to CT, tPA treatment or thrombectomy puncture times, hospital length of stay, discharge disposition, or remote vs in-person 90-day mRS or EQ5D. One MSU nurse tested positive but did not require hospitalization. Clinical research in the pre-hospital setting can be carried out accurately and safely during a pandemic. tPA eligibility rates declined, but otherwise there were no differences in patient demographics, deterioration of study processes, or serious infection of study staff. Trial registration: NCT02190500.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Stroke/drug therapy , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mobile Health Units , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Time Factors , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use
20.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 77(15): 1250-1256, 2020 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-972353

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The rapid spread of the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has strained the resources of healthcare systems around the world. In accordance with recommendations from the World Health Organization, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and US Department of Defense, Intermountain Medical Center (IMED) in Murray, UT, has developed a plan to provide remote clinical pharmacy services to protect the health of pharmacy caregivers while maintaining appropriate clinical pharmacy coverage to optimally care for patients. SUMMARY: The utilization of telemedicine technology permits clinical pharmacists to readily communicate with nurses, physicians, other caregivers, and patients. We have identified strategies to allow clinical pharmacists to continue to participate in daily rounds, provide consultations under collaborative practice agreements, verify medication orders, collect medication histories, provide antimicrobial stewardship, and deliver medication education to patients from off-site locations. The pharmacy department at IMED proactively tested telemedicine technologies, defined the roles of clinical pharmacists, and identified communication strategies prior to a rapid rise in COVID-19 cases in the state of Utah. CONCLUSION: The proactive measures described can help ensure that pharmacy caregivers have appropriate remote access and are capable of confidently using the resources. These steps allow for optimal care of hospitalized patients and promote social distancing, which may have the added benefit of decreasing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 among patients and caregivers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitals, Special/organization & administration , Pharmacy Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Workforce/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Communication , Humans , Medication Therapy Management/organization & administration , Pharmacists/organization & administration , Pharmacy Service, Hospital/standards , Professional Role , Stroke/drug therapy , Telemedicine/standards , Utah/epidemiology , Wounds and Injuries/drug therapy
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