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1.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 7692215, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2138248

ABSTRACT

Stroke is the most common cause of epilepsy and ultimately leads to a decrease in the quality of life of those affected. Ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes can both lead to poststroke epilepsy (PSE). Significant risk factors for PSE include age < 65age less than 65 years, stroke severity measured by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), cortical involvement, and genetic factors such as TRPM6 polymorphism. The diagnosis of PSE is made by using imaging modalities, blood biomarkers, and prognostic criteria. Electroencephalography (EEG) is currently the gold standard to diagnose PSE, while new combinations of modalities are being tested to increase diagnostic specificity. This literature review uncovers a newly found mechanism for the pathology of poststroke epilepsy. The pathogenesis of early-onset and late-onset is characterized by sequelae of neuronal cellular hypoxia and disruption of the blood-brain barrier, respectively. Interleukin-6 is responsible for increasing the activity of glial cells, causing gliosis and hyperexcitability of neurons. Epinephrine, high-mobility group protein B1, downregulation of CD32, and upregulation of HLA-DR impact the pathology of poststroke epilepsy by inhibiting the normal neuronal immune response. Decreased levels of neuropeptide Y, a neurotransmitter, act through multiple unique mechanisms, such as inhibiting intracellular Ca2+ accumulation and acting as an anti-inflammatory, also implemented in the worsening progression of poststroke epilepsy. Additionally, CA1 hippocampal resonant neurons that increase theta oscillation are associated with poststroke epilepsy. Hypertensive small vessel disease may also have an implication in the temporal lobe epilepsy by causing occult microinfarctions. Furthermore, this review highlights the potential use of statins as primary prophylaxis against PSE, with multiple studies demonstrating a reduction in incidence using statins alone, statins in combination with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), and statins with aspirin. The evidence strongly suggests that the second generation AEDs are a superior treatment method for PSE. Data from numerous studies demonstrate their relative lack of significant drug interactions, increased tolerability, and potential superiority in maintaining seizure-free status.


Subject(s)
Epilepsy , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Stroke , Humans , Aged , Incidence , Quality of Life , Epilepsy/drug therapy , Seizures/drug therapy , Anticonvulsants/therapeutic use , Stroke/complications , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/epidemiology , Risk Factors
2.
Acta Clin Croat ; 60(Suppl 3): 50-56, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145889

ABSTRACT

The most common neurological symptoms in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection are headache, myalgia, encephalopathy, dizziness, dysgeusia and anosmia, making more than 90 percent of neurological manifestations of COVID-19. Other neurological manifestations such as stroke, movement disorder symptoms or epileptic seizures are rare but rather devastating, with possible lethal outcome. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of acute symptomatic seizures among COVID-19 patients, while secondary aim was to determine their possible etiology. Out of 5382 patients with COVID-19 admitted to Dubrava University Hospital from November 1, 2020 until June 1, 2021, 38 (seizure rate 0.7%) of them had acute symptomatic seizures. Of these 38 patients, 29 (76.3%) had new-onset epileptic seizures and nine (23.7%) patients with previous epilepsy history had breakthrough seizures during COVID-19. Although acute symptomatic seizures are an infrequent complication of COVID-19, seizure risk must be considered in these patients, particularly in the group of patients with a severe course of the disease. Accumulation of proinflammatory cytokines may contribute to the occurrence of seizures in patients with COVID-19, but seizures may also be secondary to primary brain pathology related to COVID-19, such as stroke or encephalitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Stroke , Humans , Incidence , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/diagnosis , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Epilepsy/etiology , Stroke/complications , Stroke/epidemiology
3.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 122(11. Vyp. 2): 34-37, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145658

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with ischemic stroke associated with COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all cases of COVID-19, including those complicated with ischemic stroke, admitted to the multispecialty infectious hospital in Ufa (Russia) in 2020, was performed. Multivariate analysis was used to identify the independent predictors of the development of ischemic stroke in patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: Eleven thousand forty hundred and thirty-two patients were admitted to the multidisciplinary infectious hospital during 2020, 1226 of them also suffered from ischemic stroke. Independent predictors of ischemic stroke in COVID-19 included age and laboratory parameters: increase in number of leucocytes, erythrocytes and platelets, increase of the level of creatinine, glucose, total bilirubin and decrease of the level of total protein, and activated partial thromboplastin time. CONCLUSION: Elderly people, patients with prominent systemic inflammatory response, which presented with leukocytosis, hypercoagulation, multiorgan failure of different severity and hypoproteinemia, were at higher risk of the development of ischemic stroke in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , Aged , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization
4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 738634, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142305

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic may result in detrimental consequences for stroke patient's wellbeing. Family functioning and optimism could help stroke patients cope with crises leading to possible improvements in life satisfaction. This study aims to explore the protective effects of family functioning and optimism on life satisfaction among stroke patients during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. This study was designed as a cross-sectional survey. A total of 207 stroke inpatients who were receiving pharmacotherapy and rehabilitation in general public hospital of Liaoning province during the COVID-19 pandemic in China were consecutive selected and interviewed by online questionnaires via the WeChat platform effectively from April 8 to 30, 2020. The scales included: Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Family Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, and Resolve (APGAR) Scale and Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R). Hierarchical multiple regression (HMR) analysis was conducted to test the associated factors of life satisfaction. Stroke patient's life satisfaction was at a high level (Mean = 26.46, SD = 6.23) during the pandemic. Stroke patient's residence, duration of stroke, stroke type, and community shut down measures were the strong predictors of life satisfaction. Family functioning and optimism increased life satisfaction among stroke patients. This study contributes to the research on the association between family functioning and optimism on life satisfaction among stroke patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Interventions that improve family functioning and enhance optimism should be provided in order to elevate life satisfaction for stroke patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Satisfaction , Personal Satisfaction , Protective Factors , Stroke/epidemiology
6.
Neurol India ; 70(5): 1942-1946, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117614

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The unprecedented challenges during the COVID pandemic and the subsequent lockdown had resulted in a delay in treatment metrics for acute stroke. There is a rising concern that COVID-19 co-infection can adversely affect stroke outcome. We aim to investigate the impact of COVID-19 in the management of stroke patients. We also compared the differences in stroke manifestations, etiological pattern, treatment course, and outcome of acute stroke patients in COVID-19 confirmed cases. Methodology: A single-center retrospective study was done at the Stroke Unit, Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram. Consecutive patients of acute stroke confirmed by imaging, presenting within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms in May to July 2020 and May to July 2019, were included. The primary data variables included baseline demographics, risk factors, admission NIHSS, stroke timings, thrombolysis rate, TOAST etiology, mRS at discharge, and in-hospital mortality. Results: Strokes with higher NIHSS, arrival blood sugar and blood pressure, and delays in door-to-CT and door-to-needle time were more during the pandemic. Intravenous thrombolysis was less and mortality was higher in COVID-19 strokes during the pandemic. COVID-19-positive stroke patients had more hemorrhagic strokes, more severe strokes with low CT ASPECTS, more hemorrhagic transformation, high in-hospital mortality, and poor functional outcome at discharge and 3 months. Conclusion: Our study was a hypothesis-generating study with a limited number of patients. This study has reconfirmed the higher severity of the stroke, with a higher mRS score and mortality during the pandemic, especially among COVID-19-positive stroke patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Humans , Tertiary Care Centers , Retrospective Studies , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome , Communicable Disease Control , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/adverse effects
7.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 20(4): 333-340, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098971

ABSTRACT

The neurological complications of Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) including stroke have been documented in the recent literature. COVID-19-related inflammation is suggested to contribute to both a hypercoagulable state and haemorrhagic transformation, including in younger individuals. COVID-19 is associated with a heightened risk of ischaemic stroke. Haemorrhagic stroke in COVID-19 patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) accounts for <1% of stroke cases in the general population but has come to heightened public attention due to the increased risk associated with adenoviral COVID-19 vaccines. However, recent evidence suggests the prevalence of stroke is less in vaccinated individuals than in unvaccinated COVID-19 patients. This review evaluates the current evidence of COVID-19-related ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke, with a focus on current epidemiology and inflammatory-linked pathophysiology in the field of vascular neurology and stroke medicine.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Hemorrhagic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Brain Ischemia/etiology , COVID-19 Vaccines
8.
Croat Med J ; 63(5): 431-437, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2092956

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate stroke characteristics in patients with concomitant coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in Croatia during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This retrospective study investigated the characteristics of two groups of ischemic stroke patients: those who developed COVID-19 infection before stroke and those who developed the infection during the hospital stay after stroke onset. Stroke etiology was classified according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 255 stroke patients from 12 Croatian hospitals. The two groups of ischemic stroke patients differed in stroke etiology (P=0.038). Patients with COVID-19 infection before stroke had fewer cardioembolic strokes (46% vs 29.1%), more cryptogenic strokes (32.5% vs 14.3%), and more strokes in multiple vascular territories (12.4% vs 1.8%). The percentage of large-vessel occlusions was high in both groups (49.6% and 44.4%). Median modified Rankin Scale score on discharge was 4 in both groups. Mortality was 36.4% in the group with stroke after COVID-19 and 33.3% in the group with COVID-19 after stroke. CONCLUSION: Ischemic stroke after COVID-19 differs in etiology from ischemic stroke complicated by COVID-19 infection. Both patient groups are characterized by severe disability and high mortality. Raising the awareness of prehospital stroke and optimization of clinical workflow are important if we want to improve the stroke outcomes by acute recanalization techniques.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Croatia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(21)2022 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090128

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People who have experienced a stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) have greater risks of complications from COVID-19. Therefore, vaccine uptake in this vulnerable population is important. To prevent vaccine hesitancy and maximise compliance, we need to better understand individuals' views on the vaccine. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore perspectives of the COVID-19 vaccine and influences on its uptake from people who have experienced a stroke or TIA. METHOD: A cross-sectional, electronic survey comprising multiple choice and free text questions. Convenience sampling was used to recruit people who have experienced a stroke/TIA in the UK/Ireland. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 377 stroke/TIA survivors. 87% (328/377) had either received the first vaccine dose or were booked to have it. The vaccine was declined by 2% (7/377) and 3% (11/377) had been offered the vaccine but not yet taken it up. 8% (30/377) had not been offered the vaccine despite being eligible. Some people expressed concerns around the safety of the vaccine (particularly risk of blood clots and stroke) and some were hesitant to have the second vaccine. Societal and personal benefits were motivations for vaccine uptake. There was uncertainty and lack of information about risk of COVID-19 related complications specifically for people who have experienced a stroke or TIA. CONCLUSION: Despite high uptake of the first vaccine, some people with stroke and TIA have legitimate concerns and information needs that should be addressed. Our findings can be used to identify targets for behaviour change to improve vaccine uptake specific to stroke/TIA patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Stroke , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/prevention & control , Stroke/complications , Survivors
11.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0275831, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065149

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Only very few studies have investigated the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the pre-hospital stroke code protocol. During the first wave, Spain was one of the most affected countries by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus disease pandemic. This health catastrophe overshadowed other pathologies, such as acute stroke, the leading cause of death among women and the leading cause of disability among adults. Any interference in the stroke code protocol can delay the administration of reperfusion treatment for acute ischemic strokes, leading to a worse patient prognosis. We aimed to compare the performance of the stroke code during the first wave of the pandemic with the same period of the previous year. METHODS: This was a multicentre interrupted time-series observational study of the cohort of stroke codes of SUMMA 112 and of the ten hospitals with a stroke unit in the Community of Madrid. We established two groups according to the date on which they were attended: the first during the dates with the highest daily cumulative incidence of the first wave of the COVID-19 (from February 27 to June 15, 2020), and the second, the same period of the previous year (from February 27 to June 15, 2019). To assess the performance of the stroke code, we compared each of the pre-hospital emergency service time periods, the diagnostic accuracy (proportion of stroke codes with a final diagnosis of acute stroke out of the total), the proportion of patients treated with reperfusion therapies, and the in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: SUMMA 112 activated the stroke code in 966 patients (514 in the pre-pandemic group and 452 pandemic). The call management time increased by 9% (95% CI: -0.11; 0.91; p value = 0.02), and the time on scene increased by 12% (95% CI: 2.49; 5.93; p value = <0.01). Diagnostic accuracy, and the proportion of patients treated with reperfusion therapies remained stable. In-hospital mortality decreased by 4% (p = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: During the first wave, a prolongation of the time "on the scene" of the management of the 112 calls, and of the hospital admission was observed. Prehospital diagnostic accuracy and the proportion of patients treated at the hospital level with intravenous thrombolysis or mechanical thrombectomy were not altered with respect to the previous year, showing the resilience of the stroke network and the emergency medical service.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , Stroke , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy
15.
CMAJ Open ; 10(4): E865-E871, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056353

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to an increase in telemedicine use. We compared care and outcomes in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor ischemic stroke before and after the widespread adoption of telemedicine in Ontario, Canada, in 2020. METHODS: In a population-based cohort study using linked administrative data, we identified patients with TIA or ischemic stroke discharged from any emergency department in Ontario before the widespread use of telemedicine (Apr. 1, 2015, to Mar. 31, 2020) and after (Apr. 1, 2020, to Mar. 31, 2021). We measured care, including visits with a physician, investigations and medication renewal. We compared 90-day death before and after 2020 using Cox proportional hazards models, and we compared 90-day admission using cause-specific hazard models. RESULTS: We identified 47 601 patients (49.3% female; median age 73, interquartile range 62-82, yr) with TIA (n = 35 695, 75.0%) or ischemic stroke (n = 11 906, 25.0%). After 2020, 83.1% of patients had 1 or more telemedicine visit within 90 days of emergency department discharge, compared with 3.8% before. The overall access to outpatient visits within 90 days remained unchanged (92.9% before v. 94.0% after; risk difference 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.3 to 3.5). Investigations and medication renewals were unchanged. Clinical outcomes were also similar before and after 2020; the adjusted hazard ratio was 0.97 (95% CI 0.91 to 1.04) for 90-day all-cause admission, 1.06 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.20) for stroke admission and 1.07 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.24) for death. INTERPRETATION: Care and short-term outcomes after TIA or minor stroke remained stable after the widespread implementation of telemedicine during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings suggest that telemedicine is an effective method of health care delivery that can be complementary to in-person care for minor ischemic cerebrovascular events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Telemedicine , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/epidemiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/therapy
16.
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther ; 27: 10742484221128124, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Because of logistic challenges associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) were favored over warfarin in patients presenting postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) after cardiac surgery in our institution. Considering the limited evidence supporting the use of DOAC in this context, we sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this practice change. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed with patients from the Quebec City metropolitan area who were hospitalized at the Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec-Université Laval following cardiac surgery and who required oral anticoagulant (OAC) for postoperative AF. The primary objective was to compare the pre- and peri-COVID-19 period for OAC prescribing patterns and the incidence of thrombotic and bleeding events at 3 months post-surgery. The secondary objective was to compare DOAC to warfarin in terms of thrombotic events and bleeding events. RESULTS: A total of 233 patients were included, 142 from the pre-COVID-19 and 91 from the peri-COVID-19 period, respectively. Both groups had equivalent proportions of preoperative AF (48%) and new-onset postoperative AF (52%). The proportion of patients treated with a DOAC increased from 13% pre-COVID-19 to 82% peri-COVID-19. This change in practice was not associated with a significant difference in the incidence of thrombotic or bleeding events 3 months postoperatively. However, compared to DOAC, warfarin was associated with a higher incidence of major bleeding. Only 1 thrombotic event was reported with warfarin, and none were reported with DOAC. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that DOAC are an effective and safe alternative to warfarin to treat postoperative AF after cardiac surgery and that this practice can be safely maintained.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Stroke , Administration, Oral , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/epidemiology , Warfarin/adverse effects
17.
Psychiatr Danub ; 34(Suppl 8): 256-261, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2045549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Up to 45% of ischemic strokes are cryptogenic, which is an impediment to proposing preventative measures. In this investigation we aimed to study underlying heart arrhythmias in patients with cryptogenic stroke, taking into consideration the context of the COVID-19 pandemic and stressful lockdown conditions. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study we observed 52 patients with cryptogenic stroke >1 month after acute presentation, and a control group consisting of 88 patients without stroke. All patients undewent the laboratory and instrumental investigation consisting of the following: lipid spectrum; hemostasiograms; hemoglobin A1c; transthoracic or/and transesophageal echocardiography; 24-hours monitoring of ECG; computer tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. We studied the hemodynamics of the common carotid arteries using Doppler ultrasound imaging and digital sphygmography (SG). RESULTS: The groups were indentical with respect to the preponderance of study parameters (sex, age, comorbidities, instrumental and laboratory data). The ischemic stroke group had a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of the first type of extrasystolic arrhythmia according to our gradation of extrasystoles, which are ventricular systoles of extrasystolic contraction appearing before the transmitral blood flow peak (peak E in echocardiography). We observed that earlier ventricular systoles of extrasystole in the cardiac cycle predicted for greater growth of hemodynamic and kinetic parameters. Calculating the indices of a four-field table established the significant relationship between the moment of appearance of extrasystolic ventricular contraction in the cardiac cycle and the risk for cryptogenic stroke (normalized value of the Pearson coefficient (C`) of the two paramaters was 0.318). CONCLUSIONS: Extrasystolic arrhythmia appeared as an additional risk factor of earlier stroke. The most dangerous type of arrhythmia was when the ventricular contraction of the extrasystole appeared before the transmitral blood flow peak in the cardiac cycle. This observation could present a risk-marker for brain-related cardiovascular complications such as stroke, which might be patients suffering from different internal diseases, especially in the context of environmental stress conditions of the current pandemic and its related lockdown measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiac Complexes, Premature/complications , Cardiac Complexes, Premature/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Glycated Hemoglobin A , Hemodynamics , Humans , Lipids , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/epidemiology
18.
BMJ Open ; 12(9): e061025, 2022 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038306

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of changes in use of care and implementation of hospital reorganisations spurred by the COVID-19 pandemic (first wave) on the acute management times of patients who had a stroke and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). DESIGN: Two cohorts of patients who had an STEMI and stroke in the Aquitaine Cardio-Neuro-Vascular (CNV) registry. SETTING: 6 emergency medical services, 30 emergency units (EUs), 14 hospitalisation units and 11 cathlabs in the Aquitaine region. PARTICIPANTS: This study involved 9218 patients (6436 patients who had a stroke and 2782 patients who had an STEMI) in the CNV Registry from January 2019 to August 2020. METHOD: Hospital reorganisations, retrieved in a scoping review, were collected from heads of hospital departments. Other data were from the CNV Registry. Associations between reorganisations, use of care and care management times were analysed using multivariate linear regression mixed models. Interaction terms between use-of-care variables and period (pre-wave, per-wave and post-wave) were introduced. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: STEMI cohort, first medical contact-to-procedure time; stroke cohort, EU admission-to-imaging time. RESULTS: Per-wave period management times deteriorated for stroke but were maintained for STEMI. Per-wave changes in use of care did not affect STEMI management. No association was found between reorganisations and stroke management times. In the STEMI cohort, the implementation of systematic testing at admission was associated with a 41% increase in care management time (exp=1.409, 95% CI 1.075 to 1.848, p=0.013). Implementation of plan blanc, which concentrated resources in emergency activities, was associated with a 19% decrease in management time (exp=0.801, 95% CI 0.639 to 1.023, p=0.077). CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic did not markedly alter the functioning of the emergency network. Although stroke patient management deteriorated, the resilience of the STEMI pathway was linked to its stronger structuring. Transversal reorganisations, aiming at concentrating resources on emergency care, contributed to maintenance of the quality of care. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04979208.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Stroke , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/methods , Registries , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy
19.
Int J Qual Health Care ; 34(4)2022 Oct 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029047

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic affected health-care systems worldwide, leading to fewer admissions and raising concerns about the quality of care. The objective of this study was to investigate the early effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on quality of care among stroke and ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients, focusing on clinical outcomes and direct treatment costs. METHOD: This retrospective, observational study was based on the 10-week period that included the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Israel (15 February 2020-30 April 2020). Emergency department admissions for stroke and STEMI were compared with parallel periods in 2017-2019, focusing on demographics, risk and severity scores, and the effect of clinical outcomes on hospitalization costs. RESULTS: The 634 stroke and 186 STEMI cases comprised 16% and 19% fewer admissions, respectively, compared to 2019. No significant changes were detected in demographics, most disease management parameters, readmission and mortality outcomes. The mean door-to-balloon time increased insignificantly by 33%, lowering the health quality indicator (HQI) for treatment in <90 min from 94.7% in 2017-2019 to 83% in 2020 (P = 0.022). Among suspected stroke patients, 97.2% underwent imaging, with 28% longer median time from admission (P = 0.05). Consequently, only 24.3% met the HQI of imaging in <29 min, compared to 45.5% in 2017-2019 (P < 0.01). Increased length of stay and more intensive care unit admissions were the leading causes of 6.5% increased mean cost of STEMI patients' initial hospitalization, which totaled $29 300 in the COVID-19 period (P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: The initial pandemic period caused a decline in HQIs linked to diagnostic and treatment protocols, without changes in outcomes, but with increased hospitalization costs. Medical information and awareness of life-threatening conditions among patients and caregivers should be increased to enable proper diagnosis and management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Stroke , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Treatment Outcome
20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(16): 5946-5955, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2026356

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate acute cerebrovascular diseases (stroke and intracranial hemorrhage) by cranial radiologic examinations of patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and with neurological signs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between March 2020 and May 2021, patients who were admitted to the Emergency Department and had a positive reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test and underwent Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) and/or Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI), and/or diffusion MRI due to neurological findings were included in the study. RESULTS: The study reviewed a total of 925 patients, including 404 (43.67%) female and 521 (56.32%) male patients. The distribution of imaging methods was as follows: 805 (71%) patients had cranial MDCT, 71 (6.35%) patients had MRI, and 241 (21.57%) patients had diffusion MRI. Of the total 925 patients, 128 (13.8%) patients were detected with cerebrovascular diseases, 92 (9.9%) patients were detected with ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, 37 (4%) patients were detected with intraparenchymal hemorrhage, 10 (1.1%) patients were detected with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and four (0.43%) patients were detected with subdural hemorrhage. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of subdural, subarachnoid, parenchymal hemorrhage, and stroke in terms of gender. While there was a significant difference in stroke according to age, there was no statistically significant difference in subdural, subarachnoid, and parenchymal hemorrhagic. Three (0.32%) patients were diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM)'s-like demyelinating lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Cerebrovascular diseases, which may cause severe disability and even threaten the patient's life, should be kept in mind, especially in COVID-19 patients who present with neurological symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Stroke , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Radiography , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/epidemiology
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