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1.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 122(11. Vyp. 2): 34-37, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145658

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with ischemic stroke associated with COVID-19. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all cases of COVID-19, including those complicated with ischemic stroke, admitted to the multispecialty infectious hospital in Ufa (Russia) in 2020, was performed. Multivariate analysis was used to identify the independent predictors of the development of ischemic stroke in patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: Eleven thousand forty hundred and thirty-two patients were admitted to the multidisciplinary infectious hospital during 2020, 1226 of them also suffered from ischemic stroke. Independent predictors of ischemic stroke in COVID-19 included age and laboratory parameters: increase in number of leucocytes, erythrocytes and platelets, increase of the level of creatinine, glucose, total bilirubin and decrease of the level of total protein, and activated partial thromboplastin time. CONCLUSION: Elderly people, patients with prominent systemic inflammatory response, which presented with leukocytosis, hypercoagulation, multiorgan failure of different severity and hypoproteinemia, were at higher risk of the development of ischemic stroke in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , Aged , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Retrospective Studies , COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization
3.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 64(2-3): 150-152, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2130715
4.
Neurol India ; 70(5): 1942-1946, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117614

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The unprecedented challenges during the COVID pandemic and the subsequent lockdown had resulted in a delay in treatment metrics for acute stroke. There is a rising concern that COVID-19 co-infection can adversely affect stroke outcome. We aim to investigate the impact of COVID-19 in the management of stroke patients. We also compared the differences in stroke manifestations, etiological pattern, treatment course, and outcome of acute stroke patients in COVID-19 confirmed cases. Methodology: A single-center retrospective study was done at the Stroke Unit, Government Medical College, Thiruvananthapuram. Consecutive patients of acute stroke confirmed by imaging, presenting within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms in May to July 2020 and May to July 2019, were included. The primary data variables included baseline demographics, risk factors, admission NIHSS, stroke timings, thrombolysis rate, TOAST etiology, mRS at discharge, and in-hospital mortality. Results: Strokes with higher NIHSS, arrival blood sugar and blood pressure, and delays in door-to-CT and door-to-needle time were more during the pandemic. Intravenous thrombolysis was less and mortality was higher in COVID-19 strokes during the pandemic. COVID-19-positive stroke patients had more hemorrhagic strokes, more severe strokes with low CT ASPECTS, more hemorrhagic transformation, high in-hospital mortality, and poor functional outcome at discharge and 3 months. Conclusion: Our study was a hypothesis-generating study with a limited number of patients. This study has reconfirmed the higher severity of the stroke, with a higher mRS score and mortality during the pandemic, especially among COVID-19-positive stroke patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Humans , Tertiary Care Centers , Retrospective Studies , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome , Communicable Disease Control , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/adverse effects
5.
Neurosurgery ; 90(6): 725-733, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms and outcomes in coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-associated stroke are unique from those of non-COVID-19 stroke. OBJECTIVE: To describe the efficacy and outcomes of acute revascularization of large vessel occlusion (LVO) in the setting of COVID-19 in an international cohort. METHODS: We conducted an international multicenter retrospective study of consecutively admitted patients with COVID-19 with concomitant acute LVO across 50 comprehensive stroke centers. Our control group constituted historical controls of patients presenting with LVO and receiving a mechanical thrombectomy between January 2018 and December 2020. RESULTS: The total cohort was 575 patients with acute LVO; 194 patients had COVID-19 while 381 patients did not. Patients in the COVID-19 group were younger (62.5 vs 71.2; P < .001) and lacked vascular risk factors (49, 25.3% vs 54, 14.2%; P = .001). Modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 3 revascularization was less common in the COVID-19 group (74, 39.2% vs 252, 67.2%; P < .001). Poor functional outcome at discharge (defined as modified Ranklin Scale 3-6) was more common in the COVID-19 group (150, 79.8% vs 132, 66.7%; P = .004). COVID-19 was independently associated with a lower likelihood of achieving modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 3 (odds ratio [OR]: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.7; P < .001) and unfavorable outcomes (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4-4.5; P = .002). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 was an independent predictor of incomplete revascularization and poor outcomes in patients with stroke due to LVO. Patients with COVID-19 with LVO were younger, had fewer cerebrovascular risk factors, and suffered from higher morbidity/mortality rates.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Cerebral Infarction/etiology , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/etiology , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
6.
Croat Med J ; 63(5): 431-437, 2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2092956

ABSTRACT

AIM: To investigate stroke characteristics in patients with concomitant coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in Croatia during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This retrospective study investigated the characteristics of two groups of ischemic stroke patients: those who developed COVID-19 infection before stroke and those who developed the infection during the hospital stay after stroke onset. Stroke etiology was classified according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 255 stroke patients from 12 Croatian hospitals. The two groups of ischemic stroke patients differed in stroke etiology (P=0.038). Patients with COVID-19 infection before stroke had fewer cardioembolic strokes (46% vs 29.1%), more cryptogenic strokes (32.5% vs 14.3%), and more strokes in multiple vascular territories (12.4% vs 1.8%). The percentage of large-vessel occlusions was high in both groups (49.6% and 44.4%). Median modified Rankin Scale score on discharge was 4 in both groups. Mortality was 36.4% in the group with stroke after COVID-19 and 33.3% in the group with COVID-19 after stroke. CONCLUSION: Ischemic stroke after COVID-19 differs in etiology from ischemic stroke complicated by COVID-19 infection. Both patient groups are characterized by severe disability and high mortality. Raising the awareness of prehospital stroke and optimization of clinical workflow are important if we want to improve the stroke outcomes by acute recanalization techniques.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Croatia/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology
7.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 122(10): 133-137, 2022.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091096

ABSTRACT

A case of the development of multifocal leukoencephalopathy and hemorrhage after infection with SARS-CoV-2 in a female patient with Alzheimer's disease, aged 67 years, is described. The patient was hospitalized by an ambulance. Computed tomography (CT) of the brain showed the signs of cerebral infarction in the basin of the left middle cerebral artery with hemorrhagic transformation, multiple low-density foci that do not accumulate contrast in the white matter of the brain, the presence of sickle-shaped lesions in the cerebellum. CT of the chest revealed bilateral diffuse COVID-associated pneumonitis, alveolitis. The percentage of lesion was 75%. A smear express test for a new coronavirus infection was positive. Treatment was started, and a sudden death occurred. A sectional study in the brain revealed signs of ischemic cerebral infarction and multifocal leukoencephalomalacia - foci of demyelination (from 1 mm to 1 cm) had a multifocal lesion located in different parts of the white matter. Fibrinoid necrosis of vessel walls, destructive-productive vasculitis, ischemic small-focal perivascular necrosis, ischemic lesions of neurons and glial cells, neuronal and glial spongiosis were noted. In conclusion, the cause of death of the patient was a new coronavirus infection COVID-19, which caused diffuse viral COVID-associated pneumonitis, alveolitis with the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults, respiratory failure and COVID-associated ischemic infarction, multifocal leukoencephalopathy (or malacia), cerebral edema complicated by neuromorphological changes in the brain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukoencephalopathy, Progressive Multifocal , Pneumonia, Viral , Stroke , Adult , Female , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/complications , Cerebral Infarction/complications
8.
CMAJ Open ; 10(4): E865-E871, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056353

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to an increase in telemedicine use. We compared care and outcomes in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor ischemic stroke before and after the widespread adoption of telemedicine in Ontario, Canada, in 2020. METHODS: In a population-based cohort study using linked administrative data, we identified patients with TIA or ischemic stroke discharged from any emergency department in Ontario before the widespread use of telemedicine (Apr. 1, 2015, to Mar. 31, 2020) and after (Apr. 1, 2020, to Mar. 31, 2021). We measured care, including visits with a physician, investigations and medication renewal. We compared 90-day death before and after 2020 using Cox proportional hazards models, and we compared 90-day admission using cause-specific hazard models. RESULTS: We identified 47 601 patients (49.3% female; median age 73, interquartile range 62-82, yr) with TIA (n = 35 695, 75.0%) or ischemic stroke (n = 11 906, 25.0%). After 2020, 83.1% of patients had 1 or more telemedicine visit within 90 days of emergency department discharge, compared with 3.8% before. The overall access to outpatient visits within 90 days remained unchanged (92.9% before v. 94.0% after; risk difference 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.3 to 3.5). Investigations and medication renewals were unchanged. Clinical outcomes were also similar before and after 2020; the adjusted hazard ratio was 0.97 (95% CI 0.91 to 1.04) for 90-day all-cause admission, 1.06 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.20) for stroke admission and 1.07 (95% CI 0.93 to 1.24) for death. INTERPRETATION: Care and short-term outcomes after TIA or minor stroke remained stable after the widespread implementation of telemedicine during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings suggest that telemedicine is an effective method of health care delivery that can be complementary to in-person care for minor ischemic cerebrovascular events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Telemedicine , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/epidemiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/therapy
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023676

ABSTRACT

Rapid scoring systems validated in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) may be useful beyond their original purpose. Our aim was to assess the utility of CHA2DS2-VASc, HAS-BLED, and 2MACE scores in predicting long-term mortality in the population of the Bialystok Coronary Project, including AF patients. The initial study population consisted of 7409 consecutive patients admitted for elective coronary angiography between 2007 and 2016. The study endpoint was all-cause mortality, which occurred in 1244 (16.8%) patients during the follow-up, ranging from 1283 to 3059 days (median 2029 days). We noticed substantially increased all-cause mortality in patients with higher values of all compared scores. The accuracy of the scores in predicting all-cause mortality was also assessed using the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. The greatest predictive value for mortality was recorded for the CHA2DS2-VASc score in the overall study population (area under curve [AUC] = 0.665; 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.645-0.681). We observed that the 2MACE score (AUC = 0.656; 95%CI 0.619-0.681), but not the HAS-BLED score, had similar predictive value to the CHA2DS2-VASc score for all-cause mortality in the overall study population. In AF patients, all scores did not differ in all-cause mortality prediction. Additionally, we found that study participants with CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥3 vs. <3 had a 3-fold increased risk of long-term all-cause mortality (odds ratio 3.05; 95%CI 2.6-3.6). Our study indicates that clinical scores initially validated in AF patients may be useful for predicting mortality in a broader population (e.g., in patients referred for elective coronary angiography). According to our findings, all compared scores have a moderate predictive value. However, in our study, the CHA2DS2-VASc and 2MACE scores outperformed the HAS-BLED score in terms of the long-term all-cause mortality prediction.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , Stroke , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnostic imaging , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Coronary Angiography , Humans , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Stroke/etiology
11.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(9): 1250-1257, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002659

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccine has been shown to be safe with regard to risk for severe cardiovascular events (such as myocardial infarction [MI], pulmonary embolism [PE], and stroke) in persons aged 75 years or older. Less is known about the safety of other COVID-19 vaccines or outcomes in younger populations. OBJECTIVE: To assess short-term risk for severe cardiovascular events (excluding myocarditis and pericarditis) after COVID-19 vaccination in France's 46.5 million adults younger than 75 years. DESIGN: Self-controlled case series method adapted to event-dependent exposure and high event-related mortality. SETTING: France, 27 December 2020 to 20 July 2021. PATIENTS: All adults younger than 75 years hospitalized for PE, acute MI, hemorrhagic stroke, or ischemic stroke (n = 73 325 total events). MEASUREMENTS: Linkage between the French National Health Data System and COVID-19 vaccine databases enabled identification of hospitalizations for cardiovascular events (MI, PE, or stroke) and receipt of a first or second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech, mRNA-1273 (Moderna), Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen), or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) vaccine. The relative incidence (RI) of each cardiovascular event was estimated in the 3 weeks after vaccination compared with other periods, with adjustment for temporality (7-day periods). RESULTS: No association was found between the Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna vaccine and severe cardiovascular events. The first dose of the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine was associated with acute MI and PE in the second week after vaccination (RI, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.11 to 1.51] and 1.41 [CI, 1.13 to 1.75], respectively). An association with MI in the second week after a single dose of the Janssen vaccine could not be ruled out (RI, 1.75 [CI, 1.16 to 2.62]). LIMITATIONS: It was not possible to ascertain the relative timing of injection and cardiovascular events on the day of vaccination. Outpatient deaths related to cardiovascular events were not included. CONCLUSION: In persons aged 18 to 74 years, adenoviral-based vaccines may be associated with increased incidence of MI and PE. No association between mRNA-based vaccines and the cardiovascular events studied was observed. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , Pulmonary Embolism , Stroke , Ad26COVS1 , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Humans , Myocardial Infarction/complications , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , RNA, Messenger , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
12.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 38(11): 1891-1896, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996945

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the risk of hospitalization among nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients with an outpatient COVID-19 diagnosis who discontinued vs continued apixaban treatment. METHODS: Adult patients with NVAF with an apixaban prescription prior to an outpatient COVID-19 diagnosis were identified from Optum Clinformatics claims database (1 April 2020-31 March 2021). Continuers were those who continued apixaban as of the index date (date of initial outpatient COVID-19 diagnosis) and discontinuers were those who had the last day of apixaban supply on or before index. Patients were followed from COVID-19 diagnosis to change of continuation/discontinuation status, switch, death, end of continuous coverage or study end, whichever occurred first. Inverse probability treatment weighting (IPTW) was performed to balance cohorts. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare the risk of all-cause hospitalization and hospitalization for ischemic stroke (IS), venous thromboembolism (VTE), myocardial infarction (MI), bleeding and mortality. RESULTS: A total of 7869 apixaban patients with COVID-19 were included: 6676 continuers (84.8%) and 1193 discontinuers (15.2%). Compared with continuers, discontinuers had a higher risk of all-cause hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-1.40), IS (HR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.03-3.87), VTE (HR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.06-5.27) and mortality (HR: 2.28; 95% CI: 1.85-2.80). There were no significant differences in the risk of MI (HR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.54-1.90) or bleeding-related hospitalization (HR: 1.13; 95% CI: 0.73-1.76). CONCLUSION: NVAF patients with COVID-19 who discontinued apixaban had a higher risk of hospitalization and thrombotic events vs those who continued apixaban, with no significant difference in bleeding-related hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Stroke , Venous Thromboembolism , Adult , Humans , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Anticoagulants , COVID-19 Testing , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Pyridones/adverse effects , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Hemorrhage/complications , Hospitalization
13.
Neurol Neurochir Pol ; 56(1): 81-88, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994399

ABSTRACT

AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess the influence of age on long-term functional outcome in patients with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) treated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed retrospective analysis of 362 AIS patients treated with IVT or IVT and subsequent mechanical thrombectomy in the University Hospital in Krakow, Poland. Patients were categorised into four subgroups by age: (I) below the age of 60, (II) 60 to 69, (III) 70 to 79, and (IV) 80 or more. The outcomes were assessed with modified Rankin scale (mRS) 90 days after stroke onset, and defined as favourable (mRS 0-2), poor (mRS 3-5), or death (mRS = 6). RESULTS: Patients aged 80 or more compared to those below 60 were more often women (72.64% vs. 26.76%, < 0.001), more often suffered from hypertension (94.34% vs. 60.56%, p < 0.001), ischaemic heart disease (27.36% vs. 8.45%, p = 0.002), atrial fibrillation (49.06% vs. 5.63%, p < 0.001), and premorbid disability (pre-stroke mRS ≥ 1: 17.92% vs. 1.41%, p < 0.001), less often were active smokers (0% vs. 27.14%, p < 0.001), more often had cardioembolic aetiology (50.00% vs. 16.90%, p < 0.001), and less often other stroke aetiology (1.89% vs. 15.49%, < 0.008), had shorter time from stroke onset to IVT (125 [93-180] vs. 140 [110-186] min, p < 0.008), less often underwent mechanical thrombectomy (18.87% vs. 46.48%, p < 0.001), had higher CRP levels (10.3 [3.2-39.8] vs. 4.3 [2.1-9.6] mg/L, p = 0.003), higher maximal systolic blood pressure within 24 hours after IVT (153 [140-170] vs. 138 [120-145] mmHg, p < 0.001), and higher creatinine concentration (88 [68-108] vs. 77 [67-87] µmol/l, p = 0.004), less often had a favourable outcome (48.04% vs. 85.51%, odds ratio [OR] 0.16, 95%CI: 0.07-0.34, p < 0.001), and had a greater risk of death (26.47% vs. 5.80%, OR 5.85, 95%CI: 1.95-17.59, p < 0.001) within three months of stroke onset. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the independent predictors of worse outcome in patients aged 80 or more were NIHSS score after IVT (OR 0.64, 95%CI: 0.53-0.78, p < 0.001), pre-stroke mRS score ≥ 1 (OR 0.10, 95%CI: 0.02-0.61, p = 0.012), and CRP levels (OR 0.96, 95%CI: 0.93-0.99, p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: AIS patients treated with reperfusion therapy and aged 80 or more have around a six times higher risk of an unfavourable outcome or death within three months of stroke onset compared to those aged below 60. Higher NIHSS score after IVT, any signs of disability before stroke as measured with mRS, and higher CRP levels are independent risk factors for worse prognosis in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/drug therapy , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/etiology , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Thrombolytic Therapy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
14.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 80(5 Suppl 1): 72-79, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993575

ABSTRACT

In 2019, the American Heart Association did not recommend the emergent use of anticoagulation to prevent recurrence or progression of acute ischemic stroke. However, its indication in patients with extracranial artery intraluminal thrombus with artery-to-artery cerebral embolization must be analyzed. In this article, we will also discuss other indications of anticoagulation. This treatment could be indicated in patients with ischemic stroke caused by embolization from cervical artery dissection, catastrophic antiphospholipid antibodies syndrome (APS) and some cases of Covid 19. For secondary prevention, anticoagulation is recommended for Cardioembolic stroke such as nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and other cardiopathies, some patients with cervical artery dissection, stroke associated with cancer, and thrombophilia such as APS. The timing to restart anticoagulation after a large ischemic stroke or after a cerebral hemorrhagic transformation always represent a challenge. Even in patients with high risk of thromboembolism it should be delayed at least two weeks, ideal after four weeks.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Humans , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/prevention & control
15.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 40: 40-43, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966537

ABSTRACT

Pediatric stroke is considered an infrequent complication of COVID-19. Focal cerebral arteriopathy (FCA) is one of the most common causes of arterial ischemic stroke in a previously healthy child. The present report describes a toddler with FCA most likely induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection who showed significant clinical improvement that may be related to injection of intra-arterial nimodipine. To our knowledge, this is the first reported use of nimodipine in this setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebral Arterial Diseases , Stroke , COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Arterial Diseases/complications , Cerebral Arterial Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Arterial Diseases/drug therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Nimodipine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/etiology
16.
Rev Neurol ; 75(4): 97-100, 2022 08 16.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1965112

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Infection by coronavirus type 2, which is the cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2), gives rise to thromboembolic complications, including acute cerebrovascular disease. Due to the hypercoagulable state that accompanies pregnancy, the thrombotic risk in these patients may be particularly significant. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 41-year-old woman, 34+1 weeks pregnant, diagnosed with bilateral interstitial pneumonia, caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The patient presented with severe respiratory failure, and so the decision was made to perform an emergency caesarean section and she was transferred to the intensive care unit. During her stay in hospital, the patient suffered a sudden episode of decreased level of consciousness, and magnetic resonance angiography revealed thrombosis in the left vertebral artery and in the basilar artery, with the presence of acute ischaemic infarction in both cerebellar hemispheres and bilateral involvement of the brainstem. CONCLUSION: Severe SARS-CoV-2 disease results in a prothrombotic state that correlates with the prognosis of the disease. The last trimester of pregnancy and the puerperium are known prothrombotic risk factors. Recommendations for anticoagulation management in pregnant patients with COVID-19 are based on limited evidence. This is the first case to be published in Spain involving cerebral arterial thrombosis in a pregnant patient with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


TITLE: Ictus isquémico por oclusión de la arteria basilar en una paciente puérpera con infección por SARS-CoV-2.Introducción. La infección por coronavirus de tipo 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causante del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (COVID-19), produce complicaciones tromboembólicas, incluyendo casos de enfermedad cerebrovascular aguda. Debido al estado de hipercoagulabilidad que acompaña al embarazo, el riesgo trombótico en estas pacientes puede ser especialmente relevante. Caso clínico. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 41 años, gestante de 34 + 1 semanas, diagnosticada de neumonía intersticial bilateral, SARS-CoV-2. La paciente presentó insuficiencia respiratoria grave, por lo que se decidió la realización de una cesárea urgente y se trasladó a la unidad de cuidados intensivos. Durante su estancia en ésta, la paciente presentó un episodio brusco de disminución del nivel de consciencia, y se evidenció por angiorresonancia magnética una trombosis en la arteria vertebral izquierda y en la arteria basilar, con presencia de infarto isquémico agudo en ambos hemisferios cerebelosos y afectación bilateral del tronco del encéfalo. Conclusión. La enfermedad grave por el SARS-CoV-2 produce un estado protrombótico que se correlaciona con el pronóstico de la enfermedad. El último trimestre del embarazo y el puerperio son factores de riesgo protrombóticos conocidos. Las recomendaciones del manejo de anticoagulación en pacientes embarazadas con COVID-19 se basan en una evidencia limitada. Éste es el primer caso publicado en España de trombosis arterial cerebral en una paciente embarazada con infección por el SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Thrombosis , Adult , Basilar Artery/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Cesarean Section , Female , Humans , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/etiology
17.
Stroke ; 53(8): 2497-2503, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962530

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data from the early pandemic revealed that 0.62% of children hospitalized with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) had an acute arterial ischemic stroke (AIS). In a larger cohort from June 2020 to December 2020, we sought to determine whether our initial point estimate was stable as the pandemic continued and to understand radiographic and laboratory data that may clarify mechanisms of pediatric AIS in the setting of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We surveyed international sites with pediatric stroke expertise to determine numbers of hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 patients <18 years, numbers of incident AIS cases among children (29 days to <18 years), frequency of SARS-CoV-2 testing for children with AIS, and numbers of childhood AIS cases positive for SARS-CoV-2 June 1 to December 31, 2020. Two stroke neurologists with 1 neuroradiologist determined whether SARS-CoV-2 was the main stroke risk factor, contributory, or incidental. RESULTS: Sixty-one centers from 21 countries provided AIS data. Forty-eight centers (78.7%) provided SARS-CoV-2 hospitalization data. SARS-CoV-2 testing was performed in 335/373 acute AIS cases (89.8%) compared with 99/166 (59.6%) in March to May 2020, P<0.0001. Twenty-three of 335 AIS cases tested (6.9%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 compared with 6/99 tested (6.1%) in March to May 2020, P=0.78. Of the 22 of 23 AIS cases with SARS-CoV-2 in whom we could collect additional data, SARS-CoV-2 was the main stroke risk factor in 6 (3 with arteritis/vasculitis, 3 with focal cerebral arteriopathy), a contributory factor in 13, and incidental in 3. Elevated inflammatory markers were common, occurring in 17 (77.3%). From centers with SARS-CoV-2 hospitalization data, of 7231 pediatric patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2, 23 had AIS (0.32%) compared with 6/971 (0.62%) from March to May 2020, P=0.14. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of AIS among children hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 appeared stable compared with our earlier estimate. Among children in whom SARS-CoV-2 was considered the main stroke risk factor, inflammatory arteriopathies were the stroke mechanism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology
18.
Tomography ; 8(4): 1836-1850, 2022 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1939006

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, primarily causes a respiratory tract infection that is not limited to respiratory distress syndrome, but it is also implicated in other body systems. Systemic complications were reported due to an exaggerated inflammatory response, which involves severe alveolar damage in the lungs and exacerbates the hypercoagulation that leads to venous thrombosis, ischemic attack, vascular dysfunction and infarction of visceral abdominal organs. Some complications are related to anticoagulant drugs that are administrated to stabilize hypercoagulability, but increase the risk of bleeding, hematoma and hemorrhage. The aim of this study is to report the diagnostic role of CT in the early diagnosis and management of patients with severe COVID-19 complications through the most interesting cases in our experience. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The retrospective analysis of patients studied for COVID-19 in our institution and hospitals, which are part of the university training network, was performed. CASES: Pneumomediastinum, cortical kidney necrosis, splenic infarction, cerebral ischemic stroke, thrombosis of the lower limb and hematomas are the most major complications that are reviewed in this study. CONCLUSIONS: Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the CT imaging modality with its high sensitivity and specificity remains the preferred imaging choice to diagnose early the different complications associated with COVID-19, such as thrombosis, ischemic stroke, infarction and pneumomediastinum, and their management, which significantly improved the outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Mediastinal Emphysema , Stroke , Thrombosis , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Infarction/complications , Mediastinal Emphysema/complications , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/etiology , Thrombosis/complications
19.
Front Neuroendocrinol ; 67: 101016, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937319

ABSTRACT

Incidents of strokes are increased in young women relative to young men, suggesting that oral contraceptive (OC) use is one of the causes of stroke among young women. Long-term exposures to the varying combinations of estrogen and progestogen found in OCs affect blood clotting, lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, endothelial function, and de novo synthesis of neurosteroids, especially brain-derived 17ß-estradiol. The latter is essential for neuroprotection, memory, sexual differentiation, synaptic transmission, and behavior. Deleterious effects of OCs may be exacerbated due to comorbidities like polycystic ovary syndrome, sickle cell anemia, COVID-19, exposures to endocrine disrupting chemicals, and conventional or electronic cigarette smoking. The goal of the current review is to revisit the available literature regarding the impact of OC use on stroke, to explain possible underlying mechanisms, and to identify gaps in our understanding to promote future research to reduce and cure stroke in OC users.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Stroke , Male , Female , Humans , Contraceptives, Oral/pharmacology , Friends , Stroke/etiology
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