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2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257910, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448575

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The first Covid-19 epidemic outbreak has enormously impacted the delivery of clinical healthcare and hospital management practices in most of the hospitals around the world. In this context, it is important to assess whether the clinical management of non-Covid patients has not been compromised. Among non-Covid cases, patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) and stroke need non-deferrable emergency care and are the natural candidates to be studied. Preliminary evidence suggests that the time from onset of symptoms to emergency department (ED) presentation has significantly increased in Covid-19 times as well as the 30-day mortality and in-hospital mortality. METHODS: We check, in a causal inference framework, the causal effect of the hospital's stress generated by Covid-19 pandemic on in-hospital mortality rates (primary end-point of the study) of AMI and stroke over several time-windows of 15-days around the implementation date of the State of Emergency restrictions for COVID-19 (March, 9th 2020) using two quasi-experimental approaches, regression-discontinuity design (RDD) and difference-in-regression-discontinuity (DRD) designs. Data are drawn from Spedali Civili of Brescia, one of the most hit provinces in Italy by Covid-19 during March and May 2020. FINDINGS: Despite the potential adverse effects on expected mortality due to a longer time to hospitalization and staff extra-burden generated by the first wave of Covid-19, the AMI and stroke mortality rates are overall not statistically different during the first wave of Covid-19 than before the first peak. The obtained results provided by RDD models are robust also when we account for seasonality and unobserved factors with DRD models. INTERPRETATION: The non-statistically significant impact on mortality rates for AMI and stroke patients provides evidence of the hospital ability to manage -with the implementation of a dual track organization- the simultaneous delivery of high-quality cares to both Covid and non-Covid patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Stroke/mortality , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Databases, Factual , Emergency Medical Services , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/pathology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stroke/pathology
4.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(9): 105985, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294009

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 pandemic has forced important changes in health care worldwide. Stroke care networks have been affected, especially during peak periods. We assessed the impact of the pandemic and lockdowns in stroke admissions and care in Latin America. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multinational study (7 countries, 18 centers) of patients admitted during the pandemic outbreak (March-June 2020). Comparisons were made with the same period in 2019. Numbers of cases, stroke etiology and severity, acute care and hospitalization outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: Most countries reported mild decreases in stroke admissions compared to the same period of 2019 (1187 vs. 1166, p = 0.03). Among stroke subtypes, there was a reduction in ischemic strokes (IS) admissions (78.3% vs. 73.9%, p = 0.01) compared with 2019, especially in IS with NIHSS 0-5 (50.1% vs. 44.9%, p = 0.03). A substantial increase in the proportion of stroke admissions beyond 48 h from symptoms onset was observed (13.8% vs. 20.5%, p < 0.001). Nevertheless, no differences in total reperfusion treatment rates were observed, with similar door-to-needle, door-to-CT, and door-to-groin times in both periods. Other stroke outcomes, as all-type mortality during hospitalization (4.9% vs. 9.7%, p < 0.001), length of stay (IQR 1-5 days vs. 0-9 days, p < 0.001), and likelihood to be discharged home (91.6% vs. 83.0%, p < 0.001), were compromised during COVID-19 lockdown period. CONCLUSIONS: In this Latin America survey, there was a mild decrease in admissions of IS during the COVID-19 lockdown period, with a significant delay in time to consultations and worse hospitalization outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Endovascular Procedures/trends , Hospitalization/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Stroke/therapy , Time-to-Treatment/trends , COVID-19/transmission , Cause of Death/trends , Endovascular Procedures/adverse effects , Endovascular Procedures/mortality , Female , Health Care Surveys , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Latin America , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Patient Admission/trends , Patient Discharge/trends , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(4): e23311, 2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226936

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 response, nonclinical essential workers usually worked overtime and experienced significant work stress, which subsequently increased their risk of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and pre-existing conditions. Deaths on duty, including deaths due to overwork, during the COVID-19 response were usually reported on web-based platforms for public recognition and solidarity. Although no official statistics are available for these casualties, a list of on-duty deaths has been made publicly available on the web by crowdsourcing. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to understand the trends and characteristics of deaths related to overwork among the frontline nonclinical essential workers participating in nonpharmaceutical interventions during the first wave of COVID-19 in China. METHODS: Based on a web-based crowdsourced list of deaths on duty during the first wave of the COVID-19 response in China, we manually verified all overwork-related death records against the full-text web reports from credible sources. After excluding deaths caused by COVID-19 infection and accidents, a total of 340 deaths related to overwork among nonclinical essential workers were attributed to combatting the COVID-19 crisis. We coded the key characteristics of the deceased workers, including sex, age at death, location, causes of death, date of incidence, date of death, containment duties, working area, and occupation. The temporal and spatial correlations between deaths from overwork and COVID-19 cases in China were also examined using Pearson correlation coefficient. RESULTS: From January 20 to April 26, 2020, at least 340 nonclinical frontline workers in China were reported to have died as a result of overwork while combatting COVID-19. The weekly overwork mortality was positively correlated with weekly COVID-19 cases (r=0.79, P<.001). Two-thirds of deceased workers (230/340, 67.6%) were under 55 years old, and two major causes of deaths related to overwork were cardiovascular diseases (138/340, 40.6%) and cerebrovascular diseases (73/340, 21.5%). Outside of Hubei province, there were almost 2.5 times as many deaths caused by COVID-19-related overwork (308/340, 90.6%) than by COVID-19 itself (n=120). CONCLUSIONS: The high number of deaths related to overwork among nonclinical essential workers at the frontline of the COVID-19 epidemic is alarming. Policies for occupational health protection against work hazards should therefore be prioritized and enforced.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Occupational Stress/mortality , Adult , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Occupational Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stroke/mortality
6.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 69(7): 1713-1721, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218150

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Emergency department (ED) visits have declined while excess mortality, not attributable to COVID-19, has grown. It is not known whether older adults are accessing emergency care differently from their younger counterparts. Our objective was to determine patterns of ED visit counts for emergent conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic for older adults. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study. SETTING: Observational analysis of ED sites enrolled in a national clinical quality registry. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and sixty-four ED sites in 33 states from January 1, 2019 to November 15, 2020. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES: We measured daily ED visit counts for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke, sepsis, fall, and hip fracture, as well as deaths in the ED, by age categories. We estimated Poisson regression models comparing early and post-early pandemic periods (defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) to the pre-pandemic period. We report incident rate ratios to summarize changes in visit incidence. RESULTS: For AMI, stroke, and sepsis, the older (75-84) and oldest old (85+ years) had the greatest decline in visit counts initially and the smallest recovery in the post-early pandemic periods. For falls, visits declined early and partially recovered uniformly across age categories. In contrast, hip fractures exhibited less change in visit rates across time periods. Deaths in the ED increased during the early pandemic period, but then fell and were persistently lower than baseline, especially for the older (75-84) and oldest old (85+ years). CONCLUSIONS: The decline in ED visits for emergent conditions among older adults has been more pronounced and persistent than for younger patients, with fewer deaths in the ED. This is concerning given the greater prevalence and risk of poor outcomes for emergent conditions in this age group that are amenable to time-sensitive ED diagnosis and treatment, and may in part explain excess mortality during the COVID-19 era among older adults.


Subject(s)
Accidental Falls/statistics & numerical data , Aging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Myocardial Infarction , Sepsis , Stroke , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Aging/physiology , Aging/psychology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergencies/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mortality , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/mortality , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/diagnosis , Sepsis/mortality , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/mortality , United States/epidemiology
7.
J Prev Interv Community ; 49(2): 127-135, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172608

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 may present with neurological manifestations, lack of oxygenation, or clotting disorders such as ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes. This has been observed in even young patients with mild symptoms. The aim of this study was to explore current online news coverage of acute stroke associated with COVID-19 in the four-month period from April 2020 to July 2020, a time during which the US found itself in the center of the pandemic. The relevant Google News stories were reviewed for content. The analysis indicated that 118 online news reports covered the topic to varying degrees, including data from reputable sources, references to the neurological symptoms, and to the incidence of stroke in young patients. It is important that health professionals be aware of this risk and convey to the public the possibility of stroke due to COVID-19 so as to increase the probability of early diagnosis and optimal outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internet , Mass Media , Stroke/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Information Storage and Retrieval , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/mortality , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
Trends Neurosci ; 44(7): 527-537, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171720

ABSTRACT

Prior to COVID-19, only two human-tropic coronaviruses resulted in epidemics and cerebrovascular disease was rarely reported. Evidence now suggests that 1-6% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients develop stroke. According to some reports, stroke risk is more than sevenfold greater in patients with COVID-19 than influenza. Concerningly, outcomes of COVID-19-related stroke are often worse than in stroke patients without COVID-19 from the same cohorts. In this review, we highlight the emerging association between COVID-19 and stroke and discuss putative pathogenetic mechanisms. Etiology of stroke in COVID-19 patients is likely multifactorial, related to coagulopathy, inflammation, platelet activation, and alterations to the vascular endothelium. Significant work remains to be done to better understand the pathogenesis of COVID-19-related stroke and for designing optimal primary and secondary prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/complications , Stroke/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , Stroke/mortality , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/mortality , Thrombosis/virology
9.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 62(1): 119-125, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171631

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A previous study revealed a preliminary trend towards higher in hospital mortality in patients admitted as an emergency with acute stroke during the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. The current study aimed to further examine the possible impact of a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection on in hospital mortality. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of health insurance claims data from the second largest insurance fund in Germany, BARMER. Patients hospitalised for ST elevation (STEMI) and non-ST elevation (NSTEMI) myocardial infarction, acute limb ischaemia (ALI), aortic rupture, acute stroke, or transient ischaemic attack (TIA) between 1 January 2017, and 31 October 2020, were included. Admission rates per 10 000 insured and mortality were compared between March - June 2017 - 2019 (pre-COVID) and March - June 2020 (COVID). Mortality rates were determined by the occurrence of a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: A total of 316 718 hospitalisations were included (48.7% female, mean 72.5 years), and 21 191 (6.7%, 95% CI 6.6% - 6.8%) deaths occurred. In hospital mortality increased during the COVID-19 pandemic when compared with the three previous years for patients with acute stroke from 8.3% (95% CI 8.0 - 8.5) to 9.6% (95% CI 9.1 - 10.2), while no statistically significant changes were observed for STEMI, NSTEMI, ALI, aortic rupture, and TIA. When comparing patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (2.4%, 95% CI 2.3 - 2.5) vs. non-infected patients, a higher in hospital mortality was observed for acute stroke (12.4% vs. 9.0%), ALI (14.3% vs. 5.0%), and TIA (2.7% vs. 0.3%), while no statistically significant differences were observed for STEMI, NSTEMI, and aortic rupture. CONCLUSION: This retrospective analysis of claims data has provided hints of an association between the COVID-19 pandemic and increased in hospital mortality in patients with acute stroke. Furthermore, confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with increased mortality in patients with stroke, TIA, and ALI. Future studies are urgently needed to better understand the underlying mechanism and relationship between the new coronavirus and acute stroke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemic Attack, Transient/mortality , Peripheral Arterial Disease/mortality , Stroke/mortality , Administrative Claims, Healthcare/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergencies/epidemiology , Extremities/blood supply , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Insurance, Health/statistics & numerical data , Ischemic Attack, Transient/complications , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Peripheral Arterial Disease/complications , Peripheral Arterial Disease/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stroke/complications , Stroke/therapy
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(4): e23311, 2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171267

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 response, nonclinical essential workers usually worked overtime and experienced significant work stress, which subsequently increased their risk of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and pre-existing conditions. Deaths on duty, including deaths due to overwork, during the COVID-19 response were usually reported on web-based platforms for public recognition and solidarity. Although no official statistics are available for these casualties, a list of on-duty deaths has been made publicly available on the web by crowdsourcing. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to understand the trends and characteristics of deaths related to overwork among the frontline nonclinical essential workers participating in nonpharmaceutical interventions during the first wave of COVID-19 in China. METHODS: Based on a web-based crowdsourced list of deaths on duty during the first wave of the COVID-19 response in China, we manually verified all overwork-related death records against the full-text web reports from credible sources. After excluding deaths caused by COVID-19 infection and accidents, a total of 340 deaths related to overwork among nonclinical essential workers were attributed to combatting the COVID-19 crisis. We coded the key characteristics of the deceased workers, including sex, age at death, location, causes of death, date of incidence, date of death, containment duties, working area, and occupation. The temporal and spatial correlations between deaths from overwork and COVID-19 cases in China were also examined using Pearson correlation coefficient. RESULTS: From January 20 to April 26, 2020, at least 340 nonclinical frontline workers in China were reported to have died as a result of overwork while combatting COVID-19. The weekly overwork mortality was positively correlated with weekly COVID-19 cases (r=0.79, P<.001). Two-thirds of deceased workers (230/340, 67.6%) were under 55 years old, and two major causes of deaths related to overwork were cardiovascular diseases (138/340, 40.6%) and cerebrovascular diseases (73/340, 21.5%). Outside of Hubei province, there were almost 2.5 times as many deaths caused by COVID-19-related overwork (308/340, 90.6%) than by COVID-19 itself (n=120). CONCLUSIONS: The high number of deaths related to overwork among nonclinical essential workers at the frontline of the COVID-19 epidemic is alarming. Policies for occupational health protection against work hazards should therefore be prioritized and enforced.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Occupational Stress/mortality , Adult , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Occupational Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stroke/mortality
11.
Stroke ; 52(2): 563-572, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166636

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The magnitude and drivers of excess cerebrovascular-specific mortality during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic are unknown. We aim to quantify excess stroke-related deaths and characterize its association with social distancing behavior and COVID-19-related vascular pathology. METHODS: United States and state-level excess cerebrovascular deaths from January to May 2020 were quantified using National Center for Health Statistic data and Poisson regression models. Excess cerebrovascular deaths were analyzed as a function of time-varying stroke-related emergency medical service (EMS) calls and cumulative COVID-19 deaths using linear regression. A state-level regression analysis was performed to determine the association between excess cerebrovascular deaths and time spent in residences, measured by Google Community Mobility Reports, during the height of the pandemic after the first COVID-19 death (February 29). RESULTS: Forty states and New York City were included. Excess cerebrovascular mortality occurred nationally from the weeks ending March 28 to May 2, 2020, up to a 7.8% increase above expected levels during the week of April 18. Decreased stroke-related EMS calls were associated with excess stroke deaths one (70 deaths per 1000 fewer EMS calls [95% CI, 20-118]) and 2 weeks (85 deaths per 1000 fewer EMS calls [95% CI, 37-133]) later. Twenty-three states and New York City experienced excess cerebrovascular mortality during the pandemic height. A 10% increase in time spent at home was associated with a 4.3% increase in stroke deaths (incidence rate ratio, 1.043 [95% CI, 1.001-1.085]) after adjusting for COVID-19 deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Excess US cerebrovascular deaths during the COVID-19 pandemic were observed and associated with decreases in stroke-related EMS calls nationally and mobility at the state level. Public health measures are needed to identify and counter the reticence to seeking medical care for acute stroke during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/mortality , Stroke/virology , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , United States
12.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(3): 326-331, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153755

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Increasing evidence suggests patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may develop thrombosis and thrombosis-related complications. Some previous evidence has suggested COVID-19-associated strokes are more severe with worse outcomes for patients, but further studies are needed to confirm these findings. The aim of this study was to determine the association between COVID-19 and mortality for patients with ischaemic stroke in a large multicentre study. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using electronic medical records of inpatients from 50 healthcare organizations, predominately from the USA. Patients with ischaemic stroke within 30 days of COVID-19 were identified. COVID-19 was determined from diagnosis codes or a positive test result identified with CO-VID-19-specific laboratory codes between January 20, 2020, and October 1, 2020. Historical controls with ischaemic stroke without COVID-19 were identified in the period January 20, 2019, to October 1, 2019. 1:1 propensity score matching was used to balance the cohorts with and without CO-VID-19 on characteristics including age, sex, race and comorbidities. Kaplan-Meier survival curves for all-cause 60-day mortality by COVID-19 status were produced. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 954 inpatients with ischaemic stroke and COVID-19. During the same time period in 2019, there were 48,363 inpatients with ischaemic stroke without COVID-19 (historical controls). Compared to patients with ischaemic stroke without COVID-19, patients with ischaemic stroke and COVID-19 had a lower mean age, had a lower prevalence of white patients, a higher prevalence of black or African American patients and a higher prevalence of hypertension, previous cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, ischaemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation, chronic kidney disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, liver disease, neoplasms, and mental disorders due to known physiological conditions. After propensity score matching, there were 952 cases and 952 historical controls; cases and historical controls were better balanced on all included characteristics (all p > 0.05). After propensity score matching, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed the survival probability was significantly lower in ischaemic stroke patients with COVID-19 (78.3% vs. 91.0%, log-rank test p < 0.0001). The odds of 60-day mortality were significantly higher for patients with ischaemic stroke and COVID-19 compared to the propensity score-matched historical controls (odds ratio: 2.51 [95% confidence interval 1.88-3.34]). DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: Ischaemic stroke patients with COVID-19 had significantly higher 60-day all-cause mortality compared to propensity score-matched historical controls (ischaemic stroke patients without COVID-19).


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/mortality , COVID-19/mortality , Stroke/mortality , Age Factors , Aged , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
14.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(4): 105639, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051811

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on stroke, the number of stroke patients, time since last known well (LKW), morbidity, and mortality of stroke patients in Southwest Healthcare System (SHS), California (CA) and the United States (US) were analyzed during 2019 and compared to 2020. Our hypothesis is that there are regional differences in stroke outcome depending on location during the COVID-19 study period which influences stroke epidemiology and clinical stroke practice. METHODS: The American Heart Association's 'Get with the Guidelines' (GWTG) database was used to evaluate the following categories: code stroke, diagnosis of stroke upon discharge, inpatient mortality, modified Rankin Score (mRS) upon discharge (morbidity), and time since last known well (LKW). Stroke registry data from February through June 2019 and 2020 were collected for retrospective review. RESULTS: The total number of strokes decreased in the US and CA, but increased in SHS during the COVID-19 study period. The US and SHS demonstrated no change in stroke mortality, but CA demonstrated a higher stroke mortality during the COVID-19 pandemic. There was greater loss of independence with increased stroke morbidity in the US during the COVID-19 pandemic. There was a significant increase in time since LKW in the US and SHS, and an increase trend in time since LKW in CA during the COVID-19 study period. DISCUSSION: To understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on stroke epidemiology, we propose that all stroke inpatients should receive a SARS-CoV-2 detection test and this result be entered into the GWTG database. We demonstrate that the regional distribution of stroke mortality in the US changed during the COVID-19 study period, with increased stroke mortality in CA. Stroke morbidity throughout the US was significantly worse during the COVID-19 pandemic. We propose methods to address the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on clinical stroke practice such as the use of mobile stroke units, clinical trials using anti-inflammation drugs on SARS-CoV-2 positive stroke patients, and COVID stroke rehabilitation centers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Databases, Factual , Disability Evaluation , Health Status , Humans , Prognosis , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/mortality , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
15.
Neurology ; 95(24): e3373-e3385, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050484

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that strokes occurring in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have distinctive features, we investigated stroke risk, clinical phenotypes, and outcomes in this population. METHODS: We performed a systematic search resulting in 10 studies reporting stroke frequency among patients with COVID-19, which were pooled with 1 unpublished series from Canada. We applied random-effects meta-analyses to estimate the proportion of stroke among COVID-19. We performed an additional systematic search for cases series of stroke in patients with COVID-19 (n = 125), and we pooled these data with 35 unpublished cases from Canada, the United States, and Iran. We analyzed clinical characteristics and in-hospital mortality stratified into age groups (<50, 50-70, >70 years). We applied cluster analyses to identify specific clinical phenotypes and their relationship with death. RESULTS: The proportions of patients with COVID-19 with stroke (1.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9%-3.7%) and in-hospital mortality (34.4%, 95% CI 27.2%-42.4%) were exceedingly high. Mortality was 67% lower in patients <50 years of age relative to those >70 years of age (odds ratio [OR] 0.33, 95% CI 0.12-0.94, p = 0.039). Large vessel occlusion was twice as frequent (46.9%) as previously reported and was high across all age groups, even in the absence of risk factors or comorbid conditions. A clinical phenotype characterized by older age, a higher burden of comorbid conditions, and severe COVID-19 respiratory symptoms was associated with the highest in-hospital mortality (58.6%) and a 3 times higher risk of death than the rest of the cohort (OR 3.52, 95% CI 1.53-8.09, p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Stroke is relatively frequent among patients with COVID-19 and has devastating consequences across all ages. The interplay of older age, comorbid conditions, and severity of COVID-19 respiratory symptoms is associated with an extremely elevated mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Phenotype , Stroke/mortality , Stroke/physiopathology , Humans , Mortality/trends , Risk Factors
16.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 199: 106227, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023513

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients with COVID-19 to non-COVID-19 controls, and to describe changes in stroke admission patterns during the pandemic. METHODS: This is a single center, retrospective, observational study. All consecutive patients admitted with primary diagnosis of ischemic/ hemorrhagic stroke between March1st -May10th 2020 were included and compared with the same time period in 2019. RESULTS: There was a 41.9% increase in stroke admissions in 2020 (148 vs 210,P = .001). When comparing all ischemic strokes, higher rate of large vessel occlusion (LVO) (18.3% vs 33.8%,P = .008) and significant delay in initiation of mechanical thrombectomy after hospital arrival (67.75 vs 104.30 minutes,P = .001) was observed in 2020. When comparing all hemorrhagic strokes, there were no differences between the two years. Among 591 COVID-19 admissions, 31 (5.24%) patients with stroke including 19 with ischemic (3.21%) and 12 with hemorrhagic stroke (2.03%) were identified. Patients with COVID-19 and ischemic stroke were significantly younger (58.74 vs 48.11 years,P = .002), predominantly male (68.18% vs 94.74%,P = .016), had lesser vascular risk factors, had more severe clinical presentation (NIHSS 7.01 vs 17.05,P < .001), and higher rate of LVO (23.6% vs. 63.1%,P = .006). There was no difference in the rate of endovascular thrombectomy, but time to groin puncture was significantly longer in COVID-19 patients (83.41 vs 129.50 minutes,P = .003). For hemorrhagic stroke, COVID-19 patients did not differ from non-COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Stroke continues to occur during this pandemic and stroke pathways have been affected by the pandemic. Stroke occurs in approximately 5% of patients with COVID-19. COVID-19 associated ischemic stroke occurs in predominantly male patients who are younger, with fewer vascular risk factors, can be more severe, and have higher rates of LVO. Despite an increase in LVO during the pandemic, treatment with mechanical thrombectomy has not increased. COVID-19 associated hemorrhagic stroke does not differ from non-COVID-19 hemorrhagic stroke patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Adult , Aged , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Endovascular Procedures , Female , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/complications , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnosis , Intracranial Hemorrhages/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke/mortality , Survival Rate , Thrombectomy , United Arab Emirates
17.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 156(3): 112-117, 2021 02 12.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988767

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the survival of patients hospitalized with covid-19 and who presented some vascular thrombotic complication. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All consecutive patients with covid-19 who were treated during the months of March and April 2020 at our institution were included. All patients were symptomatic and the thrombotic event objectively confirmed. Patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), ischemic stroke, and peripheral arterial thrombosis (PAT) were included. Survival curves for all groups were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier with log rank test, and Cox regression. RESULTS: During the pandemic period from March-1 to April-30, 2943 patients were treated with confirmed covid-19 in our center. Of them, 106 patients showed some symptomatic vascular thrombosis: 13 patients had PAT, 15 ischemic stroke, 20 DVT and 58 PE. Another 11 patients presented multiple vascular thrombosis. Although the mean age was 65 years, there were differences between groups being older those patients with arterial thrombosis. A 67.92% were men. In total, 25 patients died during their hospital admission (23.58%), with differences between groups, being more common in patients with PAT (9 patients out of 13) and ischemic stroke (8 patients out of 15), than in those with DVT (1 patient out of 20) or PE (7 patients out of 58). CONCLUSIONS: The venous thromboembolic risk in these patients is greater than the arterial, but arterial thrombosis when it occurs was associated with high mortality rates. Survival was better in patients with DVT and PE than in patients with ischemic stroke or PAT.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Stroke/virology , Thrombosis/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/mortality , Risk Factors , Spain/epidemiology , Stroke/mortality , Survival Analysis , Thrombosis/mortality
18.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(2): 178-184, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-975760

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We examined the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on our regional stroke thrombectomy service in the UK. METHODS: This was a single-center health service evaluation. We began testing for COVID-19 on 3 March and introduced a modified "COVID Stroke Thrombectomy Pathway" on 18 March. We analyzed the clinical, procedural and outcome data for 61 consecutive stroke thrombectomy patients between 1 January and 30 April. We compared the data for January and February ("pre-COVID," n = 33) versus March and April ("during COVID," n = 28). RESULTS: Patient demographics were similar between the 2 groups (mean age 71 ± 12.8 years, 39% female). During the COVID-19 pandemic, (a) total stroke admissions fell by 17% but the thrombectomy rate was maintained at 20% of ischemic strokes; (b) successful recanalization rate was maintained at 81%; (c) early neurological outcomes (neurological improvement following thrombectomy and inpatient mortality) were not significantly different; (d) use of general anesthesia fell significantly from 85 to 32% as intended; and (e) time intervals from onset to arrival, groin puncture, and recanalization were not significantly different, whereas internal delays for external referrals significantly improved for door-to-groin puncture (48 [interquartile range (IQR) 39-57] vs. 33 [IQR 27-44] minutes, p = 0.013) and door-to-recanalization (82.5 [IQR 61-110] vs. 60 [IQR 55-70] minutes, p = 0.018). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a negative impact on the stroke admission numbers but not stroke thrombectomy rate, successful recanalization rate, or early neurological outcome. Internal delays actually improved during the COVID-19 pandemic. Further studies should examine the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on longer term outcome.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/surgery , COVID-19/complications , Stroke/surgery , Thrombectomy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/surgery , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/mortality , Thrombectomy/methods , Time-to-Treatment , United Kingdom
19.
Int J Stroke ; 16(4): 429-436, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-968101

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19-related strokes are increasingly being diagnosed across the world. Knowledge about the clinical profile, imaging findings, and outcomes is still evolving. Here we describe the characteristics of a cohort of 62 COVID-19-related stroke patients from 13 hospitals, from Bangalore city, south India. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical profile, neuroimaging findings, interventions, and outcomes in COVID-19-related stroke patients. METHODS: This is a multicenter retrospective study of all COVID-19-related stroke patients from 13 hospitals from south India; 1st June 2020-31st August 2020. The demographic, clinical, laboratory, and neuroimaging data were collected along with treatment administered and outcomes. SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed in all cases by RT-PCR testing. The data obtained from the case records were entered in SPSS 25 for statistical analysis. RESULTS: During the three-month period, we had 62 COVID-19-related stroke patients, across 13 centers; 60 (97%) had ischemic strokes, while 2 (3%) had hemorrhagic strokes. The mean age of patients was 55.66 ± 13.20 years, with 34 (77.4%) males. Twenty-six percent (16/62) of patients did not have any conventional risk factors for stroke. Diabetes mellitus was seen in 54.8%, hypertension was present in 61.3%, coronary artery disease in 8%, and atrial fibrillation in 4.8%. Baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 12.7 ± 6.44. Stroke severity was moderate (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 5-15) in 27 (61.3%) patients, moderate to severe (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 16-20) in 13 (20.9%) patients and severe (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 21-42) in 11 (17.7%) patients. According to TOAST classification, 48.3% was stroke of undetermined etiology, 36.6% had large artery atherosclerosis, 10% had small vessel occlusion, and 5% had cardioembolic strokes. Three (5%) received intravenous thrombolysis with tenecteplase 0.2 mg/kg and 3 (5%) underwent mechanical thrombectomy, two endovascular and one surgical. Duration of hospital stay was 16.16 ± 6.39 days; 21% (13/62) died in hospital, while 37 (59.7%) had a modified Rankin score of 3-5 at discharge. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and higher baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores were associated with increased mortality. A comparison to 111 historical controls during the non-COVID period showed a higher proportion of strokes of undetermined etiology, higher mortality, and higher morbidity in COVID-19-related stroke patients. CONCLUSION: COVID-19-related strokes are increasingly being recognized in developing countries, like India. Stroke of undetermined etiology appears to be the most common TOAST subtype of COVID-19-related strokes. COVID-19-related strokes were more severe in nature and resulted in higher mortality and morbidity. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and higher baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores were associated with increased mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Testing , Diabetes Complications/mortality , Female , Humans , Hypertension/complications , India/epidemiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Hemorrhages/epidemiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/mortality , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroimaging , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Sex Factors , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
20.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(12): 105321, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted global healthcare systems and this may affect stroke care and outcomes. This study examines the changes in stroke epidemiology and care during the COVID-19 pandemic in Zanjan Province, Iran. METHODS: This study is part of the CASCADE international initiative. From February 18, 2019, to July 18, 2020, we followed ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke hospitalization rates and outcomes in Valiasr Hospital, Zanjan, Iran. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model and an interrupted time series analysis (ITS) to identify changes in stroke hospitalization rate, baseline stroke severity [measured by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS)], disability [measured by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS)], presentation time (last seen normal to hospital presentation), thrombolytic therapy rate, median door-to-needle time, length of hospital stay, and in-hospital mortality. We compared in-hospital mortality between study periods using Cox-regression model. RESULTS: During the study period, 1,026 stroke patients were hospitalized. Stroke hospitalization rates per 100,000 population decreased from 68.09 before the pandemic to 44.50 during the pandemic, with a significant decline in both Bayesian [Beta: -1.034; Standard Error (SE): 0.22, 95% CrI: -1.48, -0.59] and ITS analysis (estimate: -1.03, SE = 0.24, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, we observed lower admission rates for patients with mild (NIHSS < 5) ischemic stroke (p < 0.0001). Although, the presentation time and door-to-needle time did not change during the pandemic, a lower proportion of patients received thrombolysis (-10.1%; p = 0.004). We did not see significant changes in admission rate to the stroke unit and in-hospital mortality rate; however, disability at discharge increased (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: In Zanjan, Iran, the COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted stroke outcomes and altered the delivery of stroke care. Observed lower admission rates for milder stroke may possibly be due to fear of exposure related to COVID-19. The decrease in patients treated with thrombolysis and the increased disability at discharge may indicate changes in the delivery of stroke care and increased pressure on existing stroke acute and subacute services. The results of this research will contribute to a similar analysis of the larger CASCADE dataset in order to confirm findings at a global scale and improve measures to ensure the best quality of care for stroke patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19 , Hospitalization/trends , Intracranial Hemorrhages/therapy , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care/trends , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/trends , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bayes Theorem , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/mortality , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnosis , Intracranial Hemorrhages/mortality , Iran/epidemiology , Length of Stay/trends , Male , Middle Aged , Recovery of Function , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/mortality , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
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