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1.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3279-3288, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this nationwide study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on stroke hospitalization rates, patient characteristics and 30-day case fatality rates. METHODS: All hospitalizations for stroke from January to June of each year from 2017 to 2020 were selected using International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes I60 to I64 in the national hospital discharge database. Patient characteristics and management were described according to three time periods: pre-lockdown, lockdown, and post-lockdown. Weekly incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were computed to compare time trends in the rates of patients hospitalized for stroke as well as in-hospital and 30-day case fatality rates between the years 2017-2019 and 2020. RESULTS: In 2020, between weeks 1 and 24, 55,308 patients were hospitalized for stroke in France. IRRs decreased by up to 30% for all age groups, sex, and stroke types during the lockdown compared to the period 2017-2019. Patients hospitalized during the second and third weeks of the lockdown had higher in-hospital case fatality rates compared to 2017-2019. In-hospital case fatality rates increased by almost 60% in patients aged under 65 years. Out-of-hospital 30-day case fatality rates increased between weeks 11 and 15 among patients who returned home after their hospitalization. Important changes in care management were found, including fewer stroke patients admitted to resuscitation units, more admitted to stroke care units, and a shorter mean length of hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: During the first weeks of the lockdown, rates of patients hospitalized for stroke fell by 30% and there were substantial increases of both in-hospital and out-of-hospital 30-day case fatality rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy
3.
Acta Biomed ; 92(5): e2021266, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504149

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has dramatically imposed healthcare systems to reorganize their departments, including neurological wards. We aimed to describe the rearrangements made by stroke units (SU) and neurological intensive care units (ICU) in several German community and university hospitals facing the pandemic. This cross-sectional, survey-based, nationwide study collected data of 15 university and 4 community hospitals in Germany, being part of IGNITE Study Group, from April 1 to April 6, 2020. The rearrangements and implementation of safety measures in SUs, intermediate care units (IMC), and neurological ICUs were compared. 84.2% of hospitals implemented a separated area for patients awaiting their COVID-19 test results and 94.7% had a dedicated zone for their management. Outpatient treatment was reduced in 63.2% and even suspended in 36.8% of the hospitals. A global reduction of bed capacity was observed. Hospitals reported compromised stroke treatment (52.6%) and reduction of thrombolysis and thrombectomy rates (36.8%). All hospitals proposed special training for COVID-19 management, recurrent meetings and all undertook measures improving safety for healthcare workers. In an unprecedented global healthcare crisis, knowledge of the initial reorganization and response of German hospitals to COVID-19 may help finding effective strategies to face the ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Critical Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Hospitals, University , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463635

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the responsiveness of the Spanish version of the Newcastle Stroke-specific Quality of Life measure (NEWSQOL) to assess quality of life in Spanish people after suffering a stroke. DESIGN: A prospective observational study was conducted to assess the responsiveness of the Spanish version of NEWSQOL. The sample contained 128 patients who filled in the questionnaires before and after a physical therapy intervention. The responsiveness was assessed with p-values using the effect size (ES) and the standardized response means (SRMs) of the change. Besides, two other external criteria were used to distinguish patients who improved with the treatment from those who remained stable. This classification was based on one functional independence measure (the Barthel Index) and one disability measure (the modified Rankin Scale). RESULTS: There was a statistically significant correlation (Spearman's coefficient = p < 0.01) between the domains of the Spanish version of NEWSQOL in relation to the Barthel Index and the modified Rankin Scale. All domains showed between marked-to-mild change responsiveness except sleep and relationships; mobility (ES 0.66 and SRM 0.92) and activities of daily living (ES 0.75 and SRM 0.87) were markedly responsive; communication (ES 0.38 and SRM 0.61) was moderately responsive; and pain, vision, cognition, feelings, emotions and fatigue were mildly responsive (ES 0.21-0.41 and SRM 0.23-0.44). CONCLUSION: The Spanish version of NEWSQOL shows between marked and mild responsiveness to measure the perception of QoL in post-stroke patients. Therefore, its use can be suitable for evaluation studies, clinical trials and clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Quality of Life , Stroke , Activities of Daily Living , Humans , Physical Therapy Modalities , Reproducibility of Results , Stroke/therapy , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Prim Care Companion CNS Disord ; 23(5)2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444415

ABSTRACT

Stroke is the second most common cause of death worldwide. It is a medical emergency demanding immediate recognition to provide time-sensitive acute management. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has challenged acute stroke care, and alternate models of treatment are needed. Telestroke is well proven as a valid tool for acute stroke assessment and has been utilized successfully to manage patients remotely in many parts of the world, though it is underutilized in the Middle East and North Africa region. Given the challenges associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, such as risk of physician exposure to infection, implementation of a telestroke system is critical to provide consultant stroke physician coverage. This article provides a proposed model for coordinated telestroke. Implementation of telestroke in the Middle East and North Africa region and other underdeveloped areas will optimize stroke management, especially during the COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Telemedicine , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy
6.
Stroke ; 52(11): 3739-3747, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443690

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has presented unique challenges to stroke care and research internationally. In particular, clinical trials in stroke are vulnerable to the impacts of the pandemic at multiple stages, including design, recruitment, intervention, follow-up, and interpretation of outcomes. A carefully considered approach is required to ensure the appropriate conduct of stroke trials during the pandemic and to maintain patient and participant safety. This has been recently addressed by the International Council for Harmonisation which, in November 2019, released an addendum to the Statistical Principles for Clinical Trials guidelines entitled Estimands and Sensitivity Analysis in Clinical Trials. In this article, we present the International Council for Harmonisation estimand framework for the design and conduct of clinical trials, with a specific focus on its application to stroke clinical trials. This framework aims to align the clinical and scientific objectives of a trial with its design and end points. It also encourages the prospective consideration of potential postrandomization intercurrent events which may occur during a trial and either impact the ability to measure an end point or its interpretation. We describe the different categories of such events and the proposed strategies for dealing with them, specifically focusing on the COVID-19 pandemic as a source of intercurrent events. We also describe potential practical impacts posed by the COVID-19 pandemic on trials, health systems, study groups, and participants, all of which should be carefully reviewed by investigators to ensure an adequate practical and statistical strategy is in place to protect trial integrity. We provide examples of the implementation of the estimand framework within hypothetical stroke trials in intracerebral hemorrhage and stroke recovery. While the focus of this article is on COVID-19 impacts, the strategies and principles proposed are well suited for other potential events or issues, which may impact clinical trials in the field of stroke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Research Design , Stroke/therapy , Clinical Trials as Topic/standards , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Implementation Science , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, reduced admissions for cerebrovascular events were identified, but acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) has remained one of the leading causes of death and disability for many years. The aim of this article is to review current literature data for multidisciplinary team (MDT) coordination, rational management of resources and facilities, ensuring timely medical care for large vessel occlusion (LVO) AIS patients requiring endovascular treatment during the pandemic. METHODS: A detailed literature search was performed in Google Scholar and PubMed databases using these keywords and their combinations: acute ischaemic stroke, emergency, anaesthesia, airway management, mechanical thrombectomy, endovascular treatment, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), COVID-19. Published studies and guidelines from inception to April 2021 were screened. The following nonsystematic review is based on a comprehensive literature search of available data, wherein 59 were chosen for detailed analysis. RESULTS: The pandemic has an impact on every aspect of AIS care, including prethrombectomy, intraprocedural and post-thrombectomy issues. Main challenges include institutional preparedness, increased number of AIS patients with multiorgan involvement, different work coordination principles and considerations about preferred anaesthetic technique. Care of these patients is led by MDT and nonoperating room anaesthesia (NORA) principles are applied. CONCLUSIONS: Adequate management of AIS patients requiring mechanical thrombectomy during the pandemic is of paramount importance to maximise the benefit of the endovascular procedure. MDT work and familiarity with NORA principles decrease the negative impact of the disease on the clinical outcomes for AIS patients.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Treatment Outcome
8.
Neuroimage Clin ; 31: 102694, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397593

ABSTRACT

Stroke is an example of a complex and multi-factorial disease involving multiple organs, timescales, and disease mechanisms. To deal with this complexity, and to realize Precision Medicine of stroke, mathematical models are needed. Such approaches include: 1) machine learning, 2) bioinformatic network models, and 3) mechanistic models. Since these three approaches have complementary strengths and weaknesses, a hybrid modelling approach combining them would be the most beneficial. However, no concrete approach ready to be implemented for a specific disease has been presented to date. In this paper, we both review the strengths and weaknesses of the three approaches, and propose a roadmap for hybrid modelling in the case of stroke care. We focus on two main tasks needed for the clinical setting: a) For stroke risk calculation, we propose a new two-step approach, where non-linear mixed effects models and bioinformatic network models yield biomarkers which are used as input to a machine learning model and b) For simulation of care scenarios, we propose a new four-step approach, which revolves around iterations between simulations of the mechanistic models and imputations of non-modelled or non-measured variables. We illustrate and discuss the different approaches in the context of Precision Medicine for stroke.


Subject(s)
Stroke , Computer Simulation , Humans , Machine Learning , Models, Theoretical , Risk Assessment , Stroke/therapy
10.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(10): 106028, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386120

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic greatly influenced the overall quality of healthcare. The purpose of this study was to compare the time variables for acute stroke treatment and evaluate differences in the pre-hospital and in-hospital care before and during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, as well as between the first and second waves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational and retrospective study from an Italian hospital, including patients who underwent thrombectomy between January 1st 2019 and December 31st 2020. RESULTS: Out of a total of 594 patients, 301 were treated in 2019 and 293 in 2020. The majority observed in 2019 came from spoke centers (67,1%), while in 2020 more than half (52%, p < 0.01) were evaluated at the hospital's emergency room directly (ER-NCGH). When compared to 2019, time metrics were globally increased in 2020, particularly in the ER-NCGH groups during the period of the first wave (N = 24 and N = 56, respectively): "Onset-to-door":50,5 vs 88,5, p < 0,01; "Arrival in Neuroradiology - groin":13 vs 25, p < 0,01; "Door-to-groin":118 vs 143,5, p = 0,02; "Onset-to-groin":180 vs 244,5, p < 0,01; "Groin-to-recanalization": 41 vs 49,5, p = 0,03. When comparing ER-NCGH groups between the first (N = 56) and second (N = 49) waves, there was an overall improvement in times, namely in the "Door-to-CT" (47,5 vs 37, p < 0,01), "Arrival in Neuroradiology - groin" (25 vs 20, p = 0,03) and "Onset-to-groin" (244,5 vs 227,5, p = 0,02). CONCLUSIONS: During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, treatment for stroke patients was delayed, particularly during the first wave. Reallocation of resources and the shutting down of spoke centers may have played a determinant role.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/trends , Endovascular Procedures/trends , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/trends , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Databases, Factual , Emergency Medical Services/trends , Female , Health Care Rationing/trends , Health Services Needs and Demand/trends , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission/trends , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
11.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 209: 106931, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385293

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The collateral effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on interventional stroke care is not well described. We studied this effect by utilizing stroke device sales data as markers of interventional stroke case volume in the United States. METHODS: Using a real-time healthcare device sales registry, this observational study examined trends in the sales of thrombectomy devices and cerebral aneurysm coiling from the same 945 reporting hospitals in the U.S. between January 22 and June 31, 2020, and for the same months in 2018 and 2019 to allow for comparison. We simultaneously reviewed daily reports of new COVID-19 cases. The strength of association between the cumulative incidence of COVID-19 and procedural device sales was measured using Spearman rank correlation coefficient (CC). RESULTS: Device sales decreased for thrombectomy (- 3.7%) and cerebral aneurysm coiling (- 8.5%) when comparing 2019-2020. In 2020, thrombectomy device sales were negatively associated with the cumulative incidence of COVID-19 (CC - 0.56, p < 0.0001), with stronger negative correlation during April (CC - 0.97, p < 0.0001). The same negative correlation was observed with aneurysm treatment devices (CC - 0.60, p < 0.001), with stronger correlation in April (CC - 0.97, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The decline in sales of stroke interventional equipment underscores a decline in associated case volumes. Future pandemic responses should consider strategies to mitigate such negative collateral effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Commerce/trends , Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombectomy/trends , Vascular Access Devices/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm/epidemiology , Intracranial Aneurysm/therapy , Pandemics , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/economics , United States/epidemiology , Vascular Access Devices/economics
12.
Int J Stroke ; 16(7): 771-783, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1374086

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effect of the COVID pandemic on stroke network performance is unclear, particularly with consideration of drip&ship vs. mothership models. AIMS: We systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed variations in stroke admissions, rate and timing of reperfusion treatments during the first wave COVID pandemic vs. the pre-pandemic timeframe depending on stroke network model adopted. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS: The systematic review followed registered protocol (PROSPERO-CRD42020211535), PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL until 9 October 2020 for studies reporting variations in ischemic stroke admissions, treatment rates, and timing in COVID (first wave) vs. control-period. Primary outcome was the weekly admission incidence rate ratio (IRR = admissions during COVID-period/admissions during control-period). Secondary outcomes were (i) changes in rate of reperfusion treatments and (ii) time metrics for pre- and in-hospital phase. Data were pooled using random-effects models, comparing mothership vs. drip&ship model. Overall, 29 studies were included in quantitative synthesis (n = 212,960). COVID-period was associated with a significant reduction in stroke admission rates (IRR = 0.69, 95%CI = 0.61-0.79), with higher relative presentation of large vessel occlusion (risk ratio (RR) = 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-2.12). Proportions of patients treated with endovascular treatment increased (RR = 1.14, 95%CI = 1.02-1.28). Intravenous thrombolysis decreased overall (IRR = 0.72, 95%CI = 0.54-0.96) but not in the mothership model (IRR = 0.81, 95%CI = 0.43-1.52). Onset-to-door time was longer for the drip&ship in COVID-period compared to the control-period (+32 min, 95%CI = 0-64). Door-to-scan was longer in COVID-period (+5 min, 95%CI = 2-7). Door-to-needle and door-to-groin were similar in COVID-period and control-period. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a 35% drop in stroke admissions during the first pandemic wave, proportions of patients receiving reperfusion and time-metrics were not inferior to control-period. Mothership preserved the weekly rate of intravenous thrombolysis and the onset-to-door timing to pre-pandemic standards.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Stroke/therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Reperfusion , Time-to-Treatment
15.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 18: E82, 2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365800

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Studies documented significant reductions in emergency department visits and hospitalizations for acute stroke during the COVID-19 pandemic. A limited number of studies assessed the adherence to stroke performance measures during the pandemic. We examined rates of stroke hospitalization and adherence to stroke quality-of-care measures before and during the early phase of pandemic. METHODS: We identified hospitalizations with a clinical diagnosis of acute stroke or transient ischemic attack among 406 hospitals who contributed data to the Paul Coverdell National Acute Stroke Program. We used 10 performance measures to examine the effect of the pandemic on stroke quality of care. We compared data from 2 periods: pre-COVID-19 (week 11-24 in 2019) and COVID-19 (week 11-24 in 2020). We used χ2 tests for differences in categorical variables and the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank test or Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables. RESULTS: We identified 64,461 hospitalizations. We observed a 20.2% reduction in stroke hospitalizations (from 35,851 to 28,610) from the pre-COVID-19 period to the COVID-19 period. Hospitalizations among patients aged 85 or older, women, and non-Hispanic White patients declined the most. A greater percentage of patients aged 18 to 64 were hospitalized with ischemic stroke during COVID-19 than during pre-COVID-19 (34.4% vs 32.5%, P < .001). Stroke severity was higher during COVID-19 than during pre-COVID-19 for both hemorrhagic stroke and ischemic stroke, and in-hospital death among patients with ischemic stroke increased from 4.3% to 5.0% (P = .003) during the study period. We found no differences in rates of receiving care across stroke type during the study period. CONCLUSION: Despite a significant reduction in stroke hospitalizations, more severe stroke among hospitalized patients, and an increase in in-hospital death during the pandemic period, we found no differences in adherence to quality of stroke care measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quality of Health Care , Stroke , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Medicare , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
Geroscience ; 43(5): 2231-2248, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361319

ABSTRACT

Data about the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic's collateral damage on ischemic stroke (IS) care during the second epidemic wave in Central Europe are limited. We sought to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak on Hungarian IS care during the two epidemic waves. This retrospective observational study was based on a nationwide reimbursement database that encompasses all IS admissions and all reperfusion interventions, i.e., intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and endovascular therapy (EVT) from 2 January 2017 to 31 December 2020 in Hungary. COVID-19 pandemic's effect on the number of IS admissions and reperfusion interventions were analyzed using different statistics: means, medians, trends, relative rates, and linear relationships. The mean and median values of IS admissions and reperfusion interventions decreased only in some measure during the COVID-periods. However, trend analysis demonstrated a significant decline from the trends. The decline's dynamic and amplitude have differed for each variable. In contrast to IVT, the number of IS admissions and EVTs negatively correlated with the epidemic waves' amplitude. Besides, the decrease in the number of IS admissions was more pronounced than the decrease in the number of reperfusion interventions. Our study demonstrated a significant disruption in IS care during the COVID-19 epidemic in Hungary, in which multiple different factors might play a role. The disproportionate reduction of IS admission numbers could partially be explained by the effect of health emergency operative measures and changes in patients' social behavior. Further studies are needed to evaluate the causes of our observations.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Humans , Hungary/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy
17.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(10): 106051, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356332

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: An association has been reported between delays in the onset-to-door (O2D) time for mechanical thrombectomy (MT) and outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the association between other MT time courses or functional outcomes and COVID-19 outbreaks remains unclear. We compared the time courses of stroke pathways or functional outcomes in 2020 (the COVID-19 era) with those in 2019 (the pre-COVID-19 era) in Tokyo, Japan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective observational study used data from the Tokyo-tama-REgistry of Acute endovascular Thrombectomy (TREAT), a multicenter registry of MT for acute large vessel occlusion in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. Patients who had undergone acute MT from January 2019 to December 2020 were included. Patients were classified by the year they had undergone MT (2019 or 2020). RESULTS: In total, 477 patients were analyzed. O2D time was significantly longer in 2020 (146.0 min) than in 2019 (105.0 min; p = 0.034). No significant difference in door-to-puncture time (D2P) time or modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 0-2 at 90 days was seen between 2019 and 2020. In the subgroup analysis, O2D time was significantly longer in the first half of 2020 compared with 2019. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that the year 2020 was a independent predictor of longer O2D time, but not for mRS score 0-2 at 90 days. CONCLUSIONS: Although O2D time was significantly longer in the COVID-19 compared with the pre-COVID-19 era, D2P may not be significantly delayed and functional outcomes may not be different, despite the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/trends , Time-to-Treatment/trends , Health Care Rationing/trends , Health Services Needs and Demand/trends , Humans , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Time Factors , Tokyo , Treatment Outcome
18.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256116, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354767

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has delayed the management of other serious medical conditions. This study presents an efficient method to prevent the degradation of the quality of diagnosis and treatment of other critical diseases during the pandemic. METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study. The primary outcome was ED length of stay (ED LOS). The secondary outcomes were the door-to-balloon time in patients with suspected ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and door-to-brain computed tomography time for patients with suspected stroke. The outcome measures were compared between patients who were treated in the red and orange zones designated as the changeable isolation unit and those who were treated in the non-isolation care unit. To control confounding factors, we performed propensity score matching, following which, outcomes were analyzed for non-inferiority. RESULTS: The mean ED LOS for hospitalized patients in the isolation and non-isolation care units were 406.5 min (standard deviation [SD], 237.9) and 360.2 min (SD, 226.4), respectively. The mean difference between the groups indicated non-inferiority of the isolation care unit (p = 0.037) but not in the patients discharged from the ED (p>0.999). The mean difference in the ED LOS for patients admitted to the ICU between the isolation and non-isolation care units was -22.0 min (p = 0.009). The mean difference in the door-to-brain computed tomography time between patients with suspected stroke in the isolation and non-isolation care units was 7.4 min for those with confirmed stroke (p = 0.013), and -20.1 min for those who were discharged (p = 0.012). The mean difference in the door-to-balloon time between patients who underwent coronary angiography in the isolation and non-isolation care units was -2.1 min (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Appropriate and efficient handling of a properly planned ED plays a key role in improving the quality of medical care for other critical diseases during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Length of Stay , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/therapy
19.
Stroke ; 52(6): 2125-2133, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352602

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has potentially caused indirect harm to patients with other conditions via reduced access to health care services. We aimed to describe the impact of the initial wave of the pandemic on admissions, care quality, and outcomes in patients with acute stroke in the United Kingdom. METHODS: Registry-based cohort study of patients with acute stroke admitted to hospital in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland between October 1, 2019, and April 30, 2020, and equivalent periods in the 3 prior years. RESULTS: One hundred fourteen hospitals provided data for a study cohort of 184 017 patients. During the lockdown period (March 23 to April 30), there was a 12% reduction (6923 versus 7902) in the number of admissions compared with the same period in the 3 previous years. Admissions fell more for ischemic than hemorrhagic stroke, for older patients, and for patients with less severe strokes. Quality of care was preserved for all measures and in some domains improved during lockdown (direct access to stroke unit care, 1-hour brain imaging, and swallow screening). Although there was no change in the proportion of patients discharged with good outcome (modified Rankin Scale score, ≤2; 48% versus 48%), 7-day inpatient case fatality increased from 6.9% to 9.4% (P<0.001) and was 22.0% in patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 (adjusted rate ratio, 1.41 [1.11-1.80]). CONCLUSIONS: Assuming that the true incidence of acute stroke did not change markedly during the pandemic, hospital avoidance may have created a cohort of untreated stroke patients at risk of poorer outcomes or recurrent events. Unanticipated improvements in stroke care quality should be used as an opportunity for quality improvement and to learn about how to develop resilient health care systems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Quality of Health Care/standards , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Quality of Health Care/trends , Registries , United Kingdom/epidemiology
20.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(1): 105-113, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348130

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Many countries worldwide, including Germany, reported that the first wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in early 2020 influenced the care of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients, but data are lacking for further pandemic wave periods. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide, retrospective, cross-sectional study of all hospitalized patients with the main diagnosis of AIS in 2019 and 2020. Primary outcomes were the number of hospitalizations for AIS, the application of stroke unit care, intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), and mechanical thrombectomy (MT), as well as the in-hospital mortality during the different pandemic periods in 2020 compared to the corresponding periods in 2019. Secondarily, we analyzed differences in outcomes between patients with and without concurrent COVID-19. RESULTS: We included 429,841 cases with AIS, of which 1268 had concurrent COVID-19. Hospitalizations for AIS declined during both pandemic wave periods in 2020 (first wave: -10.9%, second wave: -4.6%). MT rates were consistently higher throughout 2020 compared to 2019, whereas the IVT rate dropped during the second wave period (16.0% vs. 17.0%, p < 0.001). AIS patients with concurrent COVID-19 frequently received recanalization treatments, with an overall MT rate of 8.4% and IVT rate of 15.9%. The in-hospital mortality was high (22.8% vs. 7.5% in noninfected AIS patients, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate a smaller decline in hospitalizations for AIS in the more severe second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. AIS patients with and without concurrent COVID-19 who did seek acute care continued to receive recanalization treatments in Germany.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Patient Care , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy , Thrombolytic Therapy , Treatment Outcome
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