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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(44): e27542, 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1570143

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: This is a case report describing delayed complications of COVID-19 pneumonia, which evolved into the vascular-ischemic complications leading to quadrantanopia and MRI findings consistent with recent ischemic event in the occipital pole of the brain. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a case of a 46-year-old woman with quadrantanopia due to stroke confirmed with brain MRI, secondary to COVID-19 infection with chronically elevated D-dimers and treated with anticoagulation/antithrombotic modalities. Quadrantanopia was the only symptom recognized by the patient of a stroke localized in the occipital pole of the brain. DIAGNOSIS: The patient was diagnosed with quadrantanopia due to stroke confirmed with brain MRI, secondary to COVID-19 infection. INTERVENTION: Patient underwent ophthalmological examination and MRI. OUTCOMES: A thrombotic or ischemic risks in the chronic recovery from COVID-19 should be considered in patients with elevated D-dimers. LESSONS: An MRI should be considered as a long term follow up for post-COVID-19 patients reporting ophthalmic or neurologic complains.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemianopsia , Stroke , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hemianopsia/diagnosis , Hemianopsia/virology , Humans , Middle Aged , Occipital Lobe/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/virology
2.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(4)2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388472

ABSTRACT

Neurological complications of SARS-CoV-2 continue to be recognised. In children, neurological phenomenon has been reported generally in the acute infectious period. It is possible that SARS-CoV-2 could trigger an immune-mediated post-infectious phenomenon. Here, we present a unique case of post-infectious marantic cardiac lesion causing cerebrovascular accident in a patient with Down syndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Down Syndrome , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Stroke/virology , Child , Down Syndrome/complications , Down Syndrome/virology , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/virology
3.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255263, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients presenting with the coronavirus-2019 disease (COVID-19) may have a high risk of cardiovascular adverse events, including death from cardiovascular causes. The long-term cardiovascular outcomes of these patients are entirely unknown. We aim to perform a registry of patients who have undergone a diagnostic nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 and to determine their long-term cardiovascular outcomes. STUDY AND DESIGN: This is a multicenter, observational, retrospective registry to be conducted at 17 centers in Spain and Italy (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT04359927). Consecutive patients older than 18 years, who underwent a real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for SARS-CoV2 in the participating institutions, will be included since March 2020, to August 2020. Patients will be classified into two groups, according to the results of the RT-PCR: COVID-19 positive or negative. The primary outcome will be cardiovascular mortality at 1 year. The secondary outcomes will be acute myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure hospitalization, pulmonary embolism, and serious cardiac arrhythmias, at 1 year. Outcomes will be compared between the two groups. Events will be adjudicated by an independent clinical event committee. CONCLUSION: The results of this registry will contribute to a better understanding of the long-term cardiovascular implications of the COVID19.


Subject(s)
Arrhythmias, Cardiac/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular System/virology , Heart Failure/etiology , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Stroke/etiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/virology , Female , Heart Failure/virology , Humans , Italy , Male , Myocardial Infarction/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Spain , Stroke/virology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
5.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e932962, 2021 Jun 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278722

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative pathogen of the recent pandemic of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). As the infection spreads, there is increasing evidence of neurological and psychiatric involvement in COVID-19. Headache, impaired consciousness, and olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions are common neurological manifestations described in the literature. Studies demonstrating more specific and more severe neurological involvement such as cerebrovascular insults, encephalitis and Guillain-Barre syndrome are also emerging. Respiratory failure, a significant condition that leads to mortality in COVID-19, is hypothesized to be partly due to brainstem impairment. Notably, some of these neurological complications seem to persist long after infection. This review aims to provide an update on what is currently known about neurological involvement in patients with COVID-19 due to SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this review, we demonstrate invasion routes of SARS-CoV-2, provide evidence to support the neurotropism hypothesis of the virus, and investigate the pathological mechanisms that underlie neurological complications associated with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Encephalitis/virology , Headache/physiopathology , Headache/virology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Neuroimmunomodulation/physiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stroke/physiopathology , Stroke/virology
6.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(5): 551-559, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238619

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in significant healthcare reorganizations, potentially striking standard medical care. We investigated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on acute stroke care quality and clinical outcomes to detect healthcare system's bottlenecks from a territorial point of view. METHODS: Crossed-data analysis between a prospective nation-based mandatory registry of acute stroke, Emergency Medical System (EMS) records, and daily incidence of COVID-19 in Catalonia (Spain). We included all stroke code activations during the pandemic (March 15-May 2, 2020) and an immediate prepandemic period (January 26-March 14, 2020). Primary outcomes were stroke code activations and reperfusion therapies in both periods. Secondary outcomes included clinical characteristics, workflow metrics, differences across types of stroke centers, correlation analysis between weekly EMS alerts, COVID-19 cases, and workflow metrics, and impact on mortality and clinical outcome at 90 days. RESULTS: Stroke code activations decreased by 22% and reperfusion therapies dropped by 29% during the pandemic period, with no differences in age, stroke severity, or large vessel occlusion. Calls to EMS were handled 42 min later, and time from onset to hospital arrival increased by 53 min, with significant correlations between weekly COVID-19 cases and more EMS calls (rho = 0.81), less stroke code activations (rho = -0.37), and longer prehospital delays (rho = 0.25). Telestroke centers were afflicted with higher reductions in stroke code activations, reperfusion treatments, referrals to endovascular centers, and increased delays to thrombolytics. The independent odds of death increased (OR 1.6 [1.05-2.4], p 0.03) and good functional outcome decreased (mRS ≤2 at 90 days: OR 0.6 [0.4-0.9], p 0.015) during the pandemic period. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, Catalonia's stroke system's weakest points were the delay to EMS alert and a decline of stroke code activations, reperfusion treatments, and interhospital transfers, mostly at local centers. Patients suffering an acute stroke during the pandemic period had higher odds of poor functional outcome and death. The complete stroke care system's analysis is crucial to allocate resources appropriately.


Subject(s)
Emergency Medical Services , Fibrinolytic Agents/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/virology , Humans , Prospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Stroke/diagnosis , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Time-to-Treatment
7.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 19(1): 218-220, 2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209512

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected health care delivery globally. COVID-19 is associated with varied neurological manifestations including acute ischemic stroke. In densely populated South Asian nations like Nepal that have suboptimal baseline health care systems, we foresee unique challenges during this pandemic to ensure effective stroke management as well as the safety of health care workers involved in the management of stroke patients. Keywords: COVID-19; health care workers; safety; stroke management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Stroke/virology , Humans , Nepal/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1770-1775, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196472

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report a case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and dengue coinfection, presented as a fatal stroke in our hospital, in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo State, a Brazilian city hyperendemic for dengue viruses and other arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) and currently facing a surge of SARS-CoV-2 cases. This case is the first described in the literature and contributes to the better understanding of clinical presentations of two important diseases in a tropical setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/complications , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , Dengue/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/virology , Arboviruses/pathogenicity , Brazil , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/virology , Dengue/virology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged
9.
Trends Neurosci ; 44(7): 527-537, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171720

ABSTRACT

Prior to COVID-19, only two human-tropic coronaviruses resulted in epidemics and cerebrovascular disease was rarely reported. Evidence now suggests that 1-6% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients develop stroke. According to some reports, stroke risk is more than sevenfold greater in patients with COVID-19 than influenza. Concerningly, outcomes of COVID-19-related stroke are often worse than in stroke patients without COVID-19 from the same cohorts. In this review, we highlight the emerging association between COVID-19 and stroke and discuss putative pathogenetic mechanisms. Etiology of stroke in COVID-19 patients is likely multifactorial, related to coagulopathy, inflammation, platelet activation, and alterations to the vascular endothelium. Significant work remains to be done to better understand the pathogenesis of COVID-19-related stroke and for designing optimal primary and secondary prevention strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/complications , Stroke/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , Stroke/mortality , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/mortality , Thrombosis/virology
10.
Stroke ; 52(2): 563-572, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166636

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The magnitude and drivers of excess cerebrovascular-specific mortality during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic are unknown. We aim to quantify excess stroke-related deaths and characterize its association with social distancing behavior and COVID-19-related vascular pathology. METHODS: United States and state-level excess cerebrovascular deaths from January to May 2020 were quantified using National Center for Health Statistic data and Poisson regression models. Excess cerebrovascular deaths were analyzed as a function of time-varying stroke-related emergency medical service (EMS) calls and cumulative COVID-19 deaths using linear regression. A state-level regression analysis was performed to determine the association between excess cerebrovascular deaths and time spent in residences, measured by Google Community Mobility Reports, during the height of the pandemic after the first COVID-19 death (February 29). RESULTS: Forty states and New York City were included. Excess cerebrovascular mortality occurred nationally from the weeks ending March 28 to May 2, 2020, up to a 7.8% increase above expected levels during the week of April 18. Decreased stroke-related EMS calls were associated with excess stroke deaths one (70 deaths per 1000 fewer EMS calls [95% CI, 20-118]) and 2 weeks (85 deaths per 1000 fewer EMS calls [95% CI, 37-133]) later. Twenty-three states and New York City experienced excess cerebrovascular mortality during the pandemic height. A 10% increase in time spent at home was associated with a 4.3% increase in stroke deaths (incidence rate ratio, 1.043 [95% CI, 1.001-1.085]) after adjusting for COVID-19 deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Excess US cerebrovascular deaths during the COVID-19 pandemic were observed and associated with decreases in stroke-related EMS calls nationally and mobility at the state level. Public health measures are needed to identify and counter the reticence to seeking medical care for acute stroke during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/mortality , Stroke/virology , Emergency Medical Services/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , United States
11.
Mol Neurobiol ; 58(7): 3417-3434, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130917

ABSTRACT

There are regular reports of extrapulmonary infections and manifestations related to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Coronaviruses are potentially neurotropic, which renders neuronal tissue vulnerable to infection, especially in elderly individuals or in those with neuro-comorbid conditions. Complaints of ageusia, anosmia, myalgia, and headache; reports of diseases such as stroke, encephalopathy, seizure, and encephalitis; and loss of consciousness in patients with COVID-19 confirm the neuropathophysiological aspect of this disease. The brain is linked to pulmonary organs, physiologically through blood circulation, and functionally through the nervous system. The interdependence of these vital organs may further aggravate the pathophysiological aspects of COVID-19. The induction of a cytokine storm in systemic circulation can trigger a neuroinflammatory cascade, which can subsequently compromise the blood-brain barrier and activate microglia- and astrocyte-borne Toll-like receptors, thereby leading to neuronal tissue damage. Hence, a holistic approach should be adopted by healthcare professionals while treating COVID-19 patients with a history of neurodegenerative disorders, neuropsychological complications, or any other neuro-compromised conditions. Imperatively, vaccines are being developed at top priority to contain the spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, and different vaccines are at different stages of development globally. This review discusses the concerns regarding the neuronal complications of COVID-19 and the possible mechanisms of amelioration.


Subject(s)
Brain/virology , COVID-19/complications , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Encephalitis/virology , Inflammation/virology , Stroke/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(2)2021 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1099753

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is well known for its respiratory symptoms, but severe presentations can alter haemostasis, causing acute end-organ damage with poor outcomes. Among its various neurological presentations, cerebrovascular events often present as small-vessel strokes. Although uncommon, in predisposed individuals, large-vessel occlusions (LVOs) can occur as a possible consequence of direct viral action (viral burden or antigenic structure) or virus-induced cytokine storm. Subtle presentations and complicated stroke care pathways continue to exist, delaying timely care. We present a unique case of COVID-19 LVO manifesting as an acute confusional state in an elderly man in April 2020. CT angiography revealed 'de novo' occlusions of the left internal carotid artery and proximal right vertebral artery, effectively blocking anterior and posterior circulations. Delirium can lead to inaccurate stroke scale assessments and prolong initiation of COVID-19 stroke care pathways. Future studies are needed to look into the temporal relationship between confusion and neurological manifestations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Delirium/virology , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Carotid Artery, Internal/diagnostic imaging , Carotid Artery, Internal/pathology , Computed Tomography Angiography , Delirium/diagnostic imaging , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Stroke/virology , Vertebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Vertebral Artery/pathology
13.
Neurosci Lett ; 743: 135564, 2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1084434

ABSTRACT

Acute cerebrovascular disease, particularly ischemic stroke, has emerged as a serious complication of infection by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent of the Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Accumulating data on patients with COVID-19-associated stroke have shed light on specificities concerning clinical presentation, neuroimaging findings, and outcome. Such specificities include a propensity towards large vessel occlusion, multi-territory stroke, and involvement of otherwise uncommonly affected vessels. Conversely, small-vessel brain disease, cerebral venous thrombosis, and intracerebral hemorrhage appear to be less frequent. Atypical neurovascular presentations were also described, ranging from bilateral carotid artery dissection to posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), and vasculitis. Cases presenting with encephalopathy or encephalitis with seizures heralding stroke were particularly challenging. The pathogenesis and optimal management of ischemic stroke associated with COVID-19 still remain uncertain, but emerging evidence suggest that cytokine storm-triggered coagulopathy and endotheliopathy represent possible targetable mechanisms. Some specific management issues in this population include the difficulty in identifying clinical signs of stroke in critically ill patients in the intensive care unit, as well as the need for a protected pathway for brain imaging, intravenous thrombolysis, and mechanical thrombectomy, keeping in mind that "time is brain" also for COVID-19 patients. In this review, we discuss the novel developments and challenges for the diagnosis and treatment of stroke in patients with COVID-19, and delineate the principles for a rational approach toward precision medicine in this emerging field.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/pathology , Stroke/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Cerebrovasc Dis ; 50(3): 317-325, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic lockdown (CPL) lead to a significant decrease in emergency admissions worldwide. We performed a timely analysis of ischemic stroke (IS) and related consultations using the telestroke TEMPiS "working diagnosis" database prior (PL), within (WL), and after easing (EL) of CPL. METHODS: Twelve hospitals were selected and data analyzed regarding IS (including intravenous thrombolysis [intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen; IV rtPA] and endovascular thrombectomy [EVT]) and related events from February 1 to June 15 during 2017-2020. In addition, we aimed to correlate events to various mobile phone mobility data. RESULTS: Following the significant reduction of IS, IV rtPA, and EVT cases during WL compared to PL in 2020 longitudinally (p values <0.048), we observed increasing numbers of consultations, IS, recommendations for EVT, and IV rtPA with the network in EL over WL not reaching PL levels yet. Absolute numbers of all consultations paralleled best to mobility data of public transportation over walking and driving mobility. CONCLUSIONS: While the decrease in emergency admissions including stroke during CPL can only be in part attributed by patients not seeking medical attention, stroke awareness in the pandemic, and direct COVID-19 triggered stroke remains of high importance. The number of consultations in TEMPiS during the lockdown parallels best with mobility of public transportation. As a consequence, exposure to common viruses, well-known triggers for acute cerebrovascular events and other diseases, are reduced and may add to the decline in stroke consultations. Further studies comparing national responses toward the course of the COVID-19 pandemic and stroke incidences are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/virology , COVID-19/therapy , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Time-to-Treatment , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use
16.
J Neurovirol ; 27(1): 35-51, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061059

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 2019, it is gaining worldwide attention at the moment. Apart from respiratory manifestations, neurological dysfunction in COVID-19 patients, especially the occurrence of cerebrovascular diseases (CVD), has been intensively investigated. In this review, the effects of COVID-19 infection on CVD were summarized as follows: (I) angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) may be involved in the attack on vascular endothelial cells by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), leading to endothelial damage and increased subintimal inflammation, which are followed by hemorrhage or thrombosis; (II) SARS-CoV-2 could alter the expression/activity of ACE2, consequently resulting in the disruption of renin-angiotensin system which is associated with the occurrence and progression of atherosclerosis; (III) upregulation of neutrophil extracellular traps has been detected in COVID-19 patients, which is closely associated with immunothrombosis; (IV) the inflammatory cascade induced by SARS-CoV-2 often leads to hypercoagulability and promotes the formation and progress of atherosclerosis; (V) antiphospholipid antibodies are also detected in plasma of some severe cases, which aggravate the thrombosis through the formation of immune complexes; (VI) hyperglycemia in COVID-19 patients may trigger CVD by increasing oxidative stress and blood viscosity; (VII) the COVID-19 outbreak is a global emergency and causes psychological stress, which could be a potential risk factor of CVD as coagulation, and fibrinolysis may be affected. In this review, we aimed to further our understanding of CVD-associated COVID-19 infection, which could improve the therapeutic outcomes of patients. Personalized treatments should be offered to COVID-19 patients at greater risk for stroke in future clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/complications , COVID-19/complications , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/complications , Hemorrhage/complications , Hyperglycemia/complications , Stroke/complications , Thrombosis/complications , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Atherosclerosis/drug therapy , Atherosclerosis/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Agents/therapeutic use , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/diagnosis , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/drug therapy , Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation/virology , Extracellular Traps/drug effects , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Hemorrhage/virology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/diagnosis , Hyperglycemia/drug therapy , Hyperglycemia/virology , Inflammation , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Renin-Angiotensin System/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/virology , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/virology
17.
Stroke ; 52(2): 552-562, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060973

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak has added challenges to providing quality acute stroke care due to the reallocation of stroke resources to COVID-19. Case series suggest that patients with COVID-19 have more severe strokes; however, no large series have compared stroke outcomes with contemporary non-COVID-19 patients. Purpose was to analyze the impact of COVID-19 pandemic in stroke care and to evaluate stroke outcomes according to the diagnosis of COVID-19. METHODS: Retrospective multicenter cohort study including consecutive acute stroke patients admitted to 7 stroke centers from February 25 to April 25, 2020 (first 2 months of the COVID-19 outbreak in Madrid). The quality of stroke care was measured by the number of admissions, recanalization treatments, and time metrics. The primary outcome was death or dependence at discharge. RESULTS: A total of 550 acute stroke patients were admitted. A significant reduction in the number of admissions and secondary interhospital transfers was found. COVID-19 was confirmed in 105 (19.1%) patients, and a further 19 patients were managed as suspected COVID-19 (3.5%). No differences were found in the rates of reperfusion therapies in ischemic strokes (45.5% non-COVID-19, 35.7% confirmed COVID-19, and 40% suspected COVID-19; P=0.265). However, the COVID-19 group had longer median door-to-puncture time (110 versus 80 minutes), which was associated with the performance of chest computed tomography. Multivariate analysis confirmed poorer outcomes for confirmed or suspected COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratios, 2.05 [95% CI, 1.12-3.76] and 3.56 [95% CI, 1.15-11.05], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that patients with COVID-19 have more severe strokes and poorer outcomes despite similar acute management. A well-established stroke care network helps to diminish the impact of such an outbreak in stroke care, reducing secondary transfers and allowing maintenance of reperfusion therapies, with a minor impact on door-to-puncture times, which were longer in patients who underwent chest computed tomography.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/virology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
18.
J Clin Neurosci ; 86: 180-183, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032688

ABSTRACT

Cerebrovascular complications among critically ill patients with COVID-19 have yet to be fully characterized. In this retrospective case series from a single academic tertiary care referral center in New York City, we present 12 patients with ischemic or hemorrhagic strokes that were found on imaging after a period of prolonged sedation in the setting of COVID-19 pneumonia. This series demonstrates a pattern of cerebrovascular events clinically masked by deep sedation required for management of COVID-19 related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Of the 12 patients included, 10 had ischemic stroke, 4 of which had hemorrhagic conversion, and 2 had primary intracerebral hemorrhage. Ten patients were on therapeutic anticoagulation prior to discovery of their stroke, and the remainder received intermediate dose anticoagulation (in a range between prophylactic and therapeutic levels). Additional studies are needed to further characterize the counterbalancing risks of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, as well as the optimal management of this patient population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Deep Sedation/adverse effects , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/virology , Aged , Anticoagulants/adverse effects , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1770-1775, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1001928

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report a case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and dengue coinfection, presented as a fatal stroke in our hospital, in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo State, a Brazilian city hyperendemic for dengue viruses and other arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) and currently facing a surge of SARS-CoV-2 cases. This case is the first described in the literature and contributes to the better understanding of clinical presentations of two important diseases in a tropical setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/complications , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , Dengue/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/virology , Arboviruses/pathogenicity , Brazil , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/virology , Dengue/virology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged
20.
Stroke ; 52(2): 716-721, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, many countries have introduced strict hygiene measures of social distancing to prevent further spreading of the disease. This may have led to a decreased presentation to hospital of patients with acute medical conditions and time-dependent management, such as stroke. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cohort study using administrative database of all hospitalized patients with main diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke (AIS), transient ischemic attack, or intracerebral hemorrhage. Data from a total of 1463 hospitals in Germany were included. We compared case numbers and treatment characteristics of pandemic (March 16 to May 15, 2020) and prepandemic (January 16 to March 15, 2020) cases and also with corresponding time period in 2019. RESULTS: We identified a strong decline for hospitalization of AIS (-17.4%), transient ischemic attack (-22.9%), and intracerebral hemorrhage (-15.8%) patients during the pandemic compared with prepandemic period. IVT rate in patients with AIS was comparable (prepandemic versus pandemic: 16.4% versus 16.6%, P=0.448), whereas mechanical thrombectomy rate was significantly higher during the pandemic (8.1% versus 7.7%, P=0.044). In-hospital mortality was significantly increased in patients with AIS during the pandemic period (8.1% versus 7.6%, P=0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Besides a massive decrease in absolute case numbers, our data suggest that patients with AIS who did seek acute care during the pandemic, continued to receive acute recanalization treatment in Germany.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Brain Ischemia/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/virology , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Germany , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/epidemiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
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