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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613807

ABSTRACT

Due to the demanding changes caused in the population by the COVID-19 pandemic, including a persisting experience of fear and social isolation, multiple studies have focused on the protective role of several psychological characteristics on mental health. Emotional intelligence and social support are commonly linked to mental health and well-being. The present study aims to analyze the mediator role of emotional intelligence and social support on university students' mental health, taking into consideration the role of gender differences. An online questionnaire was administered to a sample of 923 university students during the COVID-19 lockdown in Portugal. Significant gender differences were found on mental health symptoms, emotional intelligence, and social support. A double mediation model was computed to verify if gender influences on mental health were mediated by emotional intelligence and social support. The results show indirect effects of gender on mental health. However, as both mediators mediate in the opposite direction, the total indirect effects become null. Thus, a strong direct effect of gender on mental health remains. The results of the present study have theoretical implications on protective factors of mental health by gender and practical implications for psychological intervention in university counselling services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Emotional Intelligence , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Students , Universities
2.
Crit Care Nurs Q ; 45(1): 98-106, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612704

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are effective measures that can mitigate the high burden of diseases. However, vaccine refusal poses serious challenges for achieving coverage for population immunity. With the availability of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) vaccines, limited information is available about the university students' acceptability and attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines. This article reports study findings regarding factors that influence university students' decision of acceptability to the COVID-19 vaccine in Jordan. Results highlight the continued need for clear and consistent information about the vaccine by health care decision-makers and university administrations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Jordan , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 735902, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605548

ABSTRACT

Background: Students act as messengers in delivering effective messages for better uptake of health-promoting behavior. Understanding their knowledge about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), intentions to use the COVID-19 vaccine, and its associated factors will help develop promising strategies in vaccine promotion concerning the current COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was carried out among students in the healthcare and non-healthcare sectors to assess their intentions to get vaccinated against the COVID-19. A non-probability snowball sampling technique was used to recruit study participants (N = 655) through social media platforms and emails. Study participants were recruited across the country, including six major geographical regions (Eastern, Western, Northern, Southern, North-east, and Central) in India between November 2020 and January 2021 before the introduction of the COVID-19 vaccine. Descriptive statistics were used to present the sociodemographic, and vaccine-related behaviors of the study participants. Key determinants that likely predict vaccine acceptance among students were modeled using logistic regression analysis. For each analysis, p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 655 students were recruited, 323 from healthcare and 332 from non-healthcare sectors, to assess their intentions to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. Of the 655 students, 63.8% expressed intentions to receive the COVID-19 vaccine. The acceptance was higher among non-healthcare students (54.07 vs. 45.93%). At the time of the study, 27.8% of the students indicated that they had been exposed to a confirmed COVID-19 patient. A vast majority (93.4%) of the students knew about the COVID-19 virus, and most (89.3%) of them were aware of the development of a COVID-19 vaccine. The history of vaccine hesitancy was found to be low (17.1%). Only one-third (33.4%) of the students showed concern about contracting COVID-19. Trust in the healthcare system [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 4.13; (95% CI: 2.83-6.04), p < 0.00] and trust in domestic vaccines [aOR: 1.46; (95% CI: 1.02-2.08), p < 0.05] emerged as the significant predictors of student's intention to get vaccinated. Higher acceptance for vaccine was observed among students in the non-healthcare [aOR: 1.982; 95% CI: 1.334-2.946, p < 0.00]. Conclusion: This study shows that the Indian college students had relatively high levels of positive intentions to receive COVID-19 vaccines, although about one-third were not sure or unwilling to receive the vaccine, highlighting possible vaccine hesitancy. Informational campaigns and other strategies to address vaccine hesitancy are needed to promote uptake of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intention , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Vaccination
5.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 21(1): ar1, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604736

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic shut down undergraduate research programs across the United States. A group of 23 colleges, universities, and research institutes hosted remote undergraduate research programs in the life sciences during Summer 2020. Given the unprecedented offering of remote programs, we carried out a study to describe and evaluate them. Using structured templates, we documented how programs were designed and implemented, including who participated. Through focus groups and surveys, we identified programmatic strengths and shortcomings as well as recommendations for improvements from students' perspectives. Strengths included the quality of mentorship, opportunities for learning and professional development, and a feeling of connection with a larger community. Weaknesses included limited cohort building, challenges with insufficient structure, and issues with technology. Although all programs had one or more activities related to diversity, equity, inclusion, and justice, these topics were largely absent from student reports even though programs coincided with a peak in national consciousness about racial inequities and structural racism. Our results provide evidence for designing remote Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REUs) that are experienced favorably by students. Our results also indicate that remote REUs are sufficiently positive to further investigate their affordances and constraints, including the potential to scale up offerings, with minimal concern about disenfranchising students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , United States
6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 548, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS) is a cyclic sequence of physical and behavioral symptoms that arise in the second half of the menstrual cycle. The extreme type of PMS is Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD). The current study aims at examining 1) the effects of childhood maltreatment and current life's stressful events on PMDD, and 2) the mediating role of depression in these associations among Lebanese university female students. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between February and March 2021 during the COVID-19 pandemic. Lebanese students were recruited using a snowball technique from all national universities in Lebanon via an auto-administrated online survey. Structural equation modeling was performed to examine the structural relationship between childhood maltreatment and life's stressful events, depression and PMDD. RESULTS: Higher life's stressful events (Beta = 0.18; p < 0.001), physical (Beta = 0.19; p < 0.001), sexual (Beta = 0.18; p < 0.001) and psychological (Beta = 0.33; p < 0.001) abuse were significantly associated with higher depression. Moreover, higher sexual (Beta = 0.11; p = 0.021) and psychological (Beta = 0.11; p = 0.040) abuse and higher depression (Beta = 0.37; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with higher PMDD. The indirect relationships between psychological abuse/sexual abuse, depression and PMDD showed that depression mediated the association between both psychological (Beta = 0.22; p = 0.001) and sexual (Beta = 0.38; p = 0.004) abuse and PMDD. CONCLUSION: This work presents a unique analysis using the structural equation model that enlightens the effect of childhood maltreatment, particularly sexual and psychological abuse on PMMD symptoms, with depression playing the role of a mediating factor. It would be interesting to test, in future studies, whether there are other mediating factors besides depression that could be indirect indicators of PMDD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Abuse , Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Pandemics , Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Universities
7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 530, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1594206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of undergraduate students in China have been reported to have psychological problems. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, a series of preventive and control measures were implemented, which undoubtedly worsened their psychological health. Coping style and social support were probably important factors that affected the psychological well-being of undergraduate students during the pandemic. This study aimed to explore the effects of coping style and perceived social support on the psychological well-being of college students and relevant risk factors. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed in February and March of 2020 by distributing an online questionnaire among undergraduate students from seven geographical regions across China. The questionnaire included sociodemographic information; the 21-item Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21); the Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS); and the Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire (SCSQ). For the analyses, t-tests, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), the Kruskal-Wallis test and multiple linear regression were utilized. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: Among 3113 college students, the rates of anxiety, depression and stress symptoms were 13.3, 15.4 and 6.8%, respectively. Increased rates of current smoking and drinking (5.5 and 25.2%, respectively) among undergraduates were identified. The results indicated that the PSSS subscales and SCSQ subscales were significantly associated with DASS-21 scores (P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that active coping style and family support were protective factors while passive coping style could aggravate psychological problems among participants (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A remarkable number of college students adopted passive coping strategies to cope with negative feelings, such as smoking and drinking, which were detrimental to their mental health. In contrast, active coping strategies helped improve their psychological well-being. Moreover, family support was particularly important for maintaining their mental health and ameliorating mental health challenges in this major health crisis. Consequently, suitable psychointervention, routine screening for risk behaviors, and provision of further social support are needed for undergraduate students in the COVID-19 pandemic or other emergency public health events.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 529, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic as a global mental health crisis has affected everyone, including students. The present study aimed to determine and investigate the relationship between health locus of control and perceived stress in students of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences (southern Iran) during the outbreak of COVID-19. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study examined 250 students of Bushehr University of Medical Sciences. We performed simple random sampling and utilized the demographic information form, Multidimensional Health Locus of Control scale (MHLCS) by Wallston, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) by Cohen to collect data. We analyzed data using the SPSS, Pearson correlation coefficient, and the hierarchical regression model with an error level of 5%. RESULTS: The mean perceived stress was 30.74 ± 8.09, and 92.4% of the students had moderate and high stress levels. Among the components of the health locus of control, the internal health locus of control (IHLC) had the highest mean in students (27.55 ± 3.81). Furthermore, the internal health locus of control (R = - 0.30, P < 0.001) had a significant inverse relationship, with perceived stress and the chance health locus of control (CHLC) (R = 0.30, P < 0.001) had a significant direct relationship. In the final regression model, the health locus of control and all the variables predicted 22.7% of the perceived stress variation in students during the COVID-19 period. CONCLUSION: The results indicated that the internal health locus of control was associated with a reduction of perceived stress, and the powerful others health locus of control (PHLC) was related to its increase in students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Given the uncertain future, in the present work, universities are suggested to design web-based educational interventions alongside the curriculum to further strengthen the internal health locus of control and thus help reduce their perceived stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Internal-External Control , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Students , Universities
9.
Epidemiol Prev ; 45: In press, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593216

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: 'Scuola sicura' (SS) programme aims to monitor the rate of COVID-19 and to contain its spread within the school population through early case isolation. OBJECTIVES: to describe the initial process and outcome evaluation results. DESIGN: descriptive study of an experimental screening testing programme in children in Piedmont Region (Northern Italy) in the period January-March 2021. The data used came from the COVID-19 platform and the Local Health Units, the archives of birth certificates (CedAP), and hospital discharge files (SDO). SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: the screening programme targeted second and third grade students in first level secondary schools. Participants were subdivided into four groups; one group each week underwent screening, yielding one test per student per month. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: it was calculated: 1. number of positive cases detected vs total number of students tested in the SS programme; 2. number of positive cases detected outside the SS program vs. total number of students in the target population. The number of quarantines due to SS and no-SS case identification were detected. To investigate the spread of COVID-19 in households, the mother-child pairs were identified through record linkage between the CedAP and SDO archives, and positive mothers were identified. RESULTS: sixty-nine percent of schools and 19.5% of the students participated in the programme. SS detected 114 positives cases for SARS-CoV-2. On 08.03.2021, the target classes started distance learning: 69 of the 114 positive students were identified before that date, leading to the activation of 67 quarantine measures. Only for 61 out of 69 of those students (88%) was possible to identify the mother; 46 mothers had performed a swab test after the positivity of their child with a positive result in 11 cases. Asymptomatic cases identified at screening during in-class learning period accounted for 26.5% of the total number of cases occurred in the participating classes. CONCLUSIONS: this is one of the few studies (and the first in Italy) to describe the functioning and predictive capacity of school screening testing for SARS-CoV-2 in a real-world situation. The findings provide data-driven suggestions for government agencies when planning large-scale school screening testing programmes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Students
10.
Sch Psychol ; 36(3): 190-195, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592679

ABSTRACT

This research examines the cross-cultural differences on triarchic model of grit (TMG) dimensions (i.e., perseverance of effort, consistency of interests, and adaptability to situations) and the associations of grit with academic engagement in Math and Science among secondary school students in one secondary school in Hong Kong (n = 101; M age = 12.44; SD = .60), nine secondary schools in Philippines (n = 575; Mage = 14.66; SD = .83), and two secondary schools in mainland China (n = 710; Mage = 13.39; SD = .56). Result of structural equation modeling via maximum likelihood estimation approach demonstrated that although all TMG dimensions were related to higher engagement in Math and Science, adaptability served as the strongest predictor of these outcomes even after controlling for the participants' cultural settings and conscientiousness. Consistency served as the weakest correlate of engagement outcomes. Conscientiousness, settings, and TMG dimensions explained 46% and 50% of the variance in Math and Science academic engagement respectively. These results provide additional evidence regarding the generalizability of TMG in non-Western societies. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Academic Success , Adolescent , Child , China , Humans , Mathematics , Schools , Students
11.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 22(12): 4051-4056, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591002

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of cigarette smoking and health-related quality of life among Saudi secondary vocational students during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A convenience sample of 328 answered a web-based self-administered questionnaire based on the Youth Risky Behavior Monitoring System (YRBSS) plus the Short Form 12 (SF-12) were included in the study. The target population included all Saudi students enrolled at the Secondary Industrial Institute in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, during December 2020 and February 2021. RESULTS: Out of the total of 328 male participants, representing a response rate of 38.59%, the highest percentage of respondents were in the first year (45.4%), the mean age of the participants was 17.73 years with a standard deviation (SD) of 1.85 years. The prevalence of current smokers, past smokers, and never smokers accounted for 30.2%, 21.3%, and 48.5%, respectively. First-year students reported relatively high levels of smoking prevalence and low physical scores of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The overall mean of HRQoL of current smokers, past smokers, and never smokers accounted for 58.60, 58.38, and 63.66, respectively. In addition, current smokers reported a relatively low physical score of HRQoL 55.73. CONCLUSION: This is the first report to explore the impact of smoking on HRQoL of Secondary Industrial Institute students in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results indicate that smoking has a negative impact on the quality of life of vocational students. Therefore, a health strategies plan may be developed to improve the quality of life for vocational students in Saudi Arabia. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of cigarette smoking and health-related quality of life among Saudi secondary vocational students during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A convenience sample of 328 answered a web-based self-administered questionnaire based on the Youth Risky Behavior Monitoring System (YRBSS) plus the Short Form 12 (SF-12) were included in the study. The target population included all Saudi students enrolled at the Secondary Industrial Institute in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, during December 2020 and February 2021. RESULTS: Out of the total of 328 male participants, representing a response rate of 38.59%, the highest percentage of respondents were in the first year (45.4%), the mean age of the participants was 17.73 years with a standard deviation (SD) of 1.85 years. The prevalence of current smokers, past smokers, and never smokers accounted for 30.2%, 21.3%, and 48.5%, respectively. First-year students reported relatively high levels of smoking prevalence and low physical scores of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The overall mean of HRQoL of current smokers, past smokers, and never smokers accounted for 58.60, 58.38, and 63.66, respectively. In addition, current smokers reported a relatively low physical score of HRQoL 55.73. CONCLUSION: This is the first report to explore the impact of smoking on HRQoL of Secondary Industrial Institute students in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results indicate that smoking has a negative impact on the quality of life of vocational students. Therefore, a health strategies plan may be developed to improve the quality of life for vocational students in Saudi Arabia.


Subject(s)
Quality of Life , Tobacco Smoking/adverse effects , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , Risk-Taking , Saudi Arabia , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261590, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598523

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the reliability and factorial validity of General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7) in the context of university students in Bangladesh. The research aimed to assess whether the original one-dimensional model or a model containing both somatic and cognitive-emotional factors is appropriate. A repeated cross-sectional survey design based on convenience sampling was used to collect data from 677 university students. The factor structure of the GAD-7 was assessed by exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and its convergent validity was determined by investigating its correlations with Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and Patient Health Questionnaire Anxiety-Depression Scale (PHQ-ADS). Results showed excellent reliability of GAD-7 as measured by Cronbach's α. CFA suggested that a modified one-factor model is appropriate for the sample. This model provided high values of comparative fit index (CFI), goodness of fit index (GFI), and Tucker Lewis Index (TLI), low value of standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) and a non-significant root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA). Correlation between GAD-7 and PHQ-9 was 0.751 and 0.934 between GAD-7 and PHQ-ADS. Overall, the study provided support for modified unidimensional structure for GAD-7 and showed high internal consistency along with good convergent validity.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Patient Health Questionnaire , Psychometrics/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Bangladesh , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/diagnosis , Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder/psychology , Reproducibility of Results , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Students/psychology , Universities , Young Adult
13.
Inquiry ; 58: 469580211059953, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598094

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: College students are vulnerable and may experience high stress due to COVID-19, especially girls. This study aims to identify posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related factors among the target population during the initial phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In the initial phase of COVID-19 epidemic (February 23 to March 5, 2020), 2205 female college students from six provinces in mainland China were enrolled in this study and completed the online survey about the cognitive status of COVID-19, including the Impact of Event Scale-6, the Multidimensional Perceived Social Support Scale and a self-developed 10-item Perceived threat scale. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed using SPSS software to explore the determinants of PTSD symptoms. RESULTS: PTSD symptoms were prevalent in female college students, and 34.20% met the cut-off for PTSD. Self-reported fair or poor health (AOR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.22-2.59), high concern about COVID-19 (AOR = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.35-2.03), beliefs that "COVID-19 can cause a global outbreak" (AOR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.02-1.56), the perception of "risk of infection" (AOR = 2.46, 95% CI: 2.16-2.81), beliefs that "closed management" and "COVID-19 as a public health emergency of international concern" would have an impact, and the fear of "impact on life planning" were all positively associated with PTSD (AOR = 1.37, 1.22, and 1.29, respectively); however, perceived social support from family (AOR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.70-0.93) was negatively associated with PTSD. Among the significant variables at the bivariate level, multivariate logistic regression revealed that the greatest protector for PTSD was the high knowledge score (AOR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.60-0.90), while had confirmed cases among relatives and friends (AOR = 7.70, 95% CI: 1.28-46.25) was the strongest predictor of PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, PTSD symptoms were prevalent among female college students in China during the COVID-19 epidemic. Targeting vulnerable populations to improve their knowledge about COVID-19 and create an atmosphere of social support would be beneficial. Moreover, the joint efforts from family, school administrators, and policymakers are essential to improve the mental health of the female students during the COVID-19 epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(5152): 1778-1781, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596398

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in school closures and reduction of in-person learning (1). In August 2021, the Lake County Health Department (LCHD) in Illinois introduced a Test to Stay (TTS) strategy, whereby unvaccinated students, teachers, and staff members with certain school-related COVID-19 exposures could remain in school and participate in school-related extracurricular activities. Eligibility to participate in TTS required the following conditions to be met: 1) the exposure occurred while both the person with COVID-19 (index patient) and the close contact were masked; 2) the close contact remained asymptomatic, practiced consistent mask wearing, and maintained physical distancing; and 3) the close contact underwent testing for SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) on days 1, 3, 5, and 7 after exposure to the index patient. LCHD permitted kindergarten through grade 12 (K-12) schools in Lake County to implement TTS; 90 schools, representing 31 school districts in Lake County, implemented TTS during August 9-October 29, 2021. During the implementation period, 258 COVID-19 cases were reported. Among 1,035 students and staff members enrolled in TTS, the secondary attack risk (number of close contacts who received a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result within 14 days after exposure to an index patient, divided by total number of close contacts) was 1.5% (16 of 1,035). Among the 16 secondary cases identified, all were in students, and none appeared to transmit SARS-CoV-2 to other school-based contacts. However, nine tertiary cases were identified among household contacts of the 16 secondary cases, and four of the nine were fully vaccinated. Assuming a maximum of 8 missed school days for every 10-day quarantine period, up to 8,152 in-person learning days were saved among TTS participants. Implementation of TTS with other concurrent prevention strategies, including masking and physical distancing, limited further spread of SARS-CoV-2 within K-12 schools and allowed students to safely sustain in-person learning. Although vaccination remains the leading public health recommendation to protect against COVID-19 for those aged ≥5 years, schools might consider TTS as an option for allowing close contacts who are not fully vaccinated to remain in the classroom as an alternative to home quarantine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Quarantine/methods , Schools , Students , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child, Preschool , Environmental Exposure , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Masks
15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 782793, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595898

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional analysis estimated differences, based on disability status, in college students' (n = 777) experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were modeled using t-tests and logistic regression. Most participants were white (86.2%), and women (66.4%). The mode age was 23. A third (35.6%) had at least one disability. Students reported high rates of psychosocial distress, like fear of contracting (59.7%) and spreading (74.3%) COVID-19, worry about friends and family (83.7%), and increased anxiety (72.5%), depression (59.9%), and substance use (24.7%). Forty-two percent (42.2%) were scared they would miss out on their education through virtual classes. About a third feared forgetting assignments (34.1%) and making mistakes (33.9%). Fewer students expressed apprehension about (27.9%) and intimidation by (26.3%) virtual learning. Only 17.2% would continue taking virtual classes after the pandemic. Students with disabilities (M = 12.4, SD = 4.1) experienced more psychosocial stressors compared to students without disabilities (M = 9.9, SD = 4.2), [t (775) = 7.86, p < 0.001]. In adjusted models, disabled students were more than twice as likely to experience worry about medical bills (OR = 2.29), loneliness (OR = 2.09), and increased anxiety (OR = 2.31). They were also more than three times as likely to report increased depression (OR = 3.51) and changes in sexual activity (OR = 3.12). However, students with disabilities (M = 1.5, SD = 1.1) also reported receiving more support compared to their non-disabled classmates (M = 1.1, SD = 1.1), [t (775) = 6.06, p < 0.001]. Disabled students were more likely to feel a sense of contributing to society by following precautions (OR = 1.80) and receive support from family and others (emotional support: OR = 2.01, financial support: OR = 2.04). Interestingly, no significant differences were found in students' feelings associated with online or virtual learning [t (526.08) = 0.42, p = 0.68]. Students with disabilities, though, trended toward reporting negative experiences with virtual learning. In conclusion, students with disabilities were disproportionately affected by COVID-19 stressors, but also expressed more support and a sense of contributing to the common good.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , Education, Distance , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students
16.
Int J Med Educ ; 12: 274-299, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595676

ABSTRACT

Objectives:  To investigate the acceptability and the effectiveness of a virtual adaptation of a well-established, mandatory, community-based pre-clinical remote area health placement in which medical students learn about the social and environmental determinants of health in remote Australia; and make recommendations to guide the delivery of future learning experiences. Methods: A mixed-methods convergent design was used. All 99 students, 36 placement hosts and 10 staff were invited to complete an online survey and 27(27%), 12(33%) and 10(100%), respectively, contributed data.  Qualitative data were collected via semi-structured interviews from four students, four hosts and six staff. Survey data were analysed using descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage) and open-ended responses summarised to provide supporting contextual evidence. Interview transcripts were analysed and coded independently, then corroborated to identify and summarise common themes using thematic analysis. Results: Survey and interview data indicated that the virtual placement was acceptable to students and hosts and enabled students to achieve intended learning objectives.   Virtual activities enabled students and hosts to develop authentic, genuine interpersonal relationships, which in turn were facilitated when hosts and students had practiced videoconferencing beforehand with good high-speed internet connections via mobile devices. Pastoral care and access to IT support were essential. Conclusions: Virtual placements can be used in combination with and are an option for students and hosts who cannot attend/courses that cannot fund physical placements. Careful design and further research is required to ensure that virtual placements enable "head, heart and hands" learning and do not create/reinforce inequities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Physical Examination , SARS-CoV-2 , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(5152): 1773-1777, 2021 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593939

ABSTRACT

On July 12, 2021, the California Department of Public Health updated COVID-19 school guidance, allowing a Test to Stay (TTS) strategy to increase access to in-person learning* (1). The TTS strategy enabled unvaccinated students, exposed in school to a person infected with SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19), to remain in school while under quarantine, if both the infected person and the exposed person wore masks correctly and consistently throughout the exposure. To stay in school during the quarantine period, the exposed student must remain asymptomatic, wear a mask at school, and undergo twice weekly testing for SARS-CoV-2. To date, few studies have evaluated the impact of TTS on transmission (2-4). This study evaluated a TTS strategy implemented by Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (LAC DPH). During September 20-October 31, 2021, among 78 school districts, one half permitted TTS; in total, 432 (21%) of 2,067 schools adopted TTS. TTS schools did not experience increases in COVID-19 incidence among students after TTS implementation, and in 20 identified outbreaks in TTS schools,† no tertiary transmission was identified. The ratio of student COVID-19 incidence in TTS districts to that in non-TTS districts was similar before and after TTS adoption (rate ratio = 0.5). Non-TTS schools lost an estimated 92,455 in-person school days during September 20-October 31 while students were in quarantine, compared with no lost days among quarantined students in TTS schools. Non-TTS schools cited resource-related reasons for not adopting TTS; 75% of these schools were in LAC's most disadvantaged neighborhoods. Preliminary data from LAC suggest that a school-based TTS strategy does not increase school transmission of SARS-CoV-2, and might greatly reduce loss of in-person school days; however, TTS might have barriers to implementation and require resources that are not available for some schools. Continued efforts to simplify school quarantine strategies might help to ensure that all students have access to safe in-person education. Although vaccination remains the leading public health recommendation to protect against COVID-19 for persons aged ≥5 years, schools might consider TTS as an option for allowing students with a school exposure who are not fully vaccinated to remain in the classroom as an alternative to home quarantine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Quarantine/methods , Schools , Students , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Environmental Exposure , Humans , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Masks
18.
Bratisl Lek Listy ; 123(1): 44-49, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593857

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to estimate the prevalence of depression and anxiety among university students during the peak of COVID­19 pandemic in the Slovak Republic in December 2020. The secondary goal was to compare results with a study from 2018 at the same university. METHODS: A web-based cross-sectional study was administered at the Comenius University in Bratislava. The final sample consisted of 1,786 participants (approx. 80 % females) with the mean age and standard deviation of M=21.15 and SD=3.53. An online battery of self-report measures of depression, anxiety, perceived stress, loneliness, and resilience was administered. RESULTS: The prevalence rates of moderately severe to­severe depression and anxiety were 34.3 % and 20.1 %, respectively. Depression and anxiety were associated with younger age, higher perception of stress, higher loneliness, and lower resilience. In comparison with 2018, we found a two-fold increase in depression and anxiety. The increase was present across most of the depression and anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSION: The result of the study revealed elevated rates of depression and anxiety during the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic in Slovakia. Various demographic and psychological factors were associated with more severe depression and anxiety among university students. Some subgroups of students are at the higher risk of mental health problems (Tab. 4, Ref. 26).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Slovakia/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological , Students
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592908

ABSTRACT

Considering that athletes constantly practice and compete in noisy environments, the aim was to investigate if performing neurofeedback training in these conditions would yield better results in performance than in silent ones. A total of forty-five student athletes aged from 18 to 35 years old and divided equally into three groups participated in the experiment (mean ± SD for age: 22.02 ± 3.05 years). The total neurofeedback session time for each subject was 300 min and were performed twice a week. The environment in which the neurofeedback sessions were conducted did not seem to have a significant impact on the training's success in terms of alpha relative amplitude changes (0.04 ± 0.08 for silent room versus 0.07 ± 0.28 for noisy room, p = 0.740). However, the group exposed to intermittent noise appears to have favourable results in all performance assessments (p = 0.005 for working memory and p = 0.003 for reaction time). The results of the study suggested that performing neurofeedback training in an environment with intermittent noise can be interesting to athletes. Nevertheless, it is imperative to perform a replicated crossover design.


Subject(s)
Neurofeedback , Adolescent , Adult , Athletes , Humans , Memory, Short-Term , Students , Young Adult
20.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E1252-E1259, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, universities transitioned to primarily online delivery, and it is important to understand what implications the transition back to in-person activities may have on spread of SARS-CoV-2 in the student population. The specific aim of our study was to provide insights into the effect of timetabling decisions on the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in a population of undergraduate engineering students. METHODS: We developed an agent-based modelling simulation that used a Canadian first-year undergraduate engineering program with an enrolment of 180 students in 5 courses of 12.7 weeks in length. Each course involved 150 minutes of lectures and 110 minutes of tutorials or laboratories per week. We considered several online and in-person timetabling scenarios with different scheduling frequencies and section sizes, in combination with surveillance and testing interventions. The study was conducted from May 1 to Aug. 31, 2021. RESULTS: When timetabling interventions were applied, we found a reduction in the mean number of students who were infected and that a containment of widespread outbreaks could be achieved. Timetables with online lectures and small (1/6 class capacity) tutorial or laboratory sections reduced the mean number of students who were infected by 83% and reduced the risk of large outbreaks that occurred with in-person lectures. We also found that spread of SARS-CoV-2 was less sensitive to class size than to contact frequency when a biweekly timetable was implemented (i.e., alternating online and in-person sections on a biweekly basis). Including a contact-tracing policy and randomized testing to the timetabling interventions helped to contain the spread of SARS-CoV-2 further. Vaccination coverage had the largest effect on reducing the number of students who were infected. INTERPRETATION: Our modelling showed that by taking advantage of timetabling opportunities and applying appropriate interventions (contact tracing, randomized testing and vaccination), SARS-CoV-2 infections may be averted and disruptions (case isolations) reduced. However, given the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants, transitions from online to in-person classes should proceed cautiously from small biweekly classes, for example, to manage risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Decision Making, Organizational , Engineering/education , Infection Control/methods , Universities , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Canada , Humans , Students , Time Factors , Universities/organization & administration , Young Adult
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