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1.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 753, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098332

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in South Africa compelled medical schools to switch to a purely online curriculum. The innovative changes transformed the standard clinical skills curriculum to increase learning transfer to bridge the theory-practice gap. The efficacy of this intervention remains unknown. This study aims to measure medical students' clinical competency in the affective, cognitive, and psychomotor domains by assessing clinical skills knowledge retention and transfer from the online platform compared to face-to-face and blended learning. METHODS: A non-random cross-sectional quasi-experimental study assessed third-year medical students' knowledge retention and learning transfer in three domains of clinical skills competence. Data were obtained using a score sheet during a directly observed formative and a trial online summative assessment. One hundred and one third-year medical students volunteered for the formative onsite assessment that tested the psychomotor domain. Two hundred and thirty-nine students were evaluated on the affective and cognitive domains in the summative online trial mini-objective structured clinical examination (tm-OSCE). The OSCE scores were analysed using descriptive statistics. The significance of the findings was evaluated by comparing OSCE scores with the pre-pandemic 2019 third-year medical students. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found between the two cohorts of medical students from both years (p < 0.05). The 2021 blended group's (n = 101) medians were 90%, 95%CI [86, 92], 82%, 95%CI [80, 85], and 87%, 95% CI [84, 90] for the psychomotor, affective, and cognitive skills, respectively. The e-learning group's affective and cognitive skills medians were 78%, 95%CI [73, 79] and 76%, 95%CI [71, 78], respectively. The 2019 face-to-face cohort (n = 249) achieved medians of 70%, 95% CI [69, 72] and 84%, 95%CI [82, 86] for the affective and psychomotor skills, respectively. CONCLUSION: Medical students demonstrated near and far transfer bridging the theory-practice gap in three clinical skills domains. The blended group performed significantly better than the e-learning and face-to-face groups. Medical schools and educators play a vital role in overcoming learning challenges and achieving higher transfer levels by adopting multiple student-centered teaching delivery approaches and arranging immediate application opportunities. This study offers medical educators suggestions that encourage the transfer of online learning to face-to-face practice, decentralising medical education with a revised blended learning strategy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Humans , Students, Medical/psychology , Clinical Competence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cognition
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071463

ABSTRACT

The high risk of mental health problems among medical students has been compounded by the COVID-19 pandemic, which greatly reduced social contact. The mental health support service of the medical school of one Hungarian university was transferred to the online learning management system and was expanded by self-help materials in three domains: Improving study skills, stress management techniques, and reducing stress related to the COVID-19 pandemic. We wanted to understand the preferences of medical students for psychological self-help techniques by investigating the pattern of access to online self-help materials and the characteristics of the users. Access to the online materials between April 2020 and April 2021 among Hungarian and international medical students was analyzed using the logging data of the system. Of all the students who logged in during the examination period (n = 458), 36.6-40.4% viewed materials to improve study skills and 23-29% viewed stress management materials, of which short-duration audio format techniques were preferred. The access rate of content targeting coping with the mental health effects of COVID-19 was 9.5-24%. Support to improve study skills is significantly more preferred than interventions targeting distress-reduction. The pattern of access can be used for the development of interventions that are of most interest to medical students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health Services , Students, Medical , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Students, Medical/psychology , Pandemics , Internet
3.
Educ Health (Abingdon) ; 35(1): 20-25, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066834

ABSTRACT

Background: The sudden and rapid spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has created fear, worry and uncertainty in the student community. First-year medical students are likely to be doubly affected, for in addition to the stress of adapting to new learning processes, they are also now faced with uncertainties due to the COVID-19 pandemic. It was therefore decided to estimate psychological distress among the 1st-year medical students among the COVID-19 pandemic-related uncertainty. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1st-year medical students studying at a Medical College in western India. Demographic and COVID-19 related data was collected from the students through Google Forms and psychological distress was measured by using the 20 point World Health Organization-Self Reporting Questionnaire (WHO-SRQ 20). The study was approved by the Institutional ethics committee. Informed consent was taken before administering the questionnaire to the study participants. Statistical analysis was conducted using the SPSS statistical software. Results: Prevalence of Psychological distress among the study participants by WHO-SRQ 20 Scale with cut off 7/8 as found to be 25.5%. Worried about themselves contracting COVID-19 Infection (odds ratio [OR]: 3.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-9.42), worried of the adverse financial effect on self and family due to COVID-19 pandemic (OR: 3.01; 95% CI: 1.29-7.04), worried that online mode of learning was putting them at disadvantage compared to traditional Teaching-Learning method (OR: 3.44; 95% CI: 1.25-9.42), and worried about adverse effects on social support due to COVID-19 pandemic (OR: 2.63; 95% CI: 1.27-5.43), were the factors significantly associated with psychological distress among the medical students. Discussion: There is an urgent need to develop a system to render counseling/professional help to all the students in need. This would ensure better mental health and would minimize any adverse academic outcomes among the students due to the COVID-19 Pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Students, Medical , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Students, Medical/psychology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Uncertainty , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , India/epidemiology
4.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0274525, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065121

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Mental health is recognized as a critical component of public health Given the close relationship between mental health and life style and the importance of students as valuable human resources, the present study aimed at determining the relationship between life style and mental health among medical students in Sousse during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study in university students from the first to the fifth grade of the Faculty of Medicine of Sousse during the academic year 2020/2021. Data were collected anonymously via an online questionnaire published on the Facebook groups of each grade, on december 2020. The online survey consisted of three sections. The first one aimed to collect sociodemographic information. The second section of the survey addressed recent lifestyle choices and the third one assessed psychological distress using the French version of 12 items of The General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). The significance level was considered 0.05. RESULTS: Overall 147 were studied. Using the bimodal scoring, the total score was between 0 and 12, to evoke psychiatric disorders, we set the threshold of 4. For our sample, the median scale was 7 [4-9], and more than half of the students (68%; n = 100) had a score higher than 4. Psychiatric disorder was significantly more frequent in female students (73.3% vs 42.3%; p = 0.002). Higher GHQ-scale was found in younger students, foreigners, students who need more than 30 minutes to get to the faculty, unemployed students, and students of fifth grade. However, differences were not statistically significant. Regarding lifestyle choices, we found that physical inactivity, no smoking habits, no alcohol use, no illicit substance use, other substance use, changing in eating habits, and absence of coping methods of stress were higher in students with psychiatric disorders. However, this association was statistically significant only for physical activity (p = 0.016). The results of the regression analysis suggest female gender as an independent predictor of high GHQ-12 scores. Practicing physical activity was found as protective factor for psychiatric disorders. CONCLUSION: Considering the vital role of medical students in providing and promoting community health, the need for more detailed planning and interventions to improve their life style and mental health is essential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Life Style , Mental Disorders , Students, Medical , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Students, Medical/psychology , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data
5.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274683, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039422

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a transformative effect on individuals across the world, including those in healthcare. Transformative learning is an educational theory in which an individual's worldview is fundamentally altered through conscious reflection (Cognitive Rational), insights (Extrarational), or social reform (Social Critique). We utilized transformative learning theory to characterize the experiences of medical trainees during the pandemic. METHODS: We used the Transformative Learning Survey in September and October 2020 to evaluate the processes and outcomes of transformative learning in health professions students and housestaff at an academic medical center during the pandemic. We analyzed survey scores for three process domains and four outcome subdomains. We inductively coded the survey's two open-ended questions and performed qualitative and mixed-methods analyses. RESULTS: The most prominent TL outcome was Self-Awareness, Acting Differently was intermediate, and Openness and Worldview Shifts were lowest. Cognitive Rational and Social Critique processes were more prominent than Extrarational processes. Students were more likely than housestaff to undergo transformative learning through the Social Critique process (p = 0.025), in particular the sub-processes of Social Action (p = 0.023) and Ideology Critique (p = 0.010). Qualitative analysis via the aggregation of codes identified four responses to the pandemic: negative change, positive change, existential change, or no change. Negative changes (67.7%) were most common, with students reporting more of these changes than housestaff (74.8% vs 53.6%; p < 0.01). Only 8.4% of reported changes could be defined as transformative. CONCLUSIONS: Through the theoretical lens of transformative learning, our study provides insight into the lives of learners during the pandemic. Our finding that medical students were more likely to use Social Critique processes has multiple parallels in the literature. If leaders in academic medicine desire to create enlightened change agents through transformative learning, such education must continue throughout graduate medical education and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Learning , Pandemics , Students, Medical/psychology
6.
Int J Soc Psychiatry ; 68(6): 1232-1237, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020713

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Medical students are under high pressure to perform academically and also face the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, putting them at risk of developing burnout. AIMS: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence and degree of burnout among medical students in Indonesia during 1 month of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: From April to May 2021, we conducted an online survey of Indonesian medical students to assess burnout (using Maslach Burnout Inventory-Student Survey, MBI-SS). RESULTS: A total of 1,947 students from 27 universities participated in the study. About 35.5% had burnout, 41.7% with a moderate to high level of emotional exhaustion, 45% had moderate to high level of depersonalization and 66.7% had a low level of personal accomplishment. CONCLUSION: A total of 35.5% of medical students in our sample experienced burnout. We suggest further research to explore and identify factors related to these findings and the need for potential interventions at global and national level to enhance the well-being of medical students.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Burnout, Psychological/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Students, Medical/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Elife ; 112022 09 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010476

ABSTRACT

Concerns about the mental health of students, trainees and staff at universities and medical schools have been growing for many years. Recently, these have been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic and a period of heightened reckoning and protests about systemic racism in the United States in 2020. To better understand the mental health of medical students and biomedical doctoral students at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill during this challenging period, we performed a cross-sectional study (n=957) using institutional annual survey data on measures of depression, anxiety, hazardous alcohol use, problems related to substance use, and suicidal ideation. These data were collected in 2019 and 2020, and were analyzed by type of training program, race/ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, and survey year. Results indicated significant differences for rates of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation, with biomedical doctoral students showing greater incidence than medical students, and historically excluded students (e.g., people of color, women, LGBQ+ trainees) showing greater incidence compared to their peers. Of note, mental health remained poor for biomedical doctoral students in 2020 and declined for those belonging to historically excluded populations. The high rates of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation reported suggest that training environments need to be improved and support for mental health increased.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Students, Medical/psychology , United States/epidemiology , Universities
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010055

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, students had to interrupt their regular studies, and universities changed their teaching formats. The aim of this study was to analyze medical students' stress perception, wellbeing, life and work satisfaction, and cool down reactions, and to compare the survey data of online and hybrid semesters with pre-pandemic education formats in-person. METHODS: Cross-sectional surveys at three time points enrolling 1061 medical students (58% women; 24.4 ± 3.4 years); 30.8% from pre-pandemic formats in-person, 22.8% from pandemic online semesters, and 46.1% from pandemic hybrid semesters. RESULTS: Both students' stress perception and psychological wellbeing decreased during the pandemic semesters. Their satisfaction with the university support was at its lowest during the hybrid semesters. Regression analyses indicated that students' stress perception can be explained only to some extent by their general dissatisfaction with their medical studies or teaching formats. CONCLUSIONS: The lockdowns affected students in more ways than simply their teaching formats. Students require individual support to adjust to difficult situations, and particularly medical students in their preclinical phase compared to students in their clinical phases. These are challenges for the medical education system, which must find ways to be prepared for future times of crisis and insecurity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Students, Medical/psychology
9.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 619, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002164

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Calling within the medical context receives growing academic attention and empirical research has started to demonstrate its beneficial effects. The purpose of this study is to investigate what motivates students to enter medical school and what role calling may play (i), to evaluate if calling influences the way in which they experience their studies (ii), and to compare medical students' experience of calling with those of physicians. METHODS: A questionnaire survey was distributed among medical students (N = 1048; response rate above 60%) of the University of Lausanne in Switzerland. It was supplemented by a group discussion between bachelor medical students (N = 8) and senior physicians (N = 4), focusing on different facets of calling. An existing data set of a survey among physicians, addressing calling with the same questionnaire, was used to compare students' and physicians' attitudes towards calling. Survey data were analyzed with the habitual statistical procedures for categorical and continuous variables. The group discussion was analyzed with thematic analysis. RESULTS: The survey showed that experiencing calling is a motivational factor for study choice and influences positively choice consistency. Students experiencing calling differed from those who did not: they attributed different definitions to calling, indicated more often prosocial motivational factors for entering medical school and perceived the learning context as less burdensome. The analysis of the group discussion revealed that the concept of calling has a fluid definition. It was conceived as having the characteristics of a double-edged sword and as originating from within or outside or from a dialectic interplay between the inner and outer world. Finally, calling is experienced less often by physicians than by medical students, with a decreasing prevalence as the immersion in the clinical years of the study of medicine progresses. CONCLUSIONS: Calling plays an important role in study choice and consistency of medical students. Given its relevance for medical students and its ramifications with the learning context, calling should become a topic of the reflexive parts of the medical curriculum. We critically discuss the role played by calling for medical students and provide some perspectives on how calling could be integrated in the reflection and teaching on physicianhood.


Subject(s)
Career Choice , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Motivation , Physicians , Students, Medical , Curriculum , Humans , Physicians/psychology , Schools, Medical , Students, Medical/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Switzerland
10.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0269740, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993467

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Medical students are known to have higher levels of these issues than the general population but in Vietnam the effects of the pandemic on medical student mental health was not documented. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence and identify factors associated with self-reported anxiety disorder, depression, and perception of worsening mental health among Vietnamese medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 7th to 29th, 2020. All students in Doctor of General Medicine, Doctor of Preventive Medicine, and Bachelor of Nursing tracks at Hanoi Medical University (3672 students) were invited to participate. Data were collected using an online questionnaire including demographic characteristics, Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 items, Patient Health Questionnaire 9 items, Fear of COVID-19 scale, and question about worsening mental health status. Robust Poisson regression was used to assess the association between mental health status and associated factors. RESULTS: Among 1583 students (43.1% response rate), the prevalence of students screened positive for anxiety disorder was 7.3%(95%C.I.:6.0-8.7), depression was 14.5%(95%C.I.:12.8-16.3), and perceiving worsening mental health was 6.9%(95%C.I.:5.7-8.3). In multivariable regression models, significant factors associated with self-reported anxiety disorder included being male (PR = 1.99,95%C.I.:1.35-2.92), difficulty in paying for healthcare services (PR = 2.05,95%C.I.:1.39-3.01), and high level of fear of COVID-19 (Q3:PR = 2.36,95%C.I.:1.38-4.02 and Q4:PR = 4.75,95%C.I.:2.65-8.49). Significant factors associated with self-reported depression were difficulty in paying for healthcare services (PR = 1.78,95%C.I.:1.37-2.30), and high level of fear of COVID-19 (Q3:PR = 1.41,95%C.I.:1.02-1.95 and Q4:PR = 2.23,95%C.I.:1.51-3.29). Significant factors associated with perceived worsening mental health status included having clinical experience (PR = 1.83,95%C.I.:1.17-2.88) and having atypical symptoms of COVID-19 (PR = 1.96,95%C.I.:1.31-2.94). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of self-reported depression, anxiety disorder, and worsening mental health among Vietnamese students during the first wave of COVID-19 was lower than in medical students in other countries. Further investigation is needed to confirm this finding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , Students, Medical/psychology , Universities
11.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 627, 2022 Aug 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression symptoms among medical students is particularly high, and it has increased during the COVID-19 epidemic. Sleep quality and state-trait anxiety are risk factors for depression, but no study has yet investigated the mediating role of state-trait anxiety in the relationship between poor sleep quality and depression symptoms in medical students. This study aims to investigate the relationship among depression symptoms, sleep quality and state-trait anxiety in medical university students in Anhui Province. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey of 1227 students' online questionnaires collected from four medical universities in Anhui Province using a convenience sampling method. We measured respondents' sleep quality, state-trait anxiety, and depression symptoms using three scales: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS). We analysed the mediating role of STAI scores on the association between PSQI scores and SDS scores through the Sobel-Goodman Mediation Test while controlling for covariates. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 74.33% (912) and 41.40% (518) of the respondents reported suffering from poor sleep quality and depression symptoms. Sleep quality, state-trait anxiety, and depression symptoms were positively associated with each other (ß = 0.381 ~ 0.775, P < 0.001). State-trait anxiety partially mediated the association between sleep quality and depression symptoms (Sobel test Z = 15.090, P < 0.001), and this mediating variable accounted for 83.79% of the association when adjusting for potential confounders. Subgroup analysis further revealed that STAI scores partially mediated the association between PSQI scores and SDS scores in females and rural students and fully mediated the association between PSQI scores and SDS scores in males and urban students. CONCLUSIONS: This study found that sleep quality and state-trait anxiety have a significant predictive effect on depression symptoms. State-trait anxiety mediated the relationship between sleep quality and depression symptoms, with a more complex mechanism observed among rural and female medical students. Multiple pathways of intervention should be adopted, such as encouraging students to self-adjust, providing professional psychological intervention and timely monitoring, enriching extracurricular activities, and making changes in policies regarding long shifts and working hours.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Mediation Analysis , Sleep , Sleep Quality , Students, Medical/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities
12.
Clin Teach ; 19(5): e13518, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1968200

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, medical students exhibited poorer mental health relative to the general population and other students. This research aimed to assess American medical student mental health during the pandemic's height, while also identifying stressors and vulnerable populations. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 960 US allopathic and osteopathic medical students completed a mental health survey screening for depression, anxiety, burnout, suicidal ideation and increased substance use during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic. Potential relationships were explored between these mental health indicators and demographic and environmental factors, such as COVID-19 exposure. FINDINGS: Of the 960 medical students surveyed, 25.1% (n = 241) screened positive for depression, 40.4% (n = 388) screened positive for anxiety, 21.3% (n = 201) met criteria for at least one dimension of burnout, 19.0% (n = 182) started or increased substance use and 7.2% (n = 69) experienced thoughts of self-harm or suicide. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.01) in measures of mental health were associated with those who had accessed mental health care, had a personal COVID-19 diagnosis, knew someone who died of COVID-19 or were female. CONCLUSIONS: Although rates of anxiety and substance use among medical students in our study were higher than previously reported, rates of burnout and thoughts of self-harm or suicide were surprisingly lower. These results indicate that some aspects of remote learning imposed by the pandemic could be protective, warranting additional study for post-pandemic medical education. Meanwhile, medical schools and clerkships should offer additional resources to students particularly vulnerable to stressors, including females and those with personal pandemic impacts.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Substance-Related Disorders , Anxiety/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Students, Medical/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
13.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 469, 2022 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Constructivism theory has suggested that constructing students' own meaning is essential to successful learning. The erroneous example can easily trigger learners' confusion and metacognition, which may "force" students to process the learning material and construct meaning deeply. However, some learners exhibit a low level of elaboration activity and spend little time on each example. Providing instructional scaffolding and elaboration training may be an efficient method for addressing this issue. The current study conducted a randomized controlled trial to examine the effectiveness of erroneous example elaboration training on learning outcomes and the mediating effects of metacognitive load for Chinese students in medical statistics during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Ninety-one third-year undergraduate medical students were randomly assigned to the training group (n = 47) and the control group (n = 44). Prerequisite course performance and learning motivation were collected as covariates. The mid-term exam and final exam were viewed as posttest and delayed-test to make sure the robustness of the training effect. The metacognitive load was measured as a mediating variable to explain the relationship between the training and academic performance. RESULTS: The training significantly improved both posttest and delayed-test performance compared with no training (Fposttest = 26.65, p < 0.001, Partial η2 = 0.23; Fdelayed test = 38.03, p < 0.001, Partial η2 = 0.30). The variation trend in metacognitive load in the two groups was significantly different (F = 2.24, p < 0.05, partial η2 = 0.20), but metacognitive load could not explain the positive association between the treatment and academic performance (ß = - 0.06, se = 0.24, 95% CI - 0.57 to 0.43). CONCLUSIONS: Erroneous example learning and metacognitive demonstrations are effective for academic performance in the domain of medical statistics, but their underlying mechanism merits further study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , China , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , Students, Medical/psychology
14.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 411, 2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted all spheres of society including medical education and healthcare systems. In response to the pandemic, there has been a transition in medical education practice from traditional forms of teaching to online instruction delivery and virtual learning. Effective clinical microbiology education involves a combination of 'hands-on' practical learning and instructional delivery of scientific knowledge. Microbiology practical laboratories are critical learning environments offering 'hands-on' learning experiences that cannot be replicated through online learning. We conducted a mixed-methods study to understand the perception of online and face-to-face microbiology laboratory sessions among the medical students and microbiology faculty at Arabian Gulf University (AGU). METHODS: The study participants were third and fourth-year undergraduate medical students and faculty involved in delivering microbiology labs at AGU. The questionnaire consisted of questions ranging from perceived learning style to attitude towards online delivery of microbiology curriculum. After the questionnaire administration (google form), focus group discussion (FGD) was conducted for students and microbiology faculty separately. RESULTS: Among 168 students, 50.6% preferred face-to-face lab sessions as compared to 30.4% who preferred online labs, and 51.8% considered online labs to be an essential addition to face-to-face labs. Among the faculty, 85.7% preferred the face-to-face mode of teaching. All the faculty (100%) disagreed that all the microbiology labs teaching should be online. 57.2% considered online labs to be an essential addition to traditional face-to-face labs. Both faculty and students hold that a blended mode of instructional delivery is vital and indispensable for the transfer of skills and knowledge for microbiology students. CONCLUSION: The blended mode of delivering microbiology laboratory sessions in medical school is successful and well-received by both students and faculty. Students take the responsibility for furthering their own learning and understanding of concepts. Instructors have also noticed that blending learning strategies also successfully enhances the development of cognitive skills and problem-solving abilities in students. A review of the microbiology lab curriculum is necessary to identify content areas that can be delivered effectively through online, face-to-face lab sessions, or both, supported with appropriate tools and infrastructure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Faculty , Humans , Laboratories , Pandemics , Perception , Students, Medical/psychology , Universities
15.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267172, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933224

ABSTRACT

This study evaluates the degree of empathy among medical students and its influencing factors at three critical moments of their degree studies (beginning of first year and end of third and sixth years) as well as establishes low-, medium-, and high-empathy cut-off points to obtain valid and reliable results that can be extrapolated to the general population. This cross-sectional study of the eight (public and private) medical schools in the province of Madrid, used an electronic questionnaire with the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE), Medical Student Well-Being Index, and other independent characteristics as measuring instruments. Of the 2,264 student participants, 1,679 (74.0%) were women, with a 50.7% participation rate. No significant differences were found in empathy levels by academic year. Regarding range, percentile and cut-off point tables were established to identify students with high, medium, and low empathy levels. Women (p<0.001), volunteer workers (p<0.001), and those preferring general specialties (internal medicine, psychiatry, pediatrics, or family medicine) scored higher on the JSE (p<0.02). Moreover, 41.6% presented high level of psychological distress. Women reported a lower well-being level and a higher risk of psychological distress (p = 0.004). In sum, the empathy of medical students in Madrid did not differ among the three critical moments of their university studies. The established cut-off points could be taken into account when accessing the medical degree and identifying students with low levels of empathy to implement curricular interventions to rectify this perceived deficiency. There was a high percentage of medical students with high levels of psychological distress.


Subject(s)
Empathy , Students, Medical , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Schools, Medical , Spain , Students, Medical/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
BMC Med Educ ; 22(1): 545, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933137

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Covid-19 pandemic, which affected medical students globally, could be viewed as a disorientating dilemma with the potential to offer opportunities for transformative learning. In 2021 the Medical Education Innovation and Research Centre at Imperial College London launched a Global Creative Competition as a platform for medical students to reflect on their experiences during the pandemic. METHODS: Six hundred forty-eight creative pieces with written reflections were submitted by medical students from 52 countries. 155 students from 28 countries consented for their entries to be included in this study. The reflections were analysed thematically and independently by three reviewers to explore how the pandemic impacted students' professional identity formation (PIF). RESULTS: The pandemic increased students' awareness of the social and global role of doctors in addressing health inequities. Students felt part of a wider healthcare community and showed greater appreciation towards person-centred care. Students also became more aware of their personal needs, priorities, and the importance of self-care. DISCUSSION: In agreement with Mezirow's theory of transformative learning (2003), the pandemic led students to re-examine pre-existing epistemic and sociocultural assumptions concerning the role of doctors and explore new perspectives of what it means to be a doctor. In accordance with Cheng's theory of coping flexibility (2021), students developed both emotion-focused coping strategies (e.g., arts engagement) and problem-solving strategies (e.g., volunteering), suggesting they were able to adjust psychologically and develop agency. However, students experienced tension between their sense of duty and sense of wellbeing, highlighting the need for medical educators to design into programmes formal support systems where medical students have the space and time they need to reflect on their emergent identities as a doctor. CONCLUSION: Medical educators should encourage students to reflect on their identity formation while encountering disorientating dilemmas. The inclusion of arts and humanities within the medical curriculum is strongly recommended to provide an avenue for students to access and express complex emotions and experiences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , COVID-19/epidemiology , Curriculum , Humans , Pandemics , Social Identification , Students, Medical/psychology
17.
Med Educ Online ; 27(1): 2100038, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931670

ABSTRACT

The concept of peer-assisted learning (PAL) has been implemented at many medical faculties. Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, parts of the medical education experience transitioned to digital formats. However, little is known about PAL and online student tutorials. PAL is effective due to cognitive and social congruence. This study aims to investigate these concepts in an online student tutorial on taking a patient's medical history. This longitudinal study took place in a preclinical communication course on how to take a patient's medical history. In an online student tutorial, the students learned how to take a patient's psychosocial medical history. Using standardised questionnaires, cognitive and social congruence were assessed. T-tests of independent samples were performed for data comparison. The participants included 128 second-year medical students and 5 student tutors. Cognitive congruence (Mstudent = 4.19 ± 0.56; Mstudenttutor = 4.04 ± 0.57) and social congruence (MStudent = 4.25 ± 0.56; MStudenttutor = 4.06 ± 0.57) were high for both students and student tutors in the online setting. In comparison to the face-to-face group, students in the online setting considered the student tutors to be significantly (p < .05) more socially congruent. Learning success increased during the course; however, it was not influenced by cognitive congruence. Cognitive and social congruence are high in an online setting. The students' learning success increased during the online tutorial. Based on the higher level of social congruence, student tutors might be very motivated to be open and approachable in an online setting. Simultaneously, students might pay more attention and participate actively in the online setting. Social and cognitive congruence contribute to the effectiveness of online student tutorials and, thus, online student tutorials should be integrated into medical training.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Students, Medical , Cognition , Curriculum , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Peer Group , Students, Medical/psychology , Teaching
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(11)2022 05 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924222

ABSTRACT

To mitigate the spread of COVID-19, universities in Japan shifted from face-to-face to online classes, which might have reduced social interaction and increased psychiatric problems among students. A self-report questionnaire was administered to fourth-year medical students in Tokyo in May 2021, during the fourth wave of the COVID-19 outbreak, to examine the association between the frequency of conversations and suicidal thoughts. The questionnaire assessed the frequency of conversations and, using part of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, suicidal ideation. Of the 113 students, 98 (86.7%) responded, of whom 20 (20.4%) had suicidal ideation. Poisson regression analysis revealed that those with less than 1 conversation per week and no conversations at all had a significantly higher risk of suicidal ideation than those with 3 conversations per week or more, after adjusting for personality, family relationship, income level, living alone, number of friends, gender, and age. These results indicate that less frequent conversations increased the risk of suicidal ideation among medical students. Mental health support for students needs to be strengthened if universities suspend face-to-face classes during a pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Students, Medical/psychology , Suicidal Ideation , Universities
19.
Inquiry ; 59: 469580221109671, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1923426

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has generated mental and psychological health problems worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine whether the psychological effects of COVID-19 were different in medical students who chose the medical profession with different motivational factors. In the study, there were 389 medical school students. The survey asks about sociodemographic features and the students' reasons for choosing the medical profession. The study also included a self-assessed Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale and Beck Hopelessness Scale. While 41% of students chose the medical profession for economic reasons, the ratio of whom have an extrinsic and intrinsic source of motivation was 37% and 22%, respectively. It was found that there was a statistically significant difference in the distribution of motivational factors by gender. Almost 50% of males were affected by economic motivation factors. The difference in motivational factors between genders was found to be statistically significant. Anxiety in females, depression in students with low-income families, and hopelessness in students older than 22 years and interns were higher than in the others (P < .05). Median scores for anxiety, depression, and hopelessness were higher for students with extrinsic motivational sources. However, only the difference in scores of anxiety and hopelessness was found statistically significant (P < .05). We found that the psychological effects of the COVID-19 pandemic varied according to both sociodemographic characteristics of the medical students and reasons for choosing medical profession. According to our results, the idealistic students interested in the medical profession, who want to support others and prioritize economic benefits, had fewer psychological issues than those who chose the medical profession due to family pressure or external factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Motivation , Pandemics , Students, Medical/psychology
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(13)2022 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911337

ABSTRACT

Medical students are at increased risk for psychological morbidity but the majority of those with mental health problems do not seek professional care. We aimed to uncover the viewpoints of medical students regarding barriers and facilitators to using university mental health services and their attitudes and preferences towards online counselling. Four semi-structured focus groups were conducted (n = 26, mean age = 21.8, ±1.88, 73% males). After reaching data saturation, interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and content-analysed by two independent coders. Intrapersonal barriers emerged to be perceived low risk, excessive self-reliance, lack of belief in the effectiveness of service, lack of openness. Interpersonal factors were the following: assumed long waiting list, insufficient provision of service information, fear of exposure, and not being familiar with the counsellor and the process. Extrapersonal barriers such as insurance problems, the number of available sessions, adverse sociocultural attitudes, fear of stigmatisation were identified. Students suggested that the university should provide psychoeducation and routine screening, apply social marketing and stigma reduction campaigns, improve information flow, and offer not only personal but also online video counselling to target removing these barriers. The results provide a reference for the redesign of mental health services to facilitate their access by students. Implications and limitations are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Students, Medical , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/psychology , Pandemics , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Schools, Medical , Social Stigma , Students, Medical/psychology
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