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1.
Perspect Med Educ ; 10(2): 130-134, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872783

ABSTRACT

Major racial disparities continue to exist in our healthcare education, from the underrepresentation of ethnic minorities when teaching about clinical signs to health management in primary and secondary care. A multi-centre group of students discuss what needs to change in medical education to cultivate physicians who are better prepared to care for patients of all backgrounds. We argue that the accurate portrayal of race in medical education is a vital step towards educating medical students to consider alternative explanations to biology when considering health inequities.


Subject(s)
Perception , Racism/psychology , Students, Medical/psychology , Attitude of Health Personnel , Education, Medical/methods , Education, Medical/standards , Humans , Racism/statistics & numerical data , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data
2.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265733, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759960

ABSTRACT

Dry eye disease (DED) is one of the most common ophthalmological disorders, resulting from several systemic and ocular etiologies including meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). During the COVID-19 pandemic, medical students are among the high-risk group for DED, mainly due to the increasing use of a visual display terminal (VDT) for online lectures and psychological stress from encountering several changes. Our study aimed to explore the prevalence of DED using the symptom-based definition and potential risk factors in medical students. This is a prospective cross-sectional study that included medical students at Chiang Mai University between November 2020 and January 2021. All participants were assessed using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, the Thai version of the 10-Item Perceived Stress Scale-10 (T-PSS-10), the LipiView® II interferometer, and an interview for other possible risk factors. Overall, 528 participants were included in the study; half of the participants were female. The prevalence of DED was 70.8%. In the univariate analysis, female sex, contact lens wear, and T-PSS-10 stress scores were significantly higher in the DED group (P = 0.002, 0.002, and <0.001, respectively). Moreover, participants with severe DED were likely to have higher meibomian gland tortuosity but not statistically significant. In the multivariate analysis, contact lens use and T-PSS-10 score were significant risk factors associated with the severity of DED. In conclusions, the prevalence of DED in medical students was as high as 70.8%. Contact lens use and psychological stress evaluated using the T-PSS-10 questionnaire had a significant correlation with a risk of DED. Female gender and duration of VDT use were also associated. Most of the risk factors were modifiable and may be used as initial management in patients with DED.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Dry Eye Syndromes/epidemiology , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Screen Time , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Dry Eye Syndromes/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Occupational Stress/complications , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Students, Medical/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Thailand/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 68(2): 206-211, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725082

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: A multicentric, cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and risk factors for Coronavirus disease 2019 in medical students and residents from four universities and affiliated hospitals in Brazil. METHODS: A survey about contamination risk and symptoms was sent to all participants through email and WhatsApp. Prevalence was measured by the self-report of positive polymerase chain reaction or serological test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed, and odds ratio and 95% confidence interval were calculated. RESULTS: Prevalence of infection by Sars-CoV-2 was 14.9% (151/1011). The disease was more prevalent in residents and interns than in undergraduate students. Contact with an infected relative outside the hospital or with colleagues without using personal protective equipment was associated with higher contamination. Contact with patients without wearing goggles and higher weekly frequency of contact were the two factors independently associated with the infection by Coronavirus disease 2019 in the multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Medical students, interns, and residents have a higher prevalence of Coronavirus disease 2019 than the general population, in which the last two groups are significantly at higher risk. Contacting patients at a higher weekly frequency increases the risk for infection. The use of goggles should be reinforced when contacting patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Students, Medical , Academic Medical Centers/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Internship and Residency/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260898, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With the introduction of the novel COVID-19 vaccine, public hesitancy is being experienced with many turning to healthcare professionals for advice. As future physicians, medical students play a critical role in the public's view of the vaccine. OBJECTIVES: To determine the attitude of U.S. medical students toward mandating the COVID-19 vaccine to healthcare workers and patients, as well as whether their knowledge of the vaccine plays a role in their view. METHODS: The authors emailed a survey link to all U.S. medical schools with request to distribute it to their medical students. The survey remained open from 02/09/2021 to 03/15/2021 and included questions to determine the attitude of the medical students toward recommending the COVID-19 vaccine, and general knowledge questions about the vaccine. Chi square, Fisher's exact test, and linear regression were conducted to determine associations between willingness to recommend the COVID-19 vaccine and general knowledge of the vaccine. RESULTS: Among the 1,899 responses from medical students representing 151 U.S. medical schools, 57.82% approved of making the COVID-19 vaccine mandatory to healthcare workers, and 16.27% approved of making it mandatory to patients. Additionally, those who tested most knowledgeable of the vaccine were less likely to approve of making the vaccine mandatory for patients (66.67% vs. 72.70). Those that tested most knowledgeable were also more likely to personally receive the vaccine (72.35% vs 62.99%) as opposed to those that tested the least knowledgeable who were less willing to personally receive the vaccine (4.12% vs 14.17%). CONCLUSIONS: The data revealed that a slight majority of medical students support a vaccine mandate toward healthcare workers while a minority of medical students support a vaccine mandate toward healthcare workers. Additionally, medical students that had relatively high knowledge of the vaccine correlated with not approving of making the vaccine mandatory for patients. However increased knowledge of the vaccine correlated with increased willingness to personally receive the vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Students, Medical , Vaccination/legislation & jurisprudence , Adult , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , United States , /statistics & numerical data
6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(24): 7709-7716, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603239

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe personal and family-related factors affecting undergraduate students' willingness to volunteer during the pandemic. This cross-sectional study was conducted on undergraduate medical students at Qassim University in Saudi Arabia through an online survey. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A pre-validated online questionnaire on willingness to volunteer during the pandemic was distributed through various messenger groups and social media. The questionnaire comprised two sections to collect demographics and how likely the volunteers work during the pandemic in different circumstances. The distribution of these parameters was reported by frequency and proportion for categorical variables. In addition to descriptive analytics, a chi-square test was used to compare key explanatory parameters between the low and high likelihood of volunteering. Data were analysed using IBM SPSS statistical software (version 25, Armonk, NY, USA). RESULTS: There was a high likelihood of willingness (60.7%) to volunteer among undergraduate medical students. However, there was no statistically significant difference in baseline parameters like gender, academic year, age (in years), marital status, children, and elderly dependents between the high and low likelihood of volunteer (p >0.05). However, a statistically significant difference indicated the best description of one's living arrangement between volunteers' high and low probability (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that undergraduate medical students can be motivated to volunteer effectively in this pandemic by ensuring personal and family protection. This is vital to optimally redistribute the work burden and effectively channelize the workforce during a pandemic situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Volunteers/psychology , Motivation , Students, Medical/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Family Relations/psychology , Female , Hospital Volunteers/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Saudi Arabia , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
7.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248627, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575736

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been a rapid increase in the number of cases of COVID-19 in Latin America, Africa, Asia and many countries that have an insufficient number of physicians and other health care personnel, and the need for the inclusion of medical students on health teams is a very important issue. It has been recommended that medical students work as volunteers, undergo appropriate training, not undertake any activity beyond their level of competence, and receive continuous supervision and adequate personal protective equipment. However, the motivation of medical students must be evaluated to make volunteering a more evidence-based initiative. The aim of our study was to evaluate the motivation of medical students to be part of health teams to aid in the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a questionnaire specifically to evaluate medical students' perceptions about participating in the care of patients with suspected infection with coronavirus during the COVID-19 pandemic. The questionnaire had two parts: a) one part with questions on individual characteristics, year in medical school and geographic location of the medical school and b) a second part with twenty-eight statements assessed on a 5-point Likert scale (totally agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree and totally disagree). To develop the questionnaire, we performed consensus meetings with a group of faculty and medical students. The questionnaire was sent to student organizations of 257 medical schools in Brazil and answered by 10,433 students. We used multinomial logistic regression models to analyze the data. Statements associated with greater odds ratios for participation of medical students in the COVID-19 pandemic were related to a sense of purpose or duty ("It is the duty of the medical student to put himself or herself at the service of the population in the pandemic"), altruism ("I am willing to take risks by participating in practice in the context of the pandemic"), and perception of good performance and professional identity ("I will be a better health professional for having experienced the pandemic"). Males were more prone than females to believe that only interns should participate in the care of patients with COVID-19 (odds ratio 1.36 [coefficient interval 95%:1.24-1.49]) and that all students should participate (OR 1.68 [CI:1.4-1.91]). CONCLUSIONS: Medical students are more motivated by a sense of purpose or duty, altruism, perception of good performance and values of professionalism than by their interest in learning. These results have implications for the development of volunteering programs and the design of health force policies in the present pandemic and in future health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Schools, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Students, Medical/psychology , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Motivation/physiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Perception/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 480(3): 443-451, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Orthopaedic surgery is one of the most competitive specialties for residency applicants. For the 2021 residency match, the coronavirus-19 pandemic introduced complexity for programs and applicants because away rotations were limited and in-person interviews were cancelled. This may have changed the landscape in terms of expenses for candidates in important ways, but this topic has been insufficiently studied. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: Given that in 2021, students did not attend away rotations and all interviews were held virtually, we asked (1) What were the financial savings associated with this change? (2) Was medical school geographic region associated with differences in expenses when applying to residency? METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of the 2020 and 2021 Texas Seeking Transparency in Application to Residency Dashboard database was performed. The data were derived from an online survey of a nationwide pool of applicants from 87% (123 of 141) of US allopathic medical schools upon conclusion of the match. The response percentage was 29% (521 of 1794). We believe this nationwide dataset represents the largest and most current data for this applicant group. Responses from applicants applying to orthopaedic surgery residency in the year before the COVID-19 pandemic application changes (2020) and during COVID-19 (2021) were queried and compared. After the orthopaedic surgery match, the database was evaluated for individual (application costs, away rotation expenses, and interview expenses) and total expenses for medical school seniors applying to orthopaedic surgery residency. Applicant characteristics were compared between application cycles. The 2020 to 2021 Texas Seeking Transparency in Application to Residency Dashboard database had 521 responses (n = 263 in 2020 and n = 258 in 2021) from applicants applying to orthopaedic surgery residency. Demographic and applicant characteristics were comparable between application cycles. Median expenses are reported with percentile distributions and geographic comparisons. A Mann-Whitney U test or Kruskal-Wallis H test was used to determine whether there were statistically significant differences in expenses between years and between medical school regions at a p value threshold of < 0.05. RESULTS: For all applicants, the median total expenses (USD 7250 versus USD 2250), application costs (USD 2250 versus USD 1750), away rotation expenses (USD 2750 versus USD 250), and interview expenses (USD 2250 versus USD 75) declined in 2021 compared with 2020 (all p < 0.001). The median total savings in expenses for all applicants in 2021 compared with 2020 was USD 5000. In 2021, median total expenses were lower in all geographic regions with the greatest savings from applicants in the West (USD 6000); in addition, the difference in median total expenses between the geographic region with the highest total expenses and the lowest total expenses was lower in the pandemic year than it was in the year prior (USD 1000 versus USD 1500; p < 0.001). In 2021, there were differences in total expenses between the Northeast (USD 1750), West (USD 1750), and Central (USD 2750) regions (p < 0.001). From 2020 to 2021, only application fees from Northeast applicants differed (USD 2250 versus USD 1250; p < 0.001). In 2020, interview expenses were not different between all regions (USD 2250 Northeast and West versus USD 2750 Central and South; p = 0.19); similarly in 2021, interview expenses were similar between all regions (USD 75 versus USD 75; p = 0.82). Finally, in 2020, Northeast (USD 3250) and Western (USD 3250) applicants spent more for away rotations than Southern (USD 2750) and Central (USD 2250) applicants (p = 0.01). In 2021, applicants from schools in the South (USD 250) and Central (USD 250) regions spent more than their counterparts (USD 0; p = 0.028). CONCLUSION: In the COVID-19 application cycle, the median expenditures of orthopaedic residency candidates were USD 5000 lower than they were in the previous year; the difference can be attributed to the use of virtual interviews and the lack of away rotations. There are geographic implications, with applicants from Western United States medical schools potentially saving the most. Despite the financial savings during the 2021 match, further study related to the long-term success of the current application process (both for applicants and programs) is needed. The recommendation in May 2020 by the AOA Council of Orthopaedic Residency Directors (CORD) to limit the number of applications submitted by candidates with USMLE Step 1 scores greater than 235 did not result in any considerable decline in applications submitted or expenses. A better understanding of how differences in these expenses may influence our specialty's ability to attract socioeconomically diverse candidates would be important, and we need to explore perceived and actual financial obstacles to obtaining this diversity in the application process. Finally, avenues should be explored by program directors and chairpersons to reduce the expenses of the traditional application process while maintaining recruitment of top candidates. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, economic analysis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/economics , Costs and Cost Analysis/statistics & numerical data , Internship and Residency/economics , Orthopedic Procedures/education , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , Young Adult
9.
Acad Med ; 96(11): 1580-1585, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501151

ABSTRACT

PROBLEM: Mentorship is valuable to medical students undergoing professional identity formation. Many institutions lack infrastructure to facilitate the personalized mentoring that supports students' integration of new professional identities with their personal identities and values. APPROACH: The authors developed a novel mentorship platform called Weave via a multistep, iterative design process, incorporating in-person and survey-based student and faculty feedback. Features of Weave include clear communication of mentorship offerings and expectations, plus opportunities to engage mentors based on professional and personal (identity-based) attributes. Faculty at Harvard Medical School who created a mentor profile within the first 3 months of launch and students who visited the website within the same period were invited to complete usability surveys in February 2019; students were invited to complete impact surveys in August 2020. OUTCOMES: Fifty-two of 132 invited faculty members (39.4%) and 80 of 185 students (43.2%) completed the usability surveys. Most of these faculty (86.5%) and students (73.8%) reported navigating the website was easy/very easy; 36 faculty (69.2%) created a mentor profile within 10 minutes. Key innovations highlighted by faculty and students were the listing of personal attributes and identities of diverse faculty; centralized, increased access to faculty mentors; ease of use; and provision of clear expectations. Nearly all students who completed the impact surveys agreed that Weave allowed them to connect with a faculty mentor whom they would not have found through other sources and to learn about the dimensions of diverse faculty. NEXT STEPS: Weave is a customizable online mentorship platform that fosters empowered vulnerability and increases dialogue between medical students and faculty based on professional and personal interests and identities. Weave may be expanded to other mentoring contexts and adapted for implementation at other institutions to help cultivate an institutional culture that values mentoring and to strengthen broader diversity and inclusion efforts.


Subject(s)
Faculty, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Mentoring/methods , Mentors/statistics & numerical data , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Boston , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Communication , Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Empowerment , Formative Feedback , Humans , Program Evaluation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Schools, Medical/organization & administration , Social Identification , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258088, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456090

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic disrupted medical student education, particularly in New York City (NYC). We aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on medical students' residency choices. METHODS: The authors conducted a cross-sectional survey of medical students in all years of study at four NYC medical schools (Columbia, Cornell, NYU, and SUNY Downstate). The survey was fielded from 19 Aug 2020 to 21 Sep 2020. Survey questions included items assessing COVID-19 impact on residency choices, personal impact of COVID-19, residency/specialty choices, and factors influencing these choices. RESULTS: A total of 2310 students received the survey, with 547 (23.7%) providing partial responses and 212 (9.2%) providing valid responses for our primary analysis. 59.0% of participants thought that COVID-19 influenced their choice of residency/specialty, with 0.9% saying the influence was to a great extent, 22.2% to some extent, and 35.8% very little. On multivariable analysis, factors that were independently associated with COVID-19 impacting residency choice included low debt ($1 to $99,999: adjOR 2.23, 95%CI 1.02-5.03) compared with no debt and Other race/ethnicity (adjOR 0.26, 95%CI 0.10-0.63) compared with White race/ethnicity. On secondary analysis of all participants answering survey items for logistic regression regardless of survey completion, direct personal impact of COVID-19 was significantly associated with COVID-19 impacting specialty choice (adjOR 1.90, 95%CI 1.04-3.52). Moreover, 24 students (11.6%) reported a change in their top residency choice from before to during/after COVID-19, citing concerns about frontline work, work-life balance, and risk of harm. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found that 3 in 5 (59.0%) participants felt that COVID-19 impacted their residency choice, with 11.6% of respondents explicitly changing their top specialty choice. Investigating the impact of the pandemic on medical student residency considerations is crucial to understand how medical career outlooks may change in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Choice Behavior , Internship and Residency/statistics & numerical data , New York City , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , New York City/epidemiology
11.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1520-1530, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455001

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: During the COVID-19 pandemic, emergency medicine (EM) teachers had to employ innovative methods to ensure the continuity of the education process. The purpose of this study was to explore the adequacy of the 360-degree video (video 360) technology in EM education in the context of: (a) students' attitudes towards the video 360; (b) students' academic performance in their required examination at the end of the EM course compared to the assessment results of students from the previous academic year. METHODS: A mixed-method research project enrolled the fourth-year medical students who attended the required EM course during the first semester of the academic year 2020-2021 when all activities with undergraduate students went online and teaching scenarios recorded in the video 360 format were employed. Data collection was two-fold: (a) anonymous questionnaires, complemented with basic YouTube analytics; (b) multiple-choice questionnaires (MCQ) and oral examination, contrasting the results with those in 2019-2020. Data analysis used descriptive statistics and non-parametric methods. RESULTS: Seventy-nine students (53 females and 26 males) participated in the project and all completed the EM course. Students' interest in and their acceptance of the video 360 technology were high (total scoring in the upper 20% of the respective scales), with consistently good performance in two parallel, independent, interview-based oral/practical evaluations (Spearman correlation coefficient R = 0.665, p < .001). The majority scored over 90% in the summative MCQ, with higher values compared to their colleagues' during the previous academic year (with on-site teaching): scoring percentages with mean ± standard deviation of 92.52 ± 4.57 and 76.67 ± 18.77, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our project showed that the video 360 scenarios were effective in teaching EM. In the long term, employing this accessible and inexpensive educational approach would add value to on-site training by enriching the exposure to a specific ED environment.KEY MESSAGESMedical students valued the 360-degree video scenarios as contributing substantially to their EM knowledge and preparedness.Examination results confirmed the 360-degree video scenarios as viable in EM teaching.The 360-degree video technology would be a sustainable solution for hybrid medical teaching in the long term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Emergency Medicine/education , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Virtual Reality , Educational Measurement , Female , Humans , Male
13.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257729, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435620

ABSTRACT

Prior to the COVID 19 pandemic, discussions about online learning referred to the use of e-learning platforms and social networks as auxiliary tools in the educational process. Due to the pandemic, universities were forced to adopt an exclusive online teaching process and most universities today use platforms dedicated to online learning such as Moodle platforms. In this context, we were interested in analyzing the attitude of students regarding the way social networks could be integrated into the educational process, and if the positive attitude of students towards social networks and their use for academic purposes, proven in previous studies, remains positive under the conditions generated by the pandemic. In this regard, the present study aimed at identifying the attitude of Romanian students towards the use of Facebook and Instagram as educational tools and the circumstances in which students believe these platforms could be used by them and their teachers. An online survey was conducted on 872 students from public higher education institutions in Romania. Based on the exploratory factor analysis and the parametric test, the empirical results show that students have a slightly positive attitude towards using Facebook in the educational process, but they have a more reticent, less positive attitude towards using Instagram. Thus, the most appropriate contexts in which these platforms could be used are represented by extracurricular activities. A higher preference for the use of Facebook rather than Instagram, was identified among master and PhD students. No major differences were revealed in student subgroups sorted by gender or study domain.


Subject(s)
Education, Distance/methods , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Universities/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Attitude , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Learning/physiology , Male , Romania/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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