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1.
Cell Rep Med ; 1(6): 100100, 2020 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268445

ABSTRACT

Recent guidance from the US Immigration and Customs Enforcement drastically altered the lives of international students in America, especially those who are matriculating. This commentary describes how international students still face uncertainty concerning their visa statuses and their place in American society.


Subject(s)
Education, Distance/legislation & jurisprudence , Emigration and Immigration/legislation & jurisprudence , Students/psychology , Education/legislation & jurisprudence , Education/trends , Education, Distance/trends , Emigration and Immigration/trends , Government Programs , Humans , Internationality , Public Policy/trends , Students/legislation & jurisprudence , United States
2.
N Engl J Med ; 387(21): 1935-1946, 2022 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106628

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In February 2022, Massachusetts rescinded a statewide universal masking policy in public schools, and many Massachusetts school districts lifted masking requirements during the subsequent weeks. In the greater Boston area, only two school districts - the Boston and neighboring Chelsea districts - sustained masking requirements through June 2022. The staggered lifting of masking requirements provided an opportunity to examine the effect of universal masking policies on the incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) in schools. METHODS: We used a difference-in-differences analysis for staggered policy implementation to compare the incidence of Covid-19 among students and staff in school districts in the greater Boston area that lifted masking requirements with the incidence in districts that sustained masking requirements during the 2021-2022 school year. Characteristics of the school districts were also compared. RESULTS: Before the statewide masking policy was rescinded, trends in the incidence of Covid-19 were similar across school districts. During the 15 weeks after the statewide masking policy was rescinded, the lifting of masking requirements was associated with an additional 44.9 cases per 1000 students and staff (95% confidence interval, 32.6 to 57.1), which corresponded to an estimated 11,901 cases and to 29.4% of the cases in all districts during that time. Districts that chose to sustain masking requirements longer tended to have school buildings that were older and in worse condition and to have more students per classroom than districts that chose to lift masking requirements earlier. In addition, these districts had higher percentages of low-income students, students with disabilities, and students who were English-language learners, as well as higher percentages of Black and Latinx students and staff. Our results support universal masking as an important strategy for reducing Covid-19 incidence in schools and loss of in-person school days. As such, we believe that universal masking may be especially useful for mitigating effects of structural racism in schools, including potential deepening of educational inequities. CONCLUSIONS: Among school districts in the greater Boston area, the lifting of masking requirements was associated with an additional 44.9 Covid-19 cases per 1000 students and staff during the 15 weeks after the statewide masking policy was rescinded.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Policy , Masks , School Health Services , Universal Precautions , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Incidence , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Schools/legislation & jurisprudence , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Students/legislation & jurisprudence , Students/statistics & numerical data , Health Policy/legislation & jurisprudence , Masks/statistics & numerical data , School Health Services/legislation & jurisprudence , School Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Groups/legislation & jurisprudence , Occupational Groups/statistics & numerical data , Universal Precautions/legislation & jurisprudence , Universal Precautions/statistics & numerical data , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/legislation & jurisprudence , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data
3.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 322, 2022 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625443

ABSTRACT

There are contrasting results concerning the effect of reactive school closure on SARS-CoV-2 transmission. To shed light on this controversy, we developed a data-driven computational model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. We found that by reactively closing classes based on syndromic surveillance, SARS-CoV-2 infections are reduced by no more than 17.3% (95%CI: 8.0-26.8%), due to the low probability of timely identification of infections in the young population. We thus investigated an alternative triggering mechanism based on repeated screening of students using antigen tests. Depending on the contribution of schools to transmission, this strategy can greatly reduce COVID-19 burden even when school contribution to transmission and immunity in the population is low. Moving forward, the adoption of antigen-based screenings in schools could be instrumental to limit COVID-19 burden while vaccines continue to be rolled out.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Models, Statistical , Quarantine/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Schools/organization & administration , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Computer Simulation , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Mass Screening/trends , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Schools/legislation & jurisprudence , Students/legislation & jurisprudence
8.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 52(10): 982-987, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732484

ABSTRACT

Research conducted before coronavirus disease-2019 illustrated high rates of food insecurity among college students. The pandemic has likely increased student food insecurity because of factors like unemployment and closure of campus resources, and many students cannot access federal food assistance because of long-standing student restrictions. This perspective reviews federal legislation on college food insecurity introduced in the 116th legislative session (2019-2020) immediately before coronavirus disease-2019 in the US, as well as pandemic-related stimulus bills and their implications for future policies and practice. Food insecurity promises to become more pressing as colleges try to reopen and the country grapples with economic recovery.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Food Assistance/legislation & jurisprudence , Food Supply/legislation & jurisprudence , Pandemics/legislation & jurisprudence , Students/legislation & jurisprudence , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , United States , Universities
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