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2.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257046, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486676

ABSTRACT

The benefits of schools' closure, used as a containment strategy by many European countries, must be carefully considered against the adverse effects of child wellbeing. In this study, we assessed SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence, which better estimates the real extent of the infection unraveling asymptomatic cases, among schoolchildren aged 3 to 18 in Milan, using dried blood spot, a safe and extremely viable methods for children, and then compared it between September 2020 and January 2021. Secondly, we evaluated the seroconversion rate and compared it between students attending schools in presence and those switched to distance-learning, using a logistic regression model, both as univariate and multivariate, adjusting for age and biological-sex. Among 1109 pupils, we found a seroprevalence of 2.8% in September before school reopening, while in January 2021, the seropositive rate was 12.5%, reflecting the general growth rate of infections during the second pandemic wave. The overall seroconversion rate was 10%, with no differences based on biological-sex and age groups; we observed no seroreversion. When considered age groups, the seroconversion rate was 10.5% (95%Confidence Interval, 2.9-24.8) among children attending preschools, 10.6% (95%Confidence Interval, 8.2-13.4) for primary schools, 9.9% (95%Confidence Interval, 6.8-13.8) for secondary schools, and 7.8% (95%Confidence Interval, 4-13.2) among high-school students. Interestingly, no differences in seroconversion rate were found between students who attended school compared to those who started remote learning in the first days of November. Furthermore, most patients (61%) reported that the contact occurred within the household. We reported a low seroconversion rate among school children in Milan, with no differences between those who attended from September 2020 to January 2021 compared to those who switched to remote learning in the first days of November. Our data suggest that schools do not amplify SARS-CoV-2 transmission, but rather reflect the level of the transmission in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Schools , Students/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
4.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 68(5): 1071-1079, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482856

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has changed education for learners of all ages. Preliminary data project educational losses at many levels and verify the increased anxiety and depression associated with the changes, but there are not yet data on long-term outcomes. Guidance from oversight organizations regarding the safety and efficacy of new delivery modalities for education have been quickly forged. It is no surprise that the socioeconomic gaps and gaps for special learners have widened. The medical profession and other professions that teach by incrementally graduated internships are also severely affected and have had to make drastic changes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Child , Crime Victims/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Learning , School Teachers , Students/psychology
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19521, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447323

ABSTRACT

School closures have a negative impact on physical and mental well-being, and education, of children and adolescents. A surveillance programme to detect asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection could allow schools to remain open, while protecting the vulnerable. We assessed the feasibility of a programme employing gargle samples and pool testing of individually extracted RNA using rRT-qPCR in a primary and a secondary school in Germany, based on programme logistics and acceptance. Twice a week, five participants per class were selected to provide samples, using an algorithm weighted by a risk-based priority score to increase likelihood of case detection. The positive response rate was 54.8% (550 of 1003 pupils). Logistics evaluation revealed the rate-limiting steps: completing the regular pre-test questionnaire and handing in the samples. Acceptance questionnaire responses indicated strong support for research into developing a surveillance programme and a positive evaluation of gargle tests. Participation was voluntary. As not all pupils participated, individual reminders could lead to participant identification. School-wide implementation of the programme for infection monitoring purposes would enable reminders to be given to all school pupils to address these steps, without compromising participant anonymity. Such a programme would provide a feasible means to monitor asymptomatic respiratory tract infection in schools.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Epidemiological Monitoring , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Child , Feasibility Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Saliva/virology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
7.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444280

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused stress as well as modified physical activity and eating habits among university students. The objectives were to identify the changes in body mass index (BMI) and eating disorders among university students between 2009 and 2021. Between 2009 and 2021, five repeated cross-sectional studies were conducted among university students who filled in an anonymous online self-questionnaire. Age, gender, and BMI were recorded, and the SCOFF questionnaire was used for ED screening which, in combination with BMI, allows to identify the four broad categories of ED with the Expali algorithm. With the five studies, 8981 university students were included in total. Obesity steadily increased between 2009 and 2021, for both men and women. The prevalence of ED was stable between 2009 and 2018 and significantly increased from 31.8% in 2018 to 51.8% in 2021 for women (p trend < 0.0001), and from 13.0% in 2009 to 31.3% in 2021 for men (p trend < 0.0001). All types of ED increased significantly between 2009 and 2021, except for restrictive ED among men. These results indicate for the first time a significant increase in ED prevalence among students since the COVID-19 pandemic. Initiatives to reinforce early screening of ED to implement targeted interventions in the student population are urgently needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/psychology , Students/psychology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(36): 1245-1248, 2021 Sep 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1441396

ABSTRACT

Universities open for in-person instruction during the 2020-21 academic year implemented a range of prevention strategies to limit the transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, including physical distancing, mask use, vaccination, contact tracing, case investigation, and quarantine protocols (1). However, in some academic programs, such as health-related programs, aviation, and kindergarten through grade 12 (K-12) education, maintaining physical distance while still providing instruction is difficult; for universities with such programs, a single confirmed case of COVID-19 could result in a large number of students, staff members, and instructors being designated close contacts and requiring quarantine if they are not fully vaccinated, even if masks were worn when contact occurred. In January 2021, the St. Louis City Health Department allowed Saint Louis University (SLU) to implement a modified quarantine protocol that considered mask use when determining which close contacts required quarantine.* To assess the impact of the protocol, SLU assessed positive SARS-CoV-2 test result rates by masking status of the persons with COVID-19 and their close contacts. During January-May 2021, 265 students received a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result; these students named 378 close contacts. Compared with close contacts whose exposure only occurred when both persons were masked (7.7%), close contacts with any unmasked exposure (32.4%) had higher adjusted odds ratios (aORs) of receiving a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result (aOR = 4.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-31.1). Any additional exposures were associated with a 40.0% increase in odds of a positive test result (aOR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.2-1.6). These findings reinforce that universal masking and having fewer encounters in close contact with persons with COVID-19 prevents the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in a university setting. Universities opening for in-person instruction could consider taking mask use into account when determining which unvaccinated close contacts require quarantine if enforced testing protocols are in place. However, this study was conducted before the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant became the dominant strain of SARS-CoV-2 in the United States, which could have affected these findings given that the Delta variant has been found to be associated with increased transmissibility compared to previous variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Students/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Male , Missouri/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Universities
9.
J Environ Public Health ; 2021: 6638443, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438137

ABSTRACT

Background. Lack of knowledge about appropriate handwashing practices has caused great concerns for human health, especially in the risk of many communicable diseases. The objective of the current study is to determine the level of handwashing knowledge, attitudes, and practices among school students in Eastern Province Schools, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey was recruited from November 2019 to March 2020 to assess the level of the students' handwashing knowledge. A reliable questionnaire was prepared (Cronbach's alpha = 0.608) and conducted using a two-stage sampling technique. A total of 271 students participated in the study from primary, middle, and high schools; 80% were boys, most of whom displayed an acceptable level of knowledge on hand hygiene. Nearly 75% and 74% of boys and girls, respectively, gained knowledge about hand hygiene practices from their parents. Only 46% of the students thought that handwashing is a potential protective measure against diseases, whereas 34% thought it only removes dirt. Prevalence of handwashing with soap after using the toilet was recognized among 52% of the students. Additionally, 93% of the students used water and soap to wash their hands (p value < 0.001) and 97% suggested that soap and water are the best methods to wash their hands (p value < 0.001). There was a positive correlation between the mother's education and hand hygiene practices (p value = 0.044). Results collectively indicated that handwashing knowledge and practices among school students in the Eastern Province are acceptable interventions in preventing the transmission of infectious diseases such as COVID-19. Indeed, further improvement conducted through specific health education programs to emphasize the role of handwashing in health hygiene is highly recommended.


Subject(s)
Hand Disinfection , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Students , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Schools , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604219, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430753

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Children's mental health and wellbeing declined during the first COVID-19 lockdown (Spring 2020), particularly among those from disadvantaged settings. We compared mental health and wellbeing of school-aged children observed pre-pandemic in 2018 and after the first lockdown was lifted and schools reopened in Fall 2020. Methods: In 2018, we surveyed 476 grade 4-6 students (9-12 years old) from 11 schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged communities in Northern Canada that participate in a school-based health promotion program targeting healthy lifestyle behaviours and mental wellbeing. In November-December 2020, we surveyed 467 grade 4-6 students in the same schools. The 12 questions in the mental health and wellbeing domain were grouped based on correlation and examined using multivariable logistic regression. Results: There were no notable changes pre-pandemic vs. post-lockdown in responses to each of the 12 questions or any of the sub-groupings. Conclusion: Supporting schools to implement health promotion programs may help mitigate the impact of the pandemic on children's mental health and wellbeing. The findings align with recent calls for schools to remain open as long as possible during the pandemic response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child Health , Communicable Disease Control , Mental Health , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Canada/epidemiology , Child , Child Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Poverty Areas , Schools/organization & administration , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(35): 1201-1205, 2021 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1413254

ABSTRACT

Colleges and universities in the United States have relied on various measures during the COVID-19 pandemic to prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, including implementing testing programs (1-3). These programs have permitted a safer return to campus for students by identifying infected persons and temporarily isolating them from the campus population (2,3). The University of Texas at Austin (UT Austin) implemented COVID-19 prevention measures in Fall 2020* including the following testing programs: clinic-based diagnostic testing, voluntary community screening, and targeted screening (testing of specific student populations in situations of increased transmission risk). During September 30-November 30, 2020, UT Austin students participated in tests for SARS-CoV-2, which resulted in the detection of 401 unique student cases of COVID-19 from among 32,401 tests conducted.† Among students who participated in one targeted screening program for students attending campus events, 18 (37.5%) of 48 infected students were asymptomatic at the time of their positive test result compared with 45 (23%) of 195 students identified through community testing and nine (5.8%) of 158 students identified through clinic-based testing. Targeted screening also identified a different population of students than did clinic-based and community testing programs. Infected students tested through targeted screening were more likely to be non-Hispanic White persons (chi square = 20.42; p<0.03), less likely to engage in public health measures, and more likely to have had interactions in settings where the risk for SARS-CoV-2 transmission is higher, such as restaurants, gyms, and residence halls. In addition to clinic-based SARS-CoV-2 testing at colleges and universities, complementary testing programs such as community and targeted screening might enhance efforts to identify and control SARS-CoV-2 transmission, especially among asymptomatic persons and disproportionately affected populations that might not otherwise be reached.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mass Screening , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Students/statistics & numerical data , Universities , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Program Evaluation , Quarantine , Texas/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(35): 1195-1200, 2021 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412223

ABSTRACT

To prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, colleges and universities have implemented multiple strategies including testing, isolation, quarantine, contact tracing, masking, and vaccination. In April 2021, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) was notified of a large cluster of students with COVID-19 at an urban university after spring break. A total of 158 cases of COVID-19 were diagnosed among undergraduate students during March 15-May 3, 2021; the majority (114; 72.2%) lived in on-campus dormitories. CDPH evaluated the role of travel and social connections, as well as the potential impact of SARS-CoV-2 variants, on transmission. Among 140 infected students who were interviewed, 89 (63.6%) reported recent travel outside Chicago during spring break, and 57 (40.7%) reported indoor social exposures. At the time of the outbreak, undergraduate-aged persons were largely ineligible for vaccination in Chicago; only three of the students with COVID-19 (1.9%) were fully vaccinated. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) of 104 specimens revealed multiple distinct SARS-CoV-2 lineages, suggesting several nearly simultaneous introductions. Most specimens (66; 63.5%) were B.1.1.222, a lineage not widely detected in Chicago before or after this outbreak. These results demonstrate the potential for COVID-19 outbreaks on university campuses after widespread student travel during breaks, at the beginning of new school terms, and when students participate in indoor social gatherings. To prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission, colleges and universities should encourage COVID-19 vaccination; discourage unvaccinated students from travel, including during university breaks; implement serial COVID-19 screening among unvaccinated persons after university breaks; encourage masking; and implement universal serial testing for students based on community transmission levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Disease Outbreaks , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Students/statistics & numerical data , Universities , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Chicago/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Social Interaction , Travel-Related Illness , Young Adult
13.
Int J Public Health ; 66: 1604210, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394850

ABSTRACT

Objectives: In the COVID-19 pandemic, critical health literacy (CHL-P) has been proposed as a means of addressing issues of complexity, uncertainty, and urgency. Our study aimed to identify CHL-P clusters among university students in Germany and to analyze associations with potential determinants. Methods: In May 2020, students at four German universities participated in the COVID-19 International Student Well-Being Study, an online survey that yielded a non-probabilistic sample of N = 5,021. CHL-P, COVID-19-related knowledge, worries, risk perception, and adherence to protective measures were measured in an online questionnaire with self-constructed items. We conducted a cluster analysis of the five CHL-P items and performed logistic regression analyses. Results: Two CHL-P clusters were identified: high vs. moderate CHL-P. Belonging to the high-CHL-P cluster (31.2% of students) was significantly associated with older age, female/other gender, advanced education, higher levels of parental education, and moderate importance placed on education. In addition, higher levels of knowledge, risk perception and worries, and adherence to protective measures were associated with high CHL-P cluster membership. Conclusion: Students would benefit from educational measures that promote CHL-P at German universities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Literacy , Pandemics , Students , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Young Adult
14.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0255121, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394539

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic remains a significant public health problem globally. In Ethiopia, the number of infected peoples and deaths due to COVID-19 has increased dramatically in the past. Currently, students are resuming to face to face education with strict prevention measures. University students are more dynamic and more susceptible to acquiring and spreading the virus. OBJECTIVE: To assess the attitude, preparedness, and self-efficacy to prevent and control COVID-19 and associated factors among university students during school reopening, Northeast Ethiopia. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted among Debre Berhan University (DBU) students from December 1 to 15/2020, when students return to campus. A multistage sampling technique was applied to recruit 682 participants. The ReadyScore criteria were used to classify the level of preparedness. Epi-Data version 4.6 was used for data entry, while SPSS version 25 for analysis. Descriptive and Binary logistic regression analysis was computed, and a p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULT: The overall level of favourable attitude, good preparedness, and high self-efficacy among students were 67.2%, 17.9%, and 50.4%, respectively. Only mothers' education was associated with attitude. Female gender, open relationships, health science faculty, heart disease, and favourable attitude were significant preparedness factors. Whereas being undergraduate, parents' education, residing in dorm being four and above, having kidney disease, having friend/family history of COVID-19 infection and death, favourable attitude, and good preparedness were predictors of self-efficacy. CONCLUSION: The level of attitude, preparedness, and self-efficacy towards COVID-19 among students during campus re-entry were low. Managing chronic illnesses and raising the attitude and preparedness of students is essential to reduce the burden of COVID-19 pandemics. Besides, emphasis should be placed on male, unmarried, postgraduate, and non-health science students to increase the level of preparedness and self-efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Self Efficacy , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Students/psychology , Young Adult
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e27111, 2021 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393506

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis to assess the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on college students' physical activity. METHODS: All cohort studies comparing college students undertaking physical exercise at school before the COVID-19 pandemic and physical exercise at home during the COVID-19 pandemic will be included in this review. We will use index words related to college students, physical exercise, and COVID-19 to perform literature searches in the PubMed, Medline, Embase, and CNKI databases, to include articles indexed as of June 20, 2021, in English and Chinese. Two reviewers will independently select trials for inclusion, assess trial quality, and extract information for each trial. The primary outcomes are exercise frequency, duration, intensity, and associated factors. Based on the Cochrane assessment tool, we will evaluate the risk of bias of the included studies. Revman 5.3 (the Cochrane collaboration, Oxford, UK) will be used for heterogeneity assessment, data synthesis, subgroup analysis, sensitivity analysis, and funnel plot generation. RESULT: We will discuss the impact of COVID-19 on college students' physical activity. CONCLUSION: Stronger evidence about the impact of COVID-19 on college students' physical activity will be provided to better guide teaching practice. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42021262390.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Students/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Universities
16.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257046, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388956

ABSTRACT

The benefits of schools' closure, used as a containment strategy by many European countries, must be carefully considered against the adverse effects of child wellbeing. In this study, we assessed SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence, which better estimates the real extent of the infection unraveling asymptomatic cases, among schoolchildren aged 3 to 18 in Milan, using dried blood spot, a safe and extremely viable methods for children, and then compared it between September 2020 and January 2021. Secondly, we evaluated the seroconversion rate and compared it between students attending schools in presence and those switched to distance-learning, using a logistic regression model, both as univariate and multivariate, adjusting for age and biological-sex. Among 1109 pupils, we found a seroprevalence of 2.8% in September before school reopening, while in January 2021, the seropositive rate was 12.5%, reflecting the general growth rate of infections during the second pandemic wave. The overall seroconversion rate was 10%, with no differences based on biological-sex and age groups; we observed no seroreversion. When considered age groups, the seroconversion rate was 10.5% (95%Confidence Interval, 2.9-24.8) among children attending preschools, 10.6% (95%Confidence Interval, 8.2-13.4) for primary schools, 9.9% (95%Confidence Interval, 6.8-13.8) for secondary schools, and 7.8% (95%Confidence Interval, 4-13.2) among high-school students. Interestingly, no differences in seroconversion rate were found between students who attended school compared to those who started remote learning in the first days of November. Furthermore, most patients (61%) reported that the contact occurred within the household. We reported a low seroconversion rate among school children in Milan, with no differences between those who attended from September 2020 to January 2021 compared to those who switched to remote learning in the first days of November. Our data suggest that schools do not amplify SARS-CoV-2 transmission, but rather reflect the level of the transmission in the community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Schools , Students/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
17.
J Mol Diagn ; 23(9): 1078-1084, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386076

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is highly contagious and has caused significant medical/socioeconomic impacts. Other than vaccination, effective public health measures, including contact tracing, isolation, and quarantine, is critical for deterring viral transmission, preventing infection progression and resuming normal activities. Viral transmission is affected by many factors, but the viral load and vitality could be among the most important ones. Although in vitro studies have indicated that the amount of virus isolated from infected individuals affects the successful rate of virus isolation, whether the viral load carried at the individual level would determine the transmissibility was unknown. We examined whether the cycle threshold (Ct) value, a measurement of viral load by RT-PCR assay, could differentiate the spreaders from the non-spreaders in a population of college students. Our results indicate that while at the population level the Ct value is lower, suggesting a higher viral load, in the symptomatic spreaders than that in the asymptomatic non-spreaders, there is a significant overlap in the Ct values between the two groups. Thus, Ct value, or the viral load, at the individual level could not predict the transmissibility. Instead, a sensitive method to detect the presence of virus is needed to identify asymptomatic individuals who may carry a low viral load but can still be infectious.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Universities/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carrier State/virology , Contact Tracing , Female , Humans , Louisiana/epidemiology , Male , Nasopharynx/virology , Public Health , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , Students/statistics & numerical data , Viral Load , Young Adult
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(43): 1591-1594, 2020 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380140

ABSTRACT

Data on transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), among college athletes are limited. In August 2020, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH) was notified of a cluster of COVID-19 cases among a university's men's and women's soccer teams. CDPH initiated an investigation, interviewed members of both teams, and collated laboratory data to understand transmission of SARS-CoV-2 within the teams. Numerous social gatherings with limited mask use or social distancing preceded the outbreak. Transmission resulted in 17 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases across both teams (n = 45), likely from a single source introduction of SARS-CoV-2 (based on whole genome sequencing) and subsequent transmission during multiple gatherings. Colleges and universities are at risk for COVID-19 outbreaks because of shared housing and social gatherings where recommended prevention guidance is not followed. Improved strategies to promote mask use and social distancing among college-aged adults need to be implemented, as well as periodic repeat testing to identify asymptomatic infections and prevent outbreaks among groups at increased risk for infection because of frequent exposure to close contacts in congregate settings on and off campus.


Subject(s)
Athletes/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Soccer , Students/statistics & numerical data , Universities , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Chicago/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
19.
Am Psychol ; 76(4): 643-657, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364572

ABSTRACT

This study examines adjustment patterns among a group neglected in developmental science-Asian American students in high-achieving schools. National reports have declared such schools to connote risk for elevated problems among teens. Asian American students are commonly referred to as model minorities, but little is known about adjustment issues within academically competitive settings, specifically. Guided by past research on culturally salient issues, multiple U.S. high schools were examined to (a) determine areas of relative strength versus weakness in adjustment of Asian Americans compared with Whites, and (b) more importantly, to illuminate salient within-group processes related to Asian Americans' well-being. Risk modifiers examined were perceptions of ethnic discrimination, parent perfectionism, internalized achievement pressure, authenticity in self-presentation, and closeness to school adults. Outcome variables included depression, anxiety, and isolation at school. Results demonstrated that Asian Americans fared better than Whites on anxiety and school isolation, but with low effect sizes. By contrast, they fared more poorly on almost all risk modifiers, with a large effect size on discrimination. Regression results showed that among Asian Americans the most consistent associations, across cohorts and outcomes, were for discrimination and authenticity. Findings underscore the need for greater recognition that discrimination could be inimical for students not typically thought of as vulnerable-Asian Americans in high-achieving schools; these issues are especially pressing in light of increased racism following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Results also suggest that feelings of inauthenticity could be a marker of generalized vulnerability to internalizing symptoms. Implications for future theory and interventions are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Asian Americans , COVID-19 , Racism , Resilience, Psychological , Self Concept , Adolescent , Asian Americans/psychology , Asian Americans/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Racism/psychology , Risk , Schools , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
20.
J Mol Diagn ; 23(9): 1078-1084, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349527

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is highly contagious and has caused significant medical/socioeconomic impacts. Other than vaccination, effective public health measures, including contact tracing, isolation, and quarantine, is critical for deterring viral transmission, preventing infection progression and resuming normal activities. Viral transmission is affected by many factors, but the viral load and vitality could be among the most important ones. Although in vitro studies have indicated that the amount of virus isolated from infected individuals affects the successful rate of virus isolation, whether the viral load carried at the individual level would determine the transmissibility was unknown. We examined whether the cycle threshold (Ct) value, a measurement of viral load by RT-PCR assay, could differentiate the spreaders from the non-spreaders in a population of college students. Our results indicate that while at the population level the Ct value is lower, suggesting a higher viral load, in the symptomatic spreaders than that in the asymptomatic non-spreaders, there is a significant overlap in the Ct values between the two groups. Thus, Ct value, or the viral load, at the individual level could not predict the transmissibility. Instead, a sensitive method to detect the presence of virus is needed to identify asymptomatic individuals who may carry a low viral load but can still be infectious.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Universities/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Carrier State/virology , Contact Tracing , Female , Humans , Louisiana/epidemiology , Male , Nasopharynx/virology , Public Health , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , Students/statistics & numerical data , Viral Load , Young Adult
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