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1.
Neurosurgery ; 91(1): 66-71, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753152

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic led to significant healthcare avoidance, perhaps explaining some of the excess reported deaths that exceeded known infections. The impact of the early COVID-19 era on aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) care remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic on latency to presentation, neurological complications, and clinical outcomes after aSAH. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study from March 2, 2012, to June 30, 2021, of all patients with aSAH admitted to our center. The early COVID-19 era was defined as March 2, 2020, through June 30, 2020. The pre-COVID-19 era was defined as the same interval in 2012 to 2019. RESULTS: Among 499 patients with aSAH, 37 presented in the early COVID-19 era. Compared with the pre-COVID-19 era patients, patients presenting during this early phase of the pandemic were more likely to delay presentation after ictus (median, interquartile range; 1 [0-4] vs 0 [0-1] days, respectively, P < .001). Radiographic-delayed cerebral ischemia (29.7% vs 10.2%, P < .001) was more common in the early COVID-19 era. In adjusted analyses, presentation in the early COVID-19 era was independently associated with increased inhospital death or hospice disposition (adjusted odds ratio 3.29 [1.02-10.65], P = .046). Both latency and adverse outcomes returned to baseline in 2021. CONCLUSION: aSAH in the early COVID-19 era was associated with delayed presentation, neurological complications, and worse outcomes at our center. These data highlight how healthcare avoidance may have increased morbidity and mortality in non-COVID-19-related neurosurgical disease.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Brain Ischemia/complications , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/therapy
2.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 6966394, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528596

ABSTRACT

Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a cerebrovascular disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. CXCR4 provides neuroprotective effects, which can alleviate brain injury and inflammation induced by stroke. Previous studies have suggested that CXCR4 reduces the pyroptosis of LPS-stimulated BV2 cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antipyroptosis effects and mechanisms of CXCR4 after SAH. SAH animal model was induced via endovascular perforation. A total of 136 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Recombinant human cysteine-X-cysteine chemokine ligand 12 (rh-CXCL-12) was administered intranasally at 1 h after SAH induction. To investigate the underlying mechanism, the inhibitor of CXCR4, AMD3100, was administered intraperitoneally at 1 h before SAH. The neurobehavior tests were assessed, followed by performing Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. The Western blot results suggested that the expressions of endogenous CXCL-12, CXCR4, and NLRP1 were increased and peaked at 24 h following SAH. Immunofluorescence staining showed that CXCR4 was expressed on neurons, microglia, and astrocytes. Rh-CXCL-12 treatment improved the neurological deficits and reduced the number of FJC-positive cells, IL-18-positive neurons, and cleaved caspase-1(CC-1)-positive neurons after SAH. Meanwhile, rh-CXCL-12 treatment increased the levels of CXCL-12 and CXCR4, and reduced the levels of NLRP1, IL-18, IL-1ß, and CC-1. Moreover, the administration of AMD3100 abolished antipyroptosis effects of CXCL-12 and its regulation of CXCR4 post-SAH. The CXCR4/NLRP1 signaling pathway may be involved in CXCL-12-mediated neuronal pyroptosis after SAH. Early administration of CXCL-12 may be a preventive and therapeutic strategy against brain injury after SAH.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries/prevention & control , Chemokine CXCL12/administration & dosage , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Pyroptosis , Receptors, CXCR4/metabolism , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Animals , Brain Injuries/etiology , Brain Injuries/metabolism , Brain Injuries/pathology , Chemokine CXCL12/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Gene Expression Regulation , Inflammation/etiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/prevention & control , Male , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Neurons/pathology , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, CXCR4/genetics , Signal Transduction
3.
World Neurosurg ; 153: e259-e264, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1366706

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic is a pressing public health issue. Although most cases do not result in severe illness requiring hospitalization, there is increasing evidence that SARS-CoV-2-induced inflammation can exacerbate pre-existing diseases. We sought to describe the characteristics of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage who were actively or very recently infected with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We reviewed subarachnoid hemorrhage cases of patients who also were positive for SARS-CoV-2 at 5 high-volume cerebrovascular centers in the United States from March 2020 to January 2021. Cases of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 10 patients were identified, consisting of 5 women (50%) and 5 men (50%). Median age was 38.5 years. Four of the 10 patients (40%) were asymptomatic with respect to SARS-CoV-2-related symptoms, 3 patients (30%) had mild-to-moderate symptoms, and 3 patients (30%) had severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with pneumonia and sepsis. Of the 10 cases, 4 had dissecting pseudoaneurysms (40%), 3 in the posterior circulation and 1 in the anterior circulation. Among 6 saccular/blister aneurysms, 4 (67%) were ≤4 mm in largest diameter. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in patients positive for COVID-19 reveals a possibly distinct pattern compared with traditional aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, namely a high frequency of small aneurysms, dissecting pseudoaneurysms, and young patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Intracranial Aneurysm/complications , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
5.
A A Pract ; 14(14): e01357, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-961450

ABSTRACT

Morbidity and mortality associated with the pandemic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) are not only due to acute respiratory distress syndrome but also related to multiorgan involvement and dysfunction. In this report, we present a critically ill patient with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, during which he required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and suffered from multiple complications. Bedside sonography became an important tool to manage the patient by adapting artificial ventilation parameters and played a key role in the diagnosis of thrombotic events and the monitoring of subarachnoid hemorrhage that unexpectedly complicated the case.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/complications , Pneumonia/diagnostic imaging , Pulmonary Embolism/complications , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Ultrasonography/methods , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Physiologic , Pneumonia/etiology , Point-of-Care Systems , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
J Neurovirol ; 26(5): 802-804, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716427

ABSTRACT

In this article, subarachnoidal hemorrhage developing in a case with Covid-19-related pneumonia was evaluated. In the presence of respiratory system infection signs such as cough and weakness in patient who present with sudden loss of consciousness, performing lung imaging as well as performing brain computerized tomography scan can allow the detection of an underlying Covid-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Brain/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Unconsciousness/complications , Brain/blood supply , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroimaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/pathology , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/virology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Unconsciousness/diagnostic imaging , Unconsciousness/pathology , Unconsciousness/virology
7.
Neuroradiol J ; 33(5): 368-373, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646969

ABSTRACT

Central nervous system involvement in severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has increasingly been recognised in the literature, and possible mechanisms of neuroinvasion, neurotropism and neurovirulence have been described. Neurological signs have been described in 84% of COVID-19 intensive care unit patients, and haemostatic abnormalities in such patients may play an important role, with a broad spectrum of neuroimaging findings. This report describes the magnetic resonance imaging neurovascular findings in an acutely ill patient with COVID-19, including perfusion abnormalities depicted in the arterial spin labelling technique.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Brain/blood supply , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Corpus Callosum , Frontal Lobe , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Pandemics , Parietal Lobe , Perfusion Imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spin Labels , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Thalamus
8.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 105011, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-548355

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic has recently brought to attention the myriad of neuro- logic sequelae associated with Coronavirus infection including the predilection for stroke, particularly in young patients. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a well-described clinical syndrome leading to vasoconstriction in the intracra- nial vessels, and has been associated with convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage and oc- casionally cervical artery dissection. It is usually reported in the context of a trigger such as medications, recreational drugs, or the postpartum state; however, it has not been described in COVID-19 infection. We report a case of both cervical vertebral ar- tery dissection as well as convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage due to RCVS, in a pa- tient with COVID-19 infection and no other triggers.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cerebral Arteries/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Vasoconstriction , Vertebral Artery Dissection/complications , Adult , COVID-19 , Cerebral Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Arteries/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Headache Disorders, Primary/etiology , Headache Disorders, Primary/physiopathology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/physiopathology , Syndrome , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasodilation , Vertebral Artery Dissection/diagnostic imaging , Vertebral Artery Dissection/drug therapy , Vertebral Artery Dissection/physiopathology
9.
World Neurosurg ; 138: e955-e960, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-274866

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a substantial threat to the health of health care personnel on the front line of caring for patients with COVID-19. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services have announced that all nonessential planned surgeries and procedures should be postponed until further notice and only urgent procedures should proceed. Neurologic surgeries and procedures should not be delayed under the circumstance in which it is essential at saving a life or preserving functioning of the central nervous system. METHODS: With the intent to advise the neurosurgery team on how to adequately prepare and safely perform neurosurgical procedures on confirmed and suspected patients with COVID-19, we discuss considerations and recommendations based on the lessons and experience shared by neurosurgeons in China. RESULTS: Perioperative and intraoperative strategies, considerations, as well as challenges arisen under the specific circumstance have been discussed. In addition, a case of a ruptured aneurysm in a suspected patient with COVID-19 is reported. It is advised that all health care personnel who immediately participate in neurosurgical surgeries and procedures for confirmed and suspected patients with COVID-19 should take airborne precautions and wear enhanced personal protective equipment. CONCLUSIONS: Following the proposed guidance, urgent neurosurgical surgeries and procedures can be safely performed for the benefit of critical patients with or suspected for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, Ruptured/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Intracranial Aneurysm/surgery , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/surgery , Air Filters , Aneurysm, Ruptured/complications , Aneurysm, Ruptured/diagnostic imaging , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Computed Tomography Angiography , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Craniotomy/methods , Drainage , Emergencies , Hematoma/complications , Hematoma/diagnostic imaging , Hematoma/surgery , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm/complications , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Pressure , Intraoperative Care , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Monitoring, Physiologic , Operating Rooms , Pandemics , Perioperative Care , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , United States
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