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1.
Interv Neuroradiol ; 26(5): 557-565, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455862

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Low-profile Visualized Intraluminal Support device (LVIS) has been successfully used to treat cerebral aneurysm, and the push-pull technique has been used clinically to compact the stent across aneurysm orifice. Our aim was to exhibit the hemodynamic effect of the compacted LVIS stent. METHODS: Two patient-specific aneurysm models were constructed from three-dimensional angiographic images. The uniform LVIS stent, compacted LVIS and Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) with or without coil embolization were virtually deployed into aneurysm models to perform hemodynamic analysis. Intra-aneurysmal flow parameters were calculated to assess hemodynamic differences among different models. RESULTS: The compacted LVIS had the highest metal coverage across the aneurysm orifice (case 1, 46.37%; case 2, 67.01%). However, the PED achieved the highest pore density (case 1, 19.56 pores/mm2; case 2, 18.07 pores/mm2). The compacted LVIS produced a much higher intra-aneurysmal flow reduction than the uniform LVIS. The PED showed a higher intra-aneurysmal flow reduction than the compacted LVIS in case 1, but the results were comparable in case 2. After stent placement, the intra-aneurysmal flow was further reduced as subsequent coil embolization. The compacted LVIS stent with coils produced a similar reduction in intra-aneurysmal flow to that of the PED. CONCLUSIONS: The combined characteristics of stent metal coverage and pore density should be considered when assessing the flow diversion effects of stents. More intra-aneurysmal flow reductions could be introduced by compacted LVIS stent than the uniform one. Compared with PED, compacted LVIS stent may exhibit a flow-diverting effect comparable to that of the PED.


Subject(s)
Embolization, Therapeutic/methods , Intracranial Aneurysm/therapy , Stents , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/therapy , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Cerebral Angiography , Computer Simulation , Hemodynamics , Humans , Hydrodynamics , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Prosthesis Design , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging
2.
World Neurosurg ; 151: e615-e620, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297239

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intracranial hemorrhage (including subarachnoid hemorrhage [SAH]) has been reported in 0.3%-1.2% of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, no study has evaluated the risk of SAH in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We analyzed data from 62 health care facilities using the Cerner de-identified COVID-19 dataset. RESULTS: There were 86 (0.1%) and 376 (0.2%) patients with SAH among 85,645 patients with COVID-19 and 197,073 patients without COVID-19, respectively. In the multivariate model, there was a lower risk of SAH in patients with COVID-19 (odds ratio 0.5, 95% confidence interval 0.4-0.7, P < 0.0001) after adjusting for sex, age strata, race/ethnicity, hypertension, and nicotine dependence/tobacco use. The proportions of patients who developed pneumonia (58.1% vs. 21.3%, P < 0.0001), acute kidney injury (43% vs. 27.7%, P = 0.0005), septic shock (44.2% vs. 20.7%, P < 0.0001), and respiratory failure (64.0% vs. 39.1%, P < 0.0001) were significantly higher among patients with SAH and COVID-19 compared with patients without COVID-19. The in-hospital mortality among patients with SAH and COVID-19 was significantly higher compared with patients without COVID-19 (31.4% vs. 12.2%, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of SAH was not increased in patients with COVID-19. The higher mortality in patients with SAH and COVID-19 compared with patients without COVID-19 is likely mediated by higher frequency of systemic comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Databases, Factual , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Databases, Factual/trends , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality/trends
6.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 6(4): 542-552, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, decreased volumes of stroke admissions and mechanical thrombectomy were reported. The study's objective was to examine whether subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions demonstrated similar declines. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective, observational study across 6 continents, 37 countries and 140 comprehensive stroke centres. Patients with the diagnosis of SAH, aneurysmal SAH, ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions and COVID-19 were identified by prospective aneurysm databases or by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, codes. The 3-month cumulative volume, monthly volumes for SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling procedures were compared for the period before (1 year and immediately before) and during the pandemic, defined as 1 March-31 May 2020. The prior 1-year control period (1 March-31 May 2019) was obtained to account for seasonal variation. FINDINGS: There was a significant decline in SAH hospitalisations, with 2044 admissions in the 3 months immediately before and 1585 admissions during the pandemic, representing a relative decline of 22.5% (95% CI -24.3% to -20.7%, p<0.0001). Embolisation of ruptured aneurysms declined with 1170-1035 procedures, respectively, representing an 11.5% (95%CI -13.5% to -9.8%, p=0.002) relative drop. Subgroup analysis was noted for aneurysmal SAH hospitalisation decline from 834 to 626 hospitalisations, a 24.9% relative decline (95% CI -28.0% to -22.1%, p<0.0001). A relative increase in ruptured aneurysm coiling was noted in low coiling volume hospitals of 41.1% (95% CI 32.3% to 50.6%, p=0.008) despite a decrease in SAH admissions in this tertile. INTERPRETATION: There was a relative decrease in the volume of SAH hospitalisations, aneurysmal SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm embolisations during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings in SAH are consistent with a decrease in other emergencies, such as stroke and myocardial infarction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intracranial Aneurysm , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Aneurysm/epidemiology , Intracranial Aneurysm/therapy , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(51): e23862, 2020 Dec 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087851

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Some evidences suggest the involvement of the central nervous system in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. We aim to analyze possible associations between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), in a comprehensive neurological center.We conducted a retrospective case series of 4 patients infected by COVID-19, who developed spontaneous SAH. Clinical data were extracted from electronic medical records.Between March 24, 2020, and May 22, 2020, 4 cases (3 females; 1 male) of SAH were identified in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, in a comprehensive neurological center in Brazil. The median age was 55.25 years (range 36 -71). COVID-19-related pneumonia was severe in 3 out of 4 cases, and all patients required critical care support during hospitalization. The patients developed Fisher grade III and IV SAH. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed in 3 of the 4 patients. However, in only 1 case, an aneurysm was identified. Inflammatory blood tests were elevated in all cases, with an average D-dimer of 2336 µg/L and mean C-reactive protein (CRP) of 3835 mg/dl The outcome was poor in the majority of the patients, with 1 death (25%); 2 (50%) remained severely neurologically affected (mRS:4); and 1 (25%) had slight disability (mRS:2).This study shows a series of 4 rare cases of SHA associated with COVID-19. The possible mechanisms underlying the involvement of SARSCoV-2 and SHA is yet to be fully understood. Therefore, SHA should be included in severe neurological manifestations in patients infected by this virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/virology , Adult , Aged , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging
10.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 202: 106495, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1036927

ABSTRACT

In the medical literature, some case reports on the association of the COVID-19 infection and occurrence of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)have been reported Aim of the present paper is to search the causes of this association The diagnosis of COVID-19 was based on the real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test and computed tomography (CT) of the chest. There were four patients, whose median ages were 46,758, ranged 36-54 years). In conclusion, Spontaneous SAH can occur in the early and late course of COVID-19 infection. Its early recognition of the patient with spontaneous SAH is imperative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Comprehension , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/etiology , Adult , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
11.
Neuroradiology ; 63(1): 149-152, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-734112

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with hypercoagulopathy, but haemorrhage, including spontaneous intracerebral parenchymal haemorrhage and diffuse petechial cerebral haemorrhage, has also been reported. We present two cases of nonaneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) in patients with severe COVID-19. Careful review of neuroimaging for haemorrhagic complications of COVID-19 should be undertaken, particularly for those patients receiving enhanced prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism. Although likely to be a marker of severe disease, non-aneurysmal SAH can be associated with favourable outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/etiology , Aged , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging
12.
J Neurovirol ; 26(5): 802-804, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-716427

ABSTRACT

In this article, subarachnoidal hemorrhage developing in a case with Covid-19-related pneumonia was evaluated. In the presence of respiratory system infection signs such as cough and weakness in patient who present with sudden loss of consciousness, performing lung imaging as well as performing brain computerized tomography scan can allow the detection of an underlying Covid-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Brain/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Unconsciousness/complications , Brain/blood supply , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroimaging , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/pathology , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/virology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Unconsciousness/diagnostic imaging , Unconsciousness/pathology , Unconsciousness/virology
13.
Neuroradiol J ; 33(5): 368-373, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646969

ABSTRACT

Central nervous system involvement in severe acute respiratory syndrome caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has increasingly been recognised in the literature, and possible mechanisms of neuroinvasion, neurotropism and neurovirulence have been described. Neurological signs have been described in 84% of COVID-19 intensive care unit patients, and haemostatic abnormalities in such patients may play an important role, with a broad spectrum of neuroimaging findings. This report describes the magnetic resonance imaging neurovascular findings in an acutely ill patient with COVID-19, including perfusion abnormalities depicted in the arterial spin labelling technique.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Brain/blood supply , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Corpus Callosum , Frontal Lobe , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Pandemics , Parietal Lobe , Perfusion Imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spin Labels , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Thalamus
14.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 105011, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-548355

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic has recently brought to attention the myriad of neuro- logic sequelae associated with Coronavirus infection including the predilection for stroke, particularly in young patients. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a well-described clinical syndrome leading to vasoconstriction in the intracra- nial vessels, and has been associated with convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage and oc- casionally cervical artery dissection. It is usually reported in the context of a trigger such as medications, recreational drugs, or the postpartum state; however, it has not been described in COVID-19 infection. We report a case of both cervical vertebral ar- tery dissection as well as convexity subarachnoid hemorrhage due to RCVS, in a pa- tient with COVID-19 infection and no other triggers.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Cerebral Arteries/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Vasoconstriction , Vertebral Artery Dissection/complications , Adult , COVID-19 , Cerebral Arteries/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Arteries/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Headache Disorders, Primary/etiology , Headache Disorders, Primary/physiopathology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/physiopathology , Syndrome , Vasoconstriction/drug effects , Vasodilation , Vertebral Artery Dissection/diagnostic imaging , Vertebral Artery Dissection/drug therapy , Vertebral Artery Dissection/physiopathology
15.
World Neurosurg ; 138: e955-e960, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-274866

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a substantial threat to the health of health care personnel on the front line of caring for patients with COVID-19. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services have announced that all nonessential planned surgeries and procedures should be postponed until further notice and only urgent procedures should proceed. Neurologic surgeries and procedures should not be delayed under the circumstance in which it is essential at saving a life or preserving functioning of the central nervous system. METHODS: With the intent to advise the neurosurgery team on how to adequately prepare and safely perform neurosurgical procedures on confirmed and suspected patients with COVID-19, we discuss considerations and recommendations based on the lessons and experience shared by neurosurgeons in China. RESULTS: Perioperative and intraoperative strategies, considerations, as well as challenges arisen under the specific circumstance have been discussed. In addition, a case of a ruptured aneurysm in a suspected patient with COVID-19 is reported. It is advised that all health care personnel who immediately participate in neurosurgical surgeries and procedures for confirmed and suspected patients with COVID-19 should take airborne precautions and wear enhanced personal protective equipment. CONCLUSIONS: Following the proposed guidance, urgent neurosurgical surgeries and procedures can be safely performed for the benefit of critical patients with or suspected for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm, Ruptured/surgery , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Intracranial Aneurysm/surgery , Neurosurgical Procedures/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/surgery , Air Filters , Aneurysm, Ruptured/complications , Aneurysm, Ruptured/diagnostic imaging , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Computed Tomography Angiography , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Craniotomy/methods , Drainage , Emergencies , Hematoma/complications , Hematoma/diagnostic imaging , Hematoma/surgery , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm/complications , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Pressure , Intraoperative Care , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Monitoring, Physiologic , Operating Rooms , Pandemics , Perioperative Care , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , United States
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