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1.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(11)2022 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090278

ABSTRACT

For COVID-19 pneumonia, many manifestations such as fever, dyspnea, dry cough, anosmia and tiredness have been described, but differences have been observed from person to person according to age, pulmonary function, damage and severity. In clinical practice, it has been found that patients with severe forms of infection with COVID-19 develop serious complications, including pneumomediastinum. Although two years have passed since the beginning of the pandemic with the SARS-CoV-2 virus and progress has been made in understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the COVID-19 infection, there are also unknown factors that contribute to the evolution of the disease and can lead to the emergence some complications. In this case report, we present a patient with COVID-19 infection who developed a massive spontaneous pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema during hospitalization, with no pre-existing lung pathology and no history of smoking. The patient did not get mechanical ventilation or chest trauma, but the possible cause could be severe alveolar inflammation. The CT results highlighted pneumonia in context with SARS-CoV-2 infection affecting about 50% of the pulmonary area. During hospitalization, lung lesions evolved 80% pulmonary damage associated with pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema. After three months, the patient completely recovered and the pneumomediastinum fully recovered with the complete disappearance of the lesions. Pneumomediastinum is a severe and rare complication in COVID-19 pneumonia, especially in male patients, without risk factors, and an early diagnosis can increase the chances of survival.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Subcutaneous Emphysema , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnosis , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology , Subcutaneous Emphysema/complications
2.
Cir Cir ; 90(4): 543-547, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067554

ABSTRACT

Several alterations that, due to their pathophysiology, are collectively classified as "air leaks", have been rare complications of COVID-19 pneumonia. In the context of infection by SARS-CoV-2, the debate arises as to whether these are classified as spontaneous or secondary, since the multiple mechanisms of pulmonary structural damage that COVID-19 entails condition lung fragility in a patient in short time. For the above, we presents the case of a 36-year-old female patient with COVID-19 complicated with pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema in order to illustrate and discuss these complications.


Diversas alteraciones que, por su fisiopatología, son clasificadas en conjunto como «fugas de aire¼, han sido complicaciones raras de la neumonía por COVID-19. Respecto a la infección por SARS-CoV-2, se plantea el debate de si estas se clasifican como espontáneas o secundarias, ya que los múltiples mecanismos de daño estructural pulmonar que conlleva la COVID-19 condicionan fragilidad pulmonar en corto lapso. Por lo anterior, se expone el caso de una paciente de 36 años con COVID-19 complicada con neumomediastino y enfisema subcutáneo con el objetivo de ilustrar y discutir dichas complicaciones.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Subcutaneous Emphysema , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/adverse effects
3.
Clin Imaging ; 90: 71-77, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906895

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of barotrauma (pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema) in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients. To describe the chest radiography patterns of barotrauma and understand the development in relation to mechanical ventilation and patient mortality. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 363 patients with COVID-19 from March 1 to April 8, 2020. Primary outcomes were pneumomediastinum or subcutaneous emphysema with or without pneumothorax, pneumoperitoneum, or pneumoretroperitoneum. The secondary outcomes were length of intubation and death. In patients with pneumomediastinum and/or subcutaneous emphysema, we conducted an imaging review to determine the timeline of barotrauma development. RESULTS: Forty three out of 363 (12%) patients developed barotrauma radiographically. The median time to development of either pneumomediastinum or subcutaneous emphysema was 2 days (IQR 1.0-4.5) after intubation and the median time to pneumothorax was 7 days (IQR 2.0-10.0). The overall incidence of pneumothorax was 28/363 (8%) with an incidence of 17/43 (40%) in the barotrauma cohort and 11/320 (3%) in those without barotrauma (p ≤ 0.001). In total, 257/363 (71%) patients died with an increase in mortality in those with barotrauma 33/43 (77%) vs. 224/320 (70%). When adjusting for covariates, barotrauma was associated with increased odds of death (OR 2.99, 95% CI 1.25-7.17). CONCLUSION: Barotrauma is a frequent complication of mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients. In comparison to intubated COVID-19 patients without barotrauma, there is a higher rate of pneumothorax and an increased risk of death.


Subject(s)
Barotrauma , COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Subcutaneous Emphysema , Barotrauma/complications , Barotrauma/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Subcutaneous Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Subcutaneous Emphysema/epidemiology , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(9): 3374-3376, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1856624

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: There are no reports of tracheomediastinal fistula development after tracheostomy. CASE REPORT: A 72-year-old female patient with post acute COVID-19 was transferred to our intensive care unit. After two unsuccessful weaning attempts, a tracheostomy was performed at hospitalization on day 32. The patient's body mass index was 35 kg/m2 and she had a narrow neck anatomy. A percutaneous tracheostomy was performed using the Griggs method without any problems. Pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema, and hemorrhage were not observed. Twenty-two days after the tracheostomy, the patient developed subcutaneous emphysema and experienced a sudden decrease in oxygen saturation. Bedside anterior-posterior chest X-ray did not detect pneumothorax and a tracheoesophageal fistula was found via esophageal endoscopy. A tracheomediastinal fistula was observed just below the cannula distal end via computed tomography. CONCLUSIONS: There are multiple reasons why a tracheomediastinal fistula could develop after tracheostomy. Therefore, this condition should be considered in cases of sudden subcutaneous emphysema and oxygen deterioration following tracheostomy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fistula , Pneumothorax , Subcutaneous Emphysema , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Fistula/complications , Humans , Pneumothorax/etiology , Subcutaneous Emphysema/complications , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology , Tracheostomy
6.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 32(2): 230-232, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675597

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum with COVID pneumonia is a rare occurrence with or without accompanying subcutaneous emphysema or pneumothorax. The aim of this study was to establish relation of this complication to severity of lung disease and its clinical outcome. The study was conducted for a period of seven months from April to October 2020 in the CT Department of Armed Forces Institute of Radiology and Imaging (AFIRI), Rawalpindi, Pakistan. All COVID positive patients having spontaneous pneumomediastinum on high resolution CT (HRCT) chest were included (n=14). These patients were assessed for severity of lung disease as per CT severity score (CTSS), and were followed up for their clinical outcome. All patients with spontaneous pneumomediastinum had moderate to severe degree of COVID pneumonia; mortality in patients with pneumomediastinum was 50%; and was seen in those patients who had greater severity of lung disease as per the CTSS. Key Words: Spontaneous, Pneumomediastinum, COVID, Pneumothorax, Subcutaneous, Emphysema.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Subcutaneous Emphysema , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Subcutaneous Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology
8.
Heart Lung ; 52: 190-193, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620700

ABSTRACT

Many surgical treatments have been described for massive subcutaneous emphysema (MSE) over the recent years. However, there is no consensus on which is the most recommended and there is great diversity in treatment. With new advances in minimally invasive therapy performed at the bedside, especially in intensive care units, it has been possible to increase therapeutic efficacy. During the COVID-19 pandemic, some therapeutic techniques have been discussed in critically ill patients with SARS-COV-2 respiratory infections, because of the potential overexposure of healthcare personnel to an increased risk of contagion after direct exposure to air trapped in the subcutaneous tissue of infected patients. We present the clinical case of an 82-year-old male patient, SARS COV-2 infected, with MSE after 48 h with invasive mechanical ventilation in critical intensive care. He was treated with negative pressure therapy (NPT) allowing effective resolution of the MSE in a short period (5 days) with a minimally invasive bedside approach, reducing the potential air exposure of health personnel by keeping the viral load retained by the emphysema. Therefore, we present NPT as an effective, minimally invasive and safe therapeutic alternative to be considered in the management of MSE in critically ill patients infected with SARS COV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Subcutaneous Emphysema , Aged, 80 and over , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Subcutaneous Emphysema/epidemiology , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology , Subcutaneous Emphysema/therapy
9.
Wien Med Wochenschr ; 172(3-4): 84-89, 2022 Mar.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1353705

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) that arose in 2019 causes a wide spectrum of symptoms and different courses of disease. Pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and soft tissue emphysema are rare complications in patients with pulmonary involvement. They are the sequelae of severe, virus-induced structural changes of the pulmonary architecture. High pressure artificial ventilation aggravates the problem. Hence pneumothorax and ectopic air in soft tissues are indicators of extensive pulmonary damage. Therefore, efforts should be made to treat even very small or multiply recurrent pneumothorax by drainage procedures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mediastinal Emphysema , Pneumothorax , Subcutaneous Emphysema , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Mediastinal Emphysema/therapy , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/etiology , Pneumothorax/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Subcutaneous Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology , Subcutaneous Emphysema/therapy
10.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(1): 110-114, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268461

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is defined as the presence of free air within the mediastinum without an apparent cause such as chest trauma. It is a benign, self-limiting condition that is conservatively treated. Clinical diagnosis is based on two symptoms: chest pain and dyspnea; and on a particular sign: subcutaneous emphysema. It has been reported in patients with influenza A (H1N1) and severe acute respiratory syndrome; however, it has been rarely observed in COVID-19 patients. In this work, we describe six male patients with COVID-19, aged between 27 and 82 years, who presented with spontaneous pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema; both conditions were completely resorbed with conservative management.


El neumomediastino espontáneo es la presencia de aire libre en el mediastino sin el antecedente de alguna causa como trauma de tórax. Es una condición benigna autolimitada que se trata en forma conservadora. El diagnóstico clínico se basa en dos síntomas: dolor torácico y disnea; y en un signo en particular: enfisema subcutáneo. Ha sido reportado en pacientes con influenza A (H1N1) y síndrome respiratorio agudo grave; sin embargo, ha sido raramente observado en pacientes con COVID-19. En este trabajo describimos seis pacientes del sexo masculino con COVID-19, con edades entre 27 y 82 años, que presentaron neumomediastino espontáneo y enfisema subcutáneo; ambos se reabsorbieron totalmente con manejo conservador.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology , Adult , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
11.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e137, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260912

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 causes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Our aim in this study is to assess the incidence of life-threatening complications like pneumothorax, haemothorax, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema, probable risk factors and effect on mortality in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) ARDS patients treated with mechanical ventilation (MV). Data from 96 adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit with COVID-19 ARDS diagnosis from 11 March to 31 July 2020 were retrospectively assessed. A total of 75 patients abiding by the study criteria were divided into two groups as the group developing ventilator-related barotrauma (BG) (N = 10) and the group not developing ventilator-related barotrauma (NBG) (N = 65). In 10 patients (13%), barotrauma findings occurred 22 ± 3.6 days after the onset of symptoms. The mortality rate was 40% in the BG-group, while it was 29% in the NBG-group with no statistical difference identified. The BG-group had longer intensive care admission duration, duration of time in prone position and total MV duration, with higher max positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels and lower min pO2/FiO2 levels. The peak lactate dehydrogenase levels in blood were higher by statistically significant level in the BG-group (P < 0.05). The contribution of MV to alveolar injury caused by infection in COVID-19 ARDS patients may cause more frequent barotrauma compared to classic ARDS and this situation significantly increases the MV and intensive care admission durations of patients. In terms of reducing mortality and morbidity in these patients, MV treatment should be carefully maintained within the framework of lung-protective strategies and the studies researching barotrauma pathophysiology should be increased.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hemothorax/etiology , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology , Adult , Aged , Barotrauma/epidemiology , Barotrauma/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hemothorax/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Lung Injury/epidemiology , Lung Injury/etiology , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Subcutaneous Emphysema/epidemiology
12.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(1): 54-58, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232646

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 can cause pulmonary complications, such as increased risk of barotrauma (BT), but its prevalence and risk factors are not known. In this case series, the course of BT and its related risk factors were discussed in patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to the intensive care unit. Medical records of the patients with COVID-19 and BT and hospitalized in the intensive care unit for 5 months were extracted. The course of BT and its possible associated risk factors are descriptively presented. Among 103 patients with COVID-19 who were intubated, 13 patients (12.6%) had BT. One patient developed BT before intubation. All patients with BT were male. Half of them developed BT in the first 5 days of intubation. Eight patients (61.53%) had a positive culture for Klebsiella pneumoniae. Nine patients (69.9%) died. High positive end-expiratory pressure, coinfection with bacterial pneumonia, and history of lung disease may affect BT incidence. The treatment team should increase their upervision on the ventilator setting, especially in the first week of intubation.


Subject(s)
Barotrauma/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Pneumothorax/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology , Adult , Aged , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal , Klebsiella Infections/complications , Klebsiella Infections/diagnosis , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors
16.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(2): 132-137, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110941

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factors for spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM), its clinical course and effect on prognosis in patients with Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pneumonia. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Kayseri City Training and Research Hospital, Turkey, from April  to September 2020. METHODOLOGY: All COVID-19 patients' clinical, laboratory, and radiologic characteristics, as well as treatment outcome data, were obtained through medical record extraction. Group A had 50 patients (22 men and 28 women) without SPM, and Group B had 20 patients (10 men and 10 women) with SPM. RESULTS: Considering the accompanying comorbidities, the frequencies of asthma and inhaler-use was significantly higher in Group B than in Group A (p <0.05). In the CT evaluation at presentation, the rate of involvement of all five lobes of the lung in Group B was significantly higher than in Group A. Rates of tube thoracostomy, mechanical ventilator requirement, length of stay in hospital, and exitus were significantly higher in Group B than in Group A (p <0.05). CONCLUSION: SPM development in a patient with COVID-19 pneumonia is a sign that the prognosis will not be good, and these patients need a more aggressive treatment. Key Words: Spontaneous pneumomediastinum, COVID-19, Pneumothorax, Real-time polymerase chain reaction, Subcutaneous emphysema.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Chest Tubes , Female , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnosis , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/virology , Prognosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Subcutaneous Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology , Thoracostomy , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
17.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e37, 2021 01 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072077

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the clinical symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its complications are evolving. As the number of COVID patients requiring positive pressure ventilation is increasing, so is the incidence of subcutaneous emphysema (SE). We report 10 patients of COVID-19, with SE and pneumomediastinum. The mean age of the patients was 59 ± 8 years (range, 23-75). Majority of them were men (80%), and common symptoms were dyspnoea (100%), fever (80%) and cough (80%). None of them had any underlying lung disorder. All patients had acute respiratory distress syndrome on admission, with a median PaO2/FiO2 ratio of 122.5. Eight out of ten patients had spontaneous pneumomediastinum on their initial chest x-ray in the emergency department. The median duration of assisted ventilation before the development of SE was 5.5 days (interquartile range, 5-10 days). The highest positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was 10 cmH2O for patients recieving invasive mechanical ventilation, while 8 cmH2O was the average PEEP in patients who had developed subcutaneous emphysema on non-invasive ventilation. All patients received corticosteroids while six also received tocilizumab, and seven received convalescent plasma therapy, respectively. Seven patients died during their hospital stay. All patients either survivor or non-survivor had prolonged hospital stay with an average of 14 days (range 8-25 days). Our findings suggest that it is lung damage secondary to inflammatory response due to COVID-19 triggered by the use of positive pressure ventilation which resulted in this complication. We conclude that the development of spontaneous pneumomediastinum and SE whenever present, is associated with poor outcome in critically ill COVID-19 ARDS patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , Subcutaneous Emphysema/epidemiology , Tertiary Care Centers , Young Adult
18.
Tuberk Toraks ; 68(4): 437-443, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067904

ABSTRACT

Barotrauma is a commonly reported complication in critically ill patients with ARDS caused by different etiologies, it's rate is reported to be around %10. Pneumothorax/pneumomediastinum in COVID-19 patients seem to be more common and have different clinical characteristics. Here we report 9 patients who had pneumothorax and/or pneumomediastinum during their stay in the ICU. Patients who were admitted to ICU between March 2020 and December 2020, were reviewed for presence of pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema during their ICU stay. Demographic characteristics, mechanical ventilation settings, documented ventilation parameters, outcomes were studied. A total of 161 patients were admitted to ICU during the study period, 96 were invasively ventilated. Nine patients had developed pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and/or subcutaneous emphysema during their admission. Five of them were men and median age was 66.6 years. All patients were intubated and mechanically ventilated. All patients were managed conservatively. One patient was discharged from ICU, the others were lost due to other complications related to COVID-19. Upon detection of pneumothorax and/or mediastinum all patients were managed conservatively by limiting their PEEP and maximum inspiratory pressures and were followed by daily chest X-rays (CXR) for detection of any progress. None of the patients showed increase in size of their pneumothorax and/or pneumomediastinum. Hemodynamically instability due to pneumothorax and/or pneumomediastinum was not observed in any of the patients. Tension pneumothorax was not observed in any of the patients. Most common reason for death was sepsis due to secondary bacterial infections. Acute deterioration with rapid oxygen desaturation or palpation of crepitation over thorax and neck in a COVID-19 patient should prompt a search for pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum. Conservative management may be an option as long as the patients are stable.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnosis , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Middle Aged , Pneumothorax/diagnosis , Pneumothorax/etiology , Subcutaneous Emphysema/diagnosis , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology
19.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(4)2020 Sep 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060341

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a recent pandemic that affected more than 5 million people worldwide. Chest high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is an essential tool in diagnosis and management of the disease. Pulmonary parenchymal opacity is a typical sign of the disease, but not the only one. Pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum, bronchiectasis and cysts are probably underrated complications of COVID-19 that can worsen prognosis, in terms of prolonged hospitalization and need of oxygen therapy. In our single center case series, we outline four different manifestations of pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and cysts in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Bronchiectasis/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Cysts/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumothorax/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Bronchiectasis/etiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cysts/etiology , Humans , Italy , Lung Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Lung Diseases/etiology , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumothorax/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Subcutaneous Emphysema/diagnostic imaging , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e927954, 2021 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050748

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Invasive mechanical ventilation can cause pulmonary barotrauma due to elevated transpulmonary pressure and alveolar rupture. A significant proportion of COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) will require mechanical ventilation. We present 2 interesting cases that demonstrate the possibility of COVID-19-associated ARDS manifesting with pulmonary barotrauma at acceptable ventilatory pressures. CASE REPORT The first patient was a 71-year-old man who was intubated and placed on mechanical ventilation due to hypoxemic respiratory failure from SARS-CoV-2 infection. His partial pressure of O2 to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2/FiO2) was 156. He developed subcutaneous emphysema (SE) and pneumomediastinum on day 5 of mechanical ventilation at ventilatory settings of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) ≤15 cmH2O, plateau pressure (Pplat) ≤25 cmH2O and pulmonary inspiratory pressure (PIP) ≤30 cmH2O. He was managed with 'blow-hole' incisions, with subsequent clinical resolution of subcutaneous emphysema. The second patient was a 58-year-old woman who was also mechanically ventilated due to hypoxemic respiratory failure from COVID-19, with PaO2/FiO2 of 81. She developed extensive SE with pneumomediastinum and pneumothorax while on mechanical ventilation settings PEEP 13 cmH2O and PIP 28 cmH2O, Pplat 18 cmH2O, and FiO2 90%. SE was managed with blow-hole incisions and pneumothorax with chest tube. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians should be aware of pulmonary barotrauma as a possible complication of COVID-19 pulmonary disease, even at low ventilatory pressures.


Subject(s)
Barotrauma/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Lung Injury/etiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Subcutaneous Emphysema/etiology
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