Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 41
Filter
1.
Acta Biomed ; 93(1): e2022081, 2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1754155

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The destructive impact of the still ongoing COVID-19 pandemic on those struggling with substance use disorders (SUD) stems from the daunting challenges which SUD patients experience in terms of coping with their condition and receiving care in a timely fashion. METHODS: Patients struggling with addiction are at particularly high risk, due to the underlying vulnerabilities in their conditions and the stigmatization they often suffer. New Psychoactive Substances stand out as a critical area of concern. The authors have conducted a broad-ranging search to assess the impact of SUDs, along with their related mental, physical, and behavioral symptoms, against the backdrop of the COVID-19, taking into account how drug trafficking and consumption trends have evolved as the emergency draws out, and the cyberspace comes to play an ever-bigger role. RESULTS: Given that roughly 1.5%-5% of the global burden of disease can be ascribed to alcohol abuse and substance addiction, the role of pandemic-related potential contributing factors in the exacerbation and relapse of SUDs and behavioral addiction cannot be discounted and needs targeted measures tailored to the special needs of SUD patients. Escalating environmental stressors stemming from abnormal circumstances can undermine recovery efforts and threaten the very survival of countless SUD patients, increasing the likelihood of relapsing for those in recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Policymakers and legislators have not yet put in place targeted measures and adjustments in the health care delivery mechanisms in order to countervail the pandemic impact on SUD sufferers, and the ever-evolving patterns of use and trafficking.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Alcoholism/complications , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Recurrence , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
2.
Subst Abus ; 43(1): 756-762, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671875

ABSTRACT

Background: Individuals with substance use disorder (SUD) may be particularly at risk during the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to examine attitudes to the pandemic among individuals with SUD. Methods: Survey responses from 266 patients entering a residential treatment program were analyzed. Results: Most participants were White or African American men. A third of participants reported that their substance use had increased during the pandemic (38%), and that they had stockpiled substances because of concerns about supply (30%). A majority of participants indicated more depression (60%), anxiety (61%), worry about finances (62%), and feeling worse about their substance use due to COVID-19 (67%). An exploratory factor analysis revealed five factors that measured interest in SUD treatment, psychological symptoms, adherence to health recommendations, perceptions of vulnerability to COVID-19, and substance use during COVID-19. African American participants indicated a greater interest in treatment than Whites, while White participants indicated increased symptoms and substance use during COVID-19 (p < .05). Further, African Americans were more likely to have known someone who had developed COVID-19 than whites (p < .05). Older participants indicated adhering to health recommendations more than younger participants, using substances less than younger participants, as well as feeling more vulnerable to COVID-19 (p < .05). Conclusions: This is the first study to examine patient attitudes and behaviors related to COVID-19 at a residential SUD treatment program. Treatment providers should be aware of patient attitudes and behaviors related to COVID-19 paying special attention to barriers to treatment engagement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Attitude , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
3.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e31, 2022 01 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655369

ABSTRACT

In Ethiopia, the magnitude of violence against girls during COVID-19 in the study area is not known. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the violence and associated factors during COVID-19 pandemic among Gondar city secondary school girls in North West Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January to February 2021. Data were collected from four public and two private Gondar city secondary schools. Investigators used stratified simple random sampling to select participants and the investigators used roster of the students at selected schools. Investigators collected the data using self-reported history of experiencing violence (victimisation). Investigators analysed data using descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression. Investigators invited a total of 371 sampled female students to complete self-administered questionnaires. The proportion of girls who experienced violence was 42.05% and psychological violence was the highest form of violence. Having a father who attended informal education (AOR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.08-3.51), ever use of social media 1.65 (AOR = 1.65, 95% CI 1.02-2.69), ever watching sexually explicit material (AOR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.24-3.36) and use of a substance (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI 1.17-3.15) were significantly associated variables with violence. Almost for every five girls, more than two of them experienced violence during the COVID-19 lockdown. The prevalence of violence might be under reported due to desirability bias. Therefore, it is better to create awareness towards violence among substance users, fathers with informal education and social media including user females.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Child Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Violence/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Child, Preschool , Data Collection , Education/statistics & numerical data , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Students , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 34(4): 351-356, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635161

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictions have uniquely and disproportionately affected vulnerable populations. This review summarizes recent evidence on the relationship between psychiatric disorders, substance use disorders and COVID-19, highlighting acute and long-term risks, pharmacotherapy interactions and implications regarding appropriate and timely evidence-based treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence points to a complex relationship between psychiatric and substance use disorders and COVID-19. A range of risk factors associated with psychiatric and substance use disorders increases the risk of exposure to, and complications arising from, the COVID-19 virus. COVID-19 infection has been indicated as having acute and potential long-term impacts on both psychiatric and substance use disorders. Social disruption associated with restrictions imposed to curb transmission has also been identified as a risk factor for new onset of disorders and recurrence and exacerbation of existing conditions. SUMMARY: Early recognition and intervention are key to preventing chronic disability associated with psychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, and their co-occurrence. It is critical that those most in need of services do not fall through the cracks of our healthcare systems. The pandemic has fast tracked the opportunity for widespread implementation of digital health interventions but ensuring these are accessible and available to all, including our most vulnerable, will be a critical task for our future health and social ecosystems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders/complications , Mental Disorders/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Drug Interactions , Humans , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Vulnerable Populations/psychology
5.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(1): 291-297, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639397

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has profoundly affected the social fabric and the economic and health care viability and functioning of most countries. Aside from its deeply destructive impact on health care systems and national economies, the pandemic has jeopardized people's emotional and psychological well-being as well. The authors aimed to shed a light on how the pandemic has been affecting patients with addiction issues and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), which is characterized by negative thoughts about appearance and body misperceptions. People with body dysmorphic disorder are in fact at increased risk of developing substance use disorders, and such a destructive association has only been made more severe by pandemic-related restrictions, emotional distress and anxiety, as well as longer exposure to social media and online interactions. This is a major cause for concern, because substance use worsens symptoms of BDD and contributes to unfavorable treatment outcomes.


Subject(s)
Body Image/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Anxiety , Behavior, Addictive/complications , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Behavior, Addictive/psychology , Body Dysmorphic Disorders/complications , Body Dysmorphic Disorders/epidemiology , Body Dysmorphic Disorders/psychology , Humans , Social Media , Substance-Related Disorders/complications
6.
J Addict Nurs ; 32(4): 260-262, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574196

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In December 2019, the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in China, and now, it has spread all over the world. Pregnant women are a susceptible population, but there is scant information about COVID-19 in this population. Here, we report a case of a mother with substance use disorders who was infected with COVID-19 in her pregnancy. CASE: The patient was a 29-year-old, primigravida mother at the 37th gestational week who was referred to our center because of vaginal bleeding and severe uterine contractions. The patient was abusing opioids. With the suspicion of placental abruption, she was admitted for cesarean section. One day after delivery, she developed dyspnea, rhinorrhea, and vomiting. These were thought of as withdrawal signs. Despite methadone administration, these signs persisted. After ruling out deprivation syndrome and possible obstetric causes, a SARS-CoV-2 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was ordered; the result was positive. CONCLUSION: In this case, because of the flu-like symptoms of substance withdrawal and postpartum causes of shortness of breath, the medical team's attention was drawn to these causes. SARS-CoV-2 infection should be considered as a differential diagnosis for these patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Adult , Cesarean Section , Female , Humans , Mothers , Placenta , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/complications
7.
Viruses ; 13(11)2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488765

ABSTRACT

This study identified factors associated with hospital admission among people with laboratory-diagnosed COVID-19 cases in British Columbia. The study used data from the BC COVID-19 Cohort, which integrates data on all COVID-19 cases with data on hospitalizations, medical visits, emergency room visits, prescription drugs, chronic conditions and deaths. The analysis included all laboratory-diagnosed COVID-19 cases in British Columbia to 15 January 2021. We evaluated factors associated with hospital admission using multivariable Poisson regression analysis with robust error variance. Of the 56,874 COVID-19 cases included in the analysis, 2298 were hospitalized. Factors associated with increased hospitalization risk were as follows: male sex (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.17-1.37), older age (p-trend < 0.0001 across age groups increasing hospitalization risk with increasing age [aRR 30-39 years = 3.06; 95% CI = 2.32-4.03, to aRR 80+ years = 43.68; 95% CI = 33.41-57.10 compared to 20-29 years-old]), asthma (aRR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.04-1.26), cancer (aRR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.09-1.29), chronic kidney disease (aRR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.19-1.47), diabetes (treated without insulin aRR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.03-1.25, requiring insulin aRR = 5.05; 95% CI = 4.43-5.76), hypertension (aRR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.08-1.31), injection drug use (aRR = 2.51; 95% CI = 2.14-2.95), intellectual and developmental disabilities (aRR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.05-2.66), problematic alcohol use (aRR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.43-1.85), immunosuppression (aRR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.09-1.53), and schizophrenia and psychotic disorders (aRR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.23-1.82). In an analysis restricted to women of reproductive age, pregnancy (aRR = 2.69; 95% CI = 1.42-5.07) was associated with increased risk of hospital admission. Older age, male sex, substance use, intellectual and developmental disability, chronic comorbidities, and pregnancy increase the risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Mental Disorders/complications , Mental Health , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , British Columbia/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Young Adult
9.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 16(1): 49, 2021 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456010

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has created a crisis in access to addiction treatment. Programs with residential components have been particularly impacted as they try to keep infection from spreading in facilities and contributing to further community spread of the virus. This crisis highlights the ongoing daily trade-offs that organizations must weigh as they balance the risks and benefits of individual patients with those of the group of patients, staff and the community they serve. MAIN BODY: The COVID-19 pandemic has forced provider organizations to make individual facility level decisions about how to manage patients who are COVID-19 positive while protecting other patients, staff and the community. While guidance documents from federal, state, and trade groups aimed to support such decision making, they often lagged pandemic dynamics, and provided too little detail to translate into front line decision making. In the context of incomplete knowledge to make informed decisions, we present a way to integrate guidelines and local data into the decision process and discuss the ethical dilemmas faced by provider organizations in preventing infections and responding to COVID positive patients or staff. CONCLUSION AND COMMENTARY: Provider organizations need decision support on managing the risk of COVID-19 positive patients in their milieu. While useful, guidance documents may not be capable of providing support with the nuance that local data and simulation modeling may be able to provide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Residential Treatment/organization & administration , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/rehabilitation , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Program Evaluation , Risk Management
10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 510-525, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454176

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are substantial public health threats in the region of Central Asia and the Caucasus, where the prevalence of these infections is currently rising. METHODS: A systematic review of MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO was conducted with no publication date or language restrictions through October 2019. Additional data were also harvested from national surveillance reports, references found in discovered sources, and other "grey" literature. It included studies conducted on high-risk populations (people who inject drugs (PWID), female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSM), prisoners, and migrants) in Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan; and the Caucasus: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Northern Caucasus region of the Russian Federation. RESULTS: Wide ranges were noted for HIV prevalence: PWID 0-30.1%, MSM 0-25.1%, prisoners 0-22.8%, FSW 0-10.0%, and migrants 0.06-1.5%, with the highest prevalence of these high-risk groups reported in Kazakhstan (for PWID), Georgia (for MSM and prisoners) and Uzbekistan (for migrants). HCV prevalence also had a wide range: PWID 0.3-92.1%, MSM 0-18.9%, prisoners 23.8-49.7%, FSW 3.3-17.8%, and migrants 0.5-26.5%, with the highest prevalence reported in Georgia (92.1%), Kyrgyzstan (49.7%), and migrants from Tajikistan and Uzbekistan (26.5%). Similarly, HBV prevalence had a wide range: PWID 2.8-79.7%, MSM 0-22.2%, prisoners 2.7-6.2%, FSW 18.4% (one study), and migrants 0.3-15.7%. CONCLUSION: In Central Asia and the Caucasus, prevalence of HIV, HCV and HBV remains exceedingly high among selected populations, notably PWID and MSM.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Asia, Central/epidemiology , Female , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Prisoners , Risk Factors , Russia/epidemiology , Sex Workers , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Transcaucasia/epidemiology
11.
Maturitas ; 154: 31-45, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415643

ABSTRACT

Health problems of women experiencing homelessness are driven either from the usual background characteristics of this population, or from the homeless lifestyle. Apart from poverty and unemployment, transition to homelessness is often associated with substance abuse, history of victimization, stress, poor mental health and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Water insecurity can undermine bodily hygiene and dental health, posing a greater risk of dehydration and opportunistic infections. Exposure to extreme environmental conditions like heat waves and natural disasters increases morbidity, accelerates aging, and reduces life expectancy. Nutrition-wise, a high prevalence of food insecurity, obesity, and micronutrient deficiencies are apparent due to low diet quality and food waste. Poor hygiene, violence, and overcrowding increase the susceptibility of these women to communicable diseases, including sexually transmitted ones and COVID-19. Furthermore, established cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus are often either undertreated or neglected, and their complications are more widespread than in the general population. In addition, lack of medical screening and contraception non-use induce a variety of reproductive health issues. All these health conditions are tightly related to violations of human rights in this population, including the rights to housing, water, food, reproduction, health, work, and no discrimination. Thus, the care provided to women experiencing homelessness should be optimized at a multidimensional level, spanning beyond the provision of a warm bed, to include access to clean water and sanitation, psychological support and stress-coping strategies, disease management and acute health care, food of adequate quality, opportunities for employment and support for any minor dependants.


Subject(s)
Aging , COVID-19 , Food Insecurity , Health Status , Homeless Persons/psychology , Human Rights , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Aging/physiology , Aging/psychology , Female , Food , Humans , Reproductive Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Water Supply
12.
J Dual Diagn ; 17(3): 181-192, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393102

ABSTRACT

Mobile mental health apps can help bridge gaps in access to care for those with substance use disorders and dual diagnoses. The authors describe a portfolio of free, publicly available mobile mental health apps developed by the National Center for PTSD. The authors also demonstrate how this suite of primarily non-substance use disorder-specific mobile mental health apps may support the active ingredients of substance use disorder treatment or be used for self-management of substance use disorder and related issues. The potential advantages of these apps, as well as limitations and considerations for future app development, are discussed.


Subject(s)
Mobile Applications , Self-Management , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Mental Health , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/complications , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/therapy , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy
13.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 61 Suppl 2: S129-S141, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355875

ABSTRACT

Use of US Food and Drug Administration-approved substances of abuse has innate risks due to pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties of the medications, but the risk when using nonapproved drug products is much greater. Unbeknownst to the user, the dose of active ingredients in substances of abuse can vary substantially between different products because of manufacturing practices or improper storage. Even naturally occurring substances of abuse can have extensive dosage variability because of effects of the growing season and conditions, or differences in harvesting, storage, or manufacture of the finished products. Many illicit substances are adulterated, to make up for intentional underdosing or to enhance the effect of the intended active ingredient. These adulterants can be dangerous and produce direct cardiovascular, neurologic, hematologic, or dermatologic reactions or obscure adverse effects. Finally, an illicit substance can be contaminated or substituted for another one during its manufacture, leading to differences in adverse events, adverse event severity, or the drug interaction profile. Substances can be contaminated with microbes that induce infections or heavy metals that can damage organs or cause cancer. This milieu of undisclosed substances can also induce drug interactions. For reasons that are discussed, individuals who use substances of abuse are at increased risk of morbidity or mortality if they develop coronavirus disease 2019. Health professionals who treat patients with acute, urgent events associated with substances of abuse, or those treating the chronic manifestations of addiction, need to appreciate the complex and variable composition of substances of abuse and their potential health effects.


Subject(s)
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/complications , Illicit Drugs/adverse effects , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Interactions/physiology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/mortality , Humans , Substance-Related Disorders/mortality , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
14.
Harm Reduct J ; 18(1): 85, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Spotting is an informal practice among people who use drugs (PWUD) where they witness other people using drugs and respond if an overdose occurs. During COVID-19 restrictions, remote spotting (e.g., using a telephone, video call, and/or a social media app) emerged to address physical distancing requirements and reduced access to harm reduction and/or sexually transmitted blood borne infection (STBBI's) prevention services. We explored spotting implementation issues from the perspectives of spotters and spottees. METHODS: Research assistants with lived/living expertise of drug use used personal networks and word of mouth to recruit PWUD from Ontario and Nova Scotia who provided or used informal spotting. All participants completed a semi-structured, audio-recorded telephone interview about spotting service design, benefits, challenges, and recommendations. Recordings were transcribed and thematic analysis was used. RESULTS: We interviewed 20 individuals between 08/2020-11/2020 who were involved in informal spotting. Spotting was provided on various platforms (e.g., telephone, video calls, and through texts) and locations (e.g. home, car), offered connection and community support, and addressed barriers to the use of supervised consumption sites (e.g., location, stigma, confidentiality, safety, availability, COVID-19 related closures). Spotting calls often began with setting an overdose response plan (i.e., when and who to call). Many participants noted that, due to the criminalization of drug use and fear of arrest, they preferred that roommates/friends/family members be called instead of emergency services in case of an overdose. Both spotters and spottees raised concerns about the timeliness of overdose response, particularly in remote and rural settings. CONCLUSION: Spotting is a novel addition to, but not replacement for, existing harm reduction services. To optimize overdose/COVID-19/STBBI's prevention services, additional supports (e.g., changes to Good Samaritan Laws) are needed. The criminalization of drug use may limit uptake of formal spotting services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communication , Drug Overdose/therapy , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Crime , Emergency Treatment , Fear , Harm Reduction , Humans , Needle-Exchange Programs , Nova Scotia , Ontario , Social Stigma , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Open Heart ; 8(1)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269804

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prior diagnosis of heart failure (HF) is associated with increased length of hospital stay (LOS) and mortality from COVID-19. Associations between substance use, venous thromboembolism (VTE) or peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and its effects on LOS or mortality in patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19 remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study identified risk factors associated with poor in-hospital outcomes among patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19. METHODS: Case-control study was conducted of patients with prior diagnosis of HF hospitalised with COVID-19 at an academic tertiary care centre from 1 January 2020 to 28 February 2021. Patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19 with risk factors were compared with those without risk factors for clinical characteristics, LOS and mortality. Multivariate regression was conducted to identify multiple predictors of increased LOS and in-hospital mortality in patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19. RESULTS: Total of 211 patients with HF were hospitalised with COVID-19. Women had longer LOS than men (9 days vs 7 days; p<0.001). Compared with patients without PAD or ischaemic stroke, patients with PAD or ischaemic stroke had longer LOS (7 days vs 9 days; p=0.012 and 7 days vs 11 days, p<0.001, respectively). Older patients (aged 65 and above) had increased in-hospital mortality compared with younger patients (adjusted OR: 1.04; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.07; p=0.036). Prior diagnosis of VTE increased mortality more than threefold in patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19 (adjusted OR: 3.33; 95% CI 1.29 to 8.43; p=0.011). CONCLUSION: Vascular diseases increase LOS and mortality in patients with HF hospitalised with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity/trends , Heart Failure/mortality , Vascular Diseases/complications , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/drug therapy , Heart Failure/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Peripheral Arterial Disease/complications , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Venous Thromboembolism/complications
19.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 34(4): 386-392, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232246

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV2) infection rates are currently occurring at alarmingly accelerated rates. There is also a long-standing and concurrent rise in the prevalence and severity of substance use disorders (SUD). Therefore, the intersection between these two conditions needs to be carefully considered to ensure a more effective delivery of healthcare. RECENT FINDINGS: Generally, those with SUDs are more likely to have higher risk social determinants of health factors. Therefore, these patients are more likely to have barriers that can create difficulties in following appropriate infection control measures which in turn increases the risk of exposure to SARS-CoV2. In addition, these individuals have higher rates of medical comorbidities which increases the risk of all adverse outcomes, including mortality, from SARS-CoV2 infection. SUMMARY: Individuals with SUDs are at increased risk of both contracting SARS-CoV2 infection and suffering from worse outcomes afterwards. Though these risks of adverse outcomes are specific of SARS-CoV2 infection, the risk of exposure to other infectious diseases is increased in this population too. Healthcare providers and policymakers should then consider how to better protect this at-risk population and alleviate this increased disease burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Patient Outcome Assessment , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , RNA, Viral , Risk , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/pathology
20.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248495, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1133693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly contagious viral infection, and it has negative effects on public health. The practice of preventive measures of the disease supports containment processes of the spread of coronavirus. However, the practice of preventive measures is affected by several associated risk factors. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the associated factors that limit the youths' practice of preventive measures against COVID-19 in the study area. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted. The study used a quantitative approach for collecting data from 384 youths using a survey method. Not practicing preventive measures was measured to determine whether or not youths applied hygiene practices, kept their distance, restricted their movements, and sought self-help or support in the past two months. Descriptive statistics were used to assess the distribution of study participants, and a binary regression model was executed to examine the association factors with inability to practice preventive measures with a p-value < 0.05 statistically significant. RESULTS: Male youths (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 0.06; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.16) were less likely to practice preventive measures. Older youth (AOR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.56), with higher education level (AOR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.06), and who had higher income (AOR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.78) were more likely to practice preventive measures. Further, the belief in the body's immunity to resist the disease (AOR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.67), lack of paying attention to the disease (AOR = 0.07; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.73), ignorance of evidence to the disease (AOR = 0.31; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.74), ease of restriction of movements (AOR = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.72), lack of sensitization to actions in the community (AOR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.96), and substance use (AOR = 0.11; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.21) were other factors that were inversely related to practicing preventive measures. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggested that more intervention efforts, by either communicating to or reaching out all groups, should be employed. All segments of the population should be equipped with the facts that effectively support them practice preventive measures against the disease. Finally, the results suggested that youths should abstain from substance use, keep their distance in their pastime and avoid crowdings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Disinfection , Educational Status , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Odds Ratio , Pilot Projects , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/pathology , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL