Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 293
Filter
1.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277438, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119313

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has worsened the mental health and substance use challenges among many people who are Two Spirit, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, questioning, and intersex (2SLGBTQI+). We aimed to identify the important correlates and their effects on the predicted likelihood of wanting to seek help among 2SLGBTQI+ young adults for mental health or substance use concerns during the pandemic. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2020-2021 among 2SLGBTQI+ young adults aged 16-29 living in two Canadian provinces (Ontario and Quebec). Among 1414 participants, 77% (n = 1089) wanted to seek help for their mental health or substance use concerns during the pandemic, out of these, 69.8% (n = 760) reported delay in accessing care. We built a random forest (RF) model to predict the status of wanting to seek help, which achieved moderately high performance with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.85. The top 10 correlates of wanting to seek help were worsening mental health, age, stigma and discrimination, and adverse childhood experiences. The interactions of adequate housing with certain sexual orientations, gender identities and mental health challenges were found to increase the likelihood of wanting to seek help. We built another RF model for predicting risk of delay in accessing care among participants who wanted to seek help (n = 1089). The model identified a similar set of top 10 correlates of delay in accessing care but lacked adequate performance (AUC 0.61). These findings can direct future research and targeted prevention measures to reduce health disparities for 2SLGBTQI+ young adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Substance-Related Disorders , Female , Young Adult , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Machine Learning , Ontario
2.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 711, 2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116827

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Suicide is one of the most important and increasing public health agenda around the world. Since the COVID-19 pandemic, concerns have been raised about the potential adverse impacts of the pandemic on suicide-related outcomes. The main objective of this study was to examine the association of psychosocial risk factors (mental health illnesses and social isolation) and substance use behaviors (cannabis and alcohol consumption) with suicidal ideation during the COVID-19 pandemic among Canadian adults. METHODS: The study was conducted based on a total of 4005 persons 18 years of age or older, living in Canada's ten provinces. The data used in this study were collected during April 20-28, 2021, by Mental Health Research Canada. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association of mental health conditions (anxiety, depression, and other mood disorder) before and since COVID-19 outbreaks, social isolation and living arrangement, as well as cannabis and alcohol consumption with suicidal ideation during COVID-19. RESULTS: The results of adjusted logistic regression showed that the odds of suicidal ideation were 1.526 times higher (95% CI:1.082-2.152) among those who reported continued negative impacts of social isolation. The odds of suicidal ideation were also higher for those who were diagnosed as having depression before (OR = 3.136, 95% CI: 2.376-4.138) and since the COVID-19 pandemic (OR = 3.019, 95% CI:1.929-4.726) and 1.627 times higher (95% CI: 1.225-2.163) for those who were diagnosed as having anxiety before the COVID-19 pandemic. Those who reported having increased and those who were consuming cannabis during the pandemic were 1.970 (95% CI: 1.463-2.653) and 1.509 times (95% CI: 1.158-1.966) more likely to have thought of suicide than non-takers, respectively. CONCLUSION: Given the significant associations of psychosocial factors (mental health illnesses and social isolation) and cannabis use with suicidal ideation, more attention and support need to be given to adults who had mental health conditions before and since COVID-19, those who were negatively impacted by social isolation, and those are exposed to substance use (cannabis).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hallucinogens , Substance-Related Disorders , Adult , Humans , Adolescent , Suicidal Ideation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Canada/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
3.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 17(1): 73, 2022 Nov 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2108856

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 dramatically limited the scale and scope of local health department (LHD) work, redirecting resources to the response. However, the need for essential public health services-including substance use prevention-was not reduced. METHODS: We examined six quantitative data sources, collected between 2016 and 2021, to explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on LHD substance use-related services. RESULTS: Before the pandemic, the proportion of LHDs providing some level of substance use prevention services was increasing, and many were expanding their level of provision. During the pandemic, 65% of LHDs reduced their level of substance use-related service provision, but the proportion of LHDs providing some level of services remained steady from prior to COVID-19. CONCLUSION: We discuss policy recommendations to mitigate the risk of service disruptions during future public health emergencies, including direct and flexible funding for LHDs and federal directives declaring substance use prevention services as essential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Local Government , Public Health , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control
4.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 34(4): 334-340, 2022 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097519

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Substance use is common in adolescence and has distinct developmental, cognitive, and health consequences. Over the last 2 years, the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has isolated adolescents, disrupted typical developmental milestones, and caused pervasive stress and anxiety. Healthcare providers can help by recognizing and addressing these effects on adolescent mental health and substance use. This update reviews the immediate effects of the pandemic on adolescent substance use, potential future implications, and opportunities to use new strategies to improve care for adolescents with problematic use. RECENT FINDINGS: Initial findings suggest that fewer teens started using substances during the pandemic. This was likely influenced by stay at home orders that reduced opportunities for social use. However, increased time at home was not beneficial for all adolescents. Furthermore, adolescents who used substances prepandemic, experienced material hardship, or reported higher pandemic-related stress tended to intensify substance use during this time. SUMMARY: The adverse effects of pandemic isolation, anxiety, and developmental disruption will likely have consequences for adolescent substance use for many years to come. To comprehensively address adolescent health, healthcare providers can be sensitive to these realities and use existing screening and brief intervention strategies to address use. Innovative telehealth strategies that allow for the expansion of substance use treatment offer promising opportunities to improve care for adolescents with substance use disorder.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Adolescent , Adolescent Behavior/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy
5.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 46(8): 1539-1551, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088105

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research conducted during the COVID-19 Pandemic has identified two co-occurring public health concerns: loneliness and substance use. Findings from research conducted prior to the pandemic are inconclusive as to the links between loneliness and substance use. This study aimed to measure associations of loneliness with three different types of substance use during COVID-19: daily number of alcoholic drinks, cannabis use, and non-cannabis drug use. METHOD: Data were obtained between October 2020 and May 2021 from 2,648 US adults (Mage  = 38.76, 65.4% women) diverse with respect to race and ethnicity using online recruitment. Participants completed baseline surveys and daily assessments for 30 days. A daily loneliness measure was recoded into separate within- and between-person predictor variables. Daily outcome measures included the number of alcoholic drinks consumed and dichotomous cannabis and non-cannabis drug use variables. Generalized linear multilevel models (GLMLM) were used to examine within- and between-person associations between loneliness and substance use. RESULTS: The unconditional means model indicated that 59.0% of the variance in the daily number of alcoholic drinks was due to within-person variability. GLMLM analyses revealed that, overall, people drank more on days when they felt a particularly high or particularly low degree of loneliness (positive quadratic effect). There was a negative and significant within-person association between daily loneliness and the likelihood of cannabis use. There was also a positive and significant within-person association between daily loneliness and the likelihood of non-cannabis drug use. CONCLUSIONS: Associations between loneliness and substance use vary with substance type and whether within- or between-person differences are assessed. These findings are relevant to the persistence of substance use disorders and thus of potential clinical importance. Individuals who do not experience severe loneliness at intake but who show daily increases in loneliness above baseline levels are at heightened risk of alcohol and non-cannabis drug use. Future research could profitably examine just-in-time adaptive interventions that assess fluctuations in loneliness to prevent the development or exacerbation of substance use disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabis , Substance-Related Disorders , Adult , Alcohol Drinking , Ethanol , Female , Humans , Loneliness , Male , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
6.
J Psychiatr Res ; 155: 443-450, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086486

ABSTRACT

Although research has examined disparities in suicidal ideation across multiple groups, few investigations have analyzed such disparities in the context of COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, there is limited research on differences within and across countries, further limiting the extent to which meaningful comparisons can be made. Therefore, this study examines risk and protective factors of suicidal ideation during COVID-19 lockdown in adults across five countries. Adults (N = 2,509) from the United States, Italy, Spain, Saudi Arabia, and India completed a survey to measure suicidal ideation, recent drug use, and sociodemographic factors. Prevalence of suicidal ideation was assessed using simple and multivariable logistic regression models, and severity of suicidal ideation was analyzed via a multinomial multivariable logistic regression. Cohen's d statistics were reported for all analyses to report effect size. In the United States subsample, racial/ethnic minorities endorsed a significantly greater prevalence of suicidal ideation compared to their White peers (aOR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.26-4.27, d = 0.46). However, no significant racial differences in suicidal ideation were found in other countries. Past 90-day illicit drug use was associated with greater prevalence (aOR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.06-1.80, d = 0.18) and severity (aRRR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.33-3.53, (aRRR = 0.43) of suicidal ideation during COVID-19 lockdown. This study further highlights the social disparities that exist in suicidal ideation during COVID-19 lockdown in international samples, for which greater medical and mental health interventions are critical. As such, targeted multicomponent interventions that address substance use are important for reducing the rising prevalence and severity of COVID-related suicidal ideation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Illicit Drugs , Substance-Related Disorders , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Suicidal Ideation , United States/epidemiology
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082075

ABSTRACT

The final year of high school is a challenging phase of adolescents' lives and substance use can play an important role. We examined changes in the frequency and quantity of alcohol and cannabis use, and demographic correlates among Grade 12 students of 2020. Students (N = 844) from nine schools retrospectively self-reported changes in substance use after the easing of COVID-19 lockdowns (back to school), compared to before the pandemic. Changes in use were examined with age, gender, Aboriginal or Torres Islander, parental and family characteristics, and truancy. Thirty-one percent of students reported that they used alcohol less frequently, and 24% reported that they used it more frequently compared to pre-COVID-19. Most students (46%) reported that they used cannabis less, while a subset reported using more frequently (22%). A history of truancy was associated with an increased frequency (OR = 2.13 [1.18-3.83]) of cannabis use. A substantial minority of adolescents used more alcohol and cannabis after the initial COVID-19 lockdown period. Students in their final year who reported increased use may benefit from increased support to manage their substance use.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Adolescent , Self Report , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Communicable Disease Control , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking
8.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 91(3): 261-268, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the impact of social distancing on health-related quality of life and depressive symptoms in older people with HIV during the COVID-19 pandemic. SETTING: HIV-positive and HIV-negative AGEhIV Cohort Study participants. METHOD: In September-November 2020, participants completed questionnaires on social distancing, change in substance use, health-related quality of life (EQ-6D, including EQ-VAS), and depressive symptoms (PHQ-9). Associations between social distancing and (1) EQ-VAS or (2) PHQ-9 score ≥10 (clinically relevant depressive symptoms) were analyzed using fractional and binomial logistic regression, respectively. RESULTS: Two hundred fourteen HIV-positive and 285 HIV-negative participants were analyzed. 77.4% found social distancing important and 66.9% reported good adherence to these measures, without significant differences between HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants. In both groups, <5% reported increased smoking or recreational drug use, but more HIV-positive (12.2%) than HIV-negative (4.9%) participants (P = 0.005) reported increased/more frequent alcohol use. Median EQ-VAS was slightly lower in HIV-positive (80 IQR = 73-90) than HIV-negative (84 IQR = 75-90) participants (P = 0.041). The prevalence of clinically relevant depressive symptoms was similar (HIV-positive, 8.4% and HIV-negative, 8.8%). Worrying about contracting COVID-19 and having ≥3 (vs no) comorbidities were associated with lower EQ-VAS and finding social distancing easy with higher EQ-VAS. Worrying about contracting COVID-19 and younger than 60 years (vs ≥65) were associated with higher odds of clinically relevant depressive symptoms. HIV status was associated with neither outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Initially during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Netherlands, a similar majority of HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants reported adhering to social distancing. Irrespective of HIV status, concerns about contracting COVID-19 negatively affected participants' perceived current health and increased risk of depressive symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Substance-Related Disorders , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Depression/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Quality of Life , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066062

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The measures taken to contain the COVID-19 pandemic have led to significant changes in people's daily lives. This paper examines changes in substance use during the first lockdown (March-July 2020) and investigates mental health burdens in substance users with increased consumption of alcohol, nicotine or tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in Germany compared to users with unchanged or reduced consumption. METHOD: In a cross-sectional online survey, 2369 people were asked about their mental health and their substance use during the first lockdown in Germany. RESULTS: Of the participants, 28.5% increased their alcohol use, 28.8% their use of tobacco products, and 20.6% their use of THC-containing products during the pandemic. The groups with increased alcohol, nicotine, and THC use during the first lockdown reported more depressive symptoms and anxiety. Individuals who reported increased consumption of alcohol or nicotine were also more likely to experience loneliness and have suicidal thoughts and were more often stressed due to social distancing. CONCLUSION: Alcohol, nicotine and THC increased in a subgroup of consumers who reported to have more mental health problems compared to individuals who did not increase their consumption. This increased substance use could, therefore, be understood as a dysfunctional strategy to cope with negative emotions during the lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dronabinol , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Nicotine , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
10.
Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am ; 31(2): 223-236, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060526

ABSTRACT

Minoritized youth have lower prevalence rates of substance use disorders (SUD) compared with White peers, but proportionally those that are diagnosed are less likely to engage in specialized care and there are few culturally responsive treatments or programs available. We examine social determinants of SUD, with emphasis on the impact of trauma, including racial trauma, and include an intersectional approach incorporating race, ethnicity, and gender. This review of the literature highlights evidence-based effective clinical practice as examples for the field in developing therapeutic approaches to SUD for this population.


Subject(s)
Substance-Related Disorders , Adolescent , Evidence-Based Practice , Humans , Peer Group , Prevalence , Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy
11.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 42(11-12): 479-489, 2022 11 16.
Article in English, French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056841

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: As a largely social behaviour, substance use may have decreased for some youth overall in Canada during the COVID-19 pandemic; however, continued use may indicate nonadherence to pandemic-related restrictions and social distancing measures. In a sample of Canadian adolescents (aged 12-19 years), our objective was to examine how substance use (cannabis, binge drinking, cigarettes, vaping) is associated with perceptions of, and adherence to, early COVID-19-related public health measures, taking into consideration sociodemographic factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were retrieved from online data collected during Year 8 of the COMPASS school-based study, during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic (May-July 2020) in British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec. We fitted two models using generalized estimating equations to examine how substance use was associated with separate measures of (1) perceptions of, and (2) adherence to early COVID-19 restrictions. RESULTS: In our sample, 10% of adolescents perceived COVID-19 restrictions as too weak and 14% perceived them as too strict. Nearly half (46%) reported taking restrictions very seriously, and 5% did not take them seriously at all. Binge drinking, cigarette use and vaping were associated with perceptions that restrictions were too strict and with nonadherence. However, adolescents who used cannabis were less likely to perceive COVID-19-related restrictions as too strict. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the association of adolescent substance use with perceptions of, and adherence to, COVID-19-related public health restrictions in Canada. Our findings emphasize a need for continual monitoring of substance use behaviours during the COVID-19 pandemic to better characterize adolescent risk and further inform targeted public health strategies accordingly.


Subject(s)
Binge Drinking , COVID-19 , Cannabis , Substance-Related Disorders , Adolescent , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , Binge Drinking/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Canada/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , British Columbia
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2055239

ABSTRACT

A crisis of worsening youth mental health in recent years across the United States has created alarm among health professionals. As a result, health professionals have sought to improve methods of identifying youth in need of treatment services. Cigarette, cannabis, and alcohol use each consistently serve as behavioral markers of risk for youth mental health problems. Despite the recent growth of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use among youth, few studies have examined whether e-cigarettes follow the same associational pattern with mental health problems in the context of other substance use. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic may have altered the associations between youth substance use and mental health problems due to both reduced overall use and increased mental health problems after the onset of the pandemic. The current study examined associations between youth substance use and psychological distress before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic using two state-representative samples of youth in grades 8, 10, and 12 from 2019 (N = 58,689) and 2021 (N = 46,823) from Utah. Pooled cross-sectional linear and negative binomial regression models clustered by grade, stratified by school district, and weighted to represent population characteristics estimated associations between recent e-cigarette, combustible cigarette, cannabis, and heavy alcohol use and two measures of psychological distress-depressive symptoms and mental health treatment needs. After controlling for sociodemographic factors and recent uses of other substances, results indicated that psychological distress increased from 2019 to 2021 and that recent e-cigarette, combustible cigarette, cannabis, and heavy alcohol use were each significantly associated with increased levels on both measures of psychological distress. Compared to other substances, e-cigarette use showed the strongest standardized associations. The association of e-cigarette use with depressive symptoms strengthened significantly from 2019 to 2021. Given the youth mental health crisis paired with the widespread adoption of e-cigarettes, health professionals should consider recent e-cigarette use an increasingly important behavioral marker for risks of mental health problems among youth. Results suggest that future research studies examining the temporal ordering of substance use and mental health among youth should include e-cigarettes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Psychological Distress , Substance-Related Disorders , Vaping , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Vaping/epidemiology , Vaping/psychology
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043747

ABSTRACT

The United States is experiencing a syndemic of homelessness, substance use disorder, and mental health conditions, which has been further exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Although it is expected that mitigation strategies will curb community transmission of COVID-19, the unintended consequences of social isolation on mental health and substance use are a growing public health concern. Awareness of changing mental health and substance use treatment needs due to the pandemic is critical to understanding what additional services and support are needed during and post-pandemic, particularly among people experiencing homelessness who have pre-existing serious mental illness or substance use disorder. To evaluate these effects and support our understanding of mental health and substance use outcomes of the COVID-19 pandemic, we conducted a qualitative study where behavioral health providers serving people experiencing homelessness described the impact of COVID-19 among their clients throughout the United States. Behavioral health providers shared that experiencing social isolation worsened mental health conditions and caused some people to return to substance use and fatally overdose. However, some changes initiated during the pandemic resulted in positive outcomes, such as increased client willingness to discuss mental health topics. Our findings provide additional evidence that the social isolation experienced during the pandemic has been detrimental to mental health and substance use outcomes, especially for people experiencing homelessness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeless Persons , Substance-Related Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Homeless Persons/psychology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Social Isolation , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
14.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270582, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039347

ABSTRACT

The beginning of the U.S. COVID-19 pandemic interrupted integral services and supports for those in recovery from substance use disorders. The current study used qualitative and quantitative data to identify 1) pandemic-related barriers/stressors, 2) coping strategies employed, and 3) how the stressors and strategies predicted subsequent substance use frequency. Participants were 48 adults (40.5% female; 90.2% White) between 26 and 60 years old (M = 42.66, SD = 8.44) who were part of a larger, multi-year longitudinal study of individuals in recovery from substance use disorders. Individuals completed two interviews, one during the six weeks of initial stay-at-home orders in the state in which data were collected and the second within six to twelve months of their initial interview. Common barriers to recovery included cancelled support meetings, changes in job format (i.e., being fired or furloughed), and lack of social support. Common coping strategies included self-care, leisure activities/hobbies, taking caution against exposure, and strengthening personal relationships. The relationship between cravings at baseline and substance use at follow up was stronger for those who experienced worsening of their mental health (B = 21.80, p < .01) than for those who did not (B = 5.45, p = 0.09), and for those who were taking caution against exposure (B = 24.57, p < .01) than for those who were not (B = 1.87, p = 0.53). Those who engaged in self-care (B = 0.00, p>.99) had lower rates of substance use at follow-up than those who did not employ self-care as a coping mechanism (B = 16.10, p < .01). These findings inform research priorities regarding prospective effects of the pandemic on treatment endeavors, particularly emphasizing treating mental health and encouraging self-care strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
15.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0267724, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039311

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has potential for long-lasting effects on college students' well-being. We examine changes from just before to during the pandemic in indicators of health and well-being and comprehensive profiles of health and well-being, along with links between covariates and profiles during the pandemic. PARTICIPANTS: 1,004 students participated in a longitudinal study that began in November 2019. METHODS: Latent class analysis identified health and well-being profiles at both waves; covariates were included in relation to class membership. RESULTS: Mental health problems increased, whereas substance use, sexual behavior, physical inactivity, and food insecurity decreased. Six well-being classes were identified at each wave. Baseline class membership, sociodemographic characteristics, living situation, ethnicity, coping strategies, and belongingness were associated with profile membership at follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 has had significant and differential impacts on today's students; their health and well-being should be considered holistically when understanding and addressing long-term effects of this pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Students/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
16.
J Urban Health ; 99(5): 936-940, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2035258

ABSTRACT

This study examined the characteristics of US tenants who reported delaying rent payments during the eviction moratoria in 2020 in respond to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A nationally representative sample of 3393 US tenants was assessed from May to June 2020 during a period that eviction moratoria were issued across the country. In the total sample, 22.9% of US tenants reported they delayed paying rent because of the eviction moratoria. Tenants who delayed paying rent were nearly 7 times as likely to be at risk of eviction, more than 3 times as likely to endorse recent suicidal ideation, and 1.6 times as likely to report recent illicit drug use compared to tenants who did not delay paying rent. These findings highlight the health and social needs of tenants in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Illicit Drugs , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Suicidal Ideation
18.
Arch Psychiatr Nurs ; 41: 359-367, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031121

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of increased psychoactive substance use (PSU) and associated factors among health care professionals. A cross-sectional and analytical study with 12,086 Brazilian health professionals was undertaken. An online questionnaire was used to gather data concerning sociodemographic factors, increased consumption of alcoholic beverages, tobacco, and hypnotics or sedatives during the COVID-19 pandemic. The prevalence of tobacco, alcoholic beverages, and hypnotic or sedative consumption were 17.8 %, 69.0 % and 17.1 %, respectively. Regression analyses indicated that having no religion and social isolation were associated with increased PASU during the pandemic. COVID-19 pandemic stressors may increase PASU, and increased PASU may increase the risk of substance use disorders and substance use-related chronic diseases, such as cancer.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Brazil/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Health Personnel
19.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 83(5)2022 08 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024669

ABSTRACT

Objective: While psychiatric disorders have been recognized as a risk factor for COVID-19 outcomes, the impact of substance use disorders (SUD) on COVID-19 outcomes has not, to date, been examined in a systematic manner. We examined the association between SUD (cannabis, cocaine, alcohol, opioid, and benzodiazepine) as well as psychiatric diagnoses (schizophrenia, mood disorders, anxiety disorders) and COVID-19 outcomes in a large, retrospective cohort study.Methods: COVID-19-positive patients admitted to a large health care system in the US between January and December 2020 were included in this study. SUD and psychiatric diagnoses were identified from urine toxicology reports and ICD-10 diagnosis codes in the electronic medical record, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was performed controlling for potential confounders such as age, race, sex, smoking status, and medical comorbidities. COVID-19-relevant outcomes included mortality, need for intensive care unit (ICU) admission, need for ventilatory support, length of hospitalization, and number of hospitalizations.Results: Among COVID-19 patients (N = 6,291), those with SUD were more likely to require ICU admission (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.46, P = .003) and ventilatory support (AOR = 1.49, P = .01). The association between SUD and ICU admission was driven by alcohol use disorder (AUD), whereas that between SUD and ventilatory support was driven by both AUD and opioid use disorder (OUD). Patients with SUD were more likely to have a longer mean maximum length of hospitalization (11.32 vs 8.62 days, P < .0001) and a greater mean number of hospital admissions in 2020 (2.96 vs 2.33, P < .0001). These associations were significant for cannabis use disorder, AUD, OUD, and benzodiazepine use disorder. The association with greater number of admissions was also significant for cocaine use disorder. Patients with psychiatric diagnoses were also more likely to have a greater maximum length of hospitalization (11.93 vs 8.39 days, P < .0001) and hospital admissions (2.72 vs 2.31, P < .0001). These associations were significant for schizophrenia, mood disorders, and anxiety disorders.Conclusions: COVID-19 patients with SUD had greater likelihood of requiring critical interventions, such as ICU admission and ventilatory support. SUD and psychiatric diagnoses were also associated with a longer duration of hospitalization and greater number of hospital admissions. These findings identify COVID-19 patients with SUD and psychiatric comorbidities as a high-risk group.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Cannabis , Cocaine , Hallucinogens , Opioid-Related Disorders , Substance-Related Disorders , Alcoholism/complications , Benzodiazepines , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Opioid-Related Disorders/complications , Opioid-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
20.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604684, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023039

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To record the prevalence and risk factors of substance use amongst homeless persons during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: The ECHO study consisted in two independent cross-sectional waves of data collection in the regions of Paris, Lyon, and Strasbourg during the Spring of 2020 (n = 530) and 2021 (n = 319). Factors associated with substance use were explored using generalised logistic regression models. Results: The most prevalent substance used was tobacco (38%-43%), followed by alcohol (26%-34%). The use of both substances positively associated with each other, although risk factors varied depending on the substance. The only factors consistently associated with alcohol and tobacco use were being male, exposure to theft/assault and participants' region of origin. Whilst the rate of tobacco use was relatively stable between Spring 2020 and 2021, alcohol use was more common in 2021. Conclusion: These findings highlight a high prevalence of substance use amongst homeless persons. People experiencing homelessness face specific challenges in the context of the pandemic, alongside greater vulnerability to illness and low healthcare access, therefore the need to improve prevention and support services for substance abuse within this population is vital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeless Persons , Substance-Related Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL