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2.
Lancet ; 398(10303): 920-930, 2021 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593950

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has heightened interest in how physician mental health can be protected and optimised, but uncertainty and misinformation remain about some key issues. In this Review, we discuss the current literature, which shows that despite what might be inferred during training, physicians are not immune to mental illness, with between a quarter and a third reporting increased symptoms of mental ill health. Physicians, particularly female physicians, are at an increased risk of suicide. An emerging consensus exists that some aspects of physician training, working conditions, and organisational support are unacceptable. Changes in medical training and health systems, and the additional strain of working through a pandemic, might have amplified these problems. A new evidence-informed framework for how individual and organisational interventions can be used in an integrated manner in medical schools, in health-care settings, and by professional colleagues is proposed. New initiatives are required at each of these levels, with an urgent need for organisational-level interventions, to better protect the mental health and wellbeing of physicians.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Physicians/psychology , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Burnout, Professional , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/prevention & control , Pandemics , Physicians, Women/psychology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Suicide/prevention & control , Work Schedule Tolerance
3.
Psychiatry Res ; 307: 114327, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598218

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the mental health and substance use impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic among sexual and gender minority (SGM) populations as compared to non-SGM populations, and identifies risk factors for mental health and substance use impacts among SGM groups. Data were drawn from two rounds of a repeated cross-sectional monitoring survey of 6027 Canadian adults, with Round 1 conducted May 14-19, 2020 and Round 2 conducted September 14-21, 2020. Bivariate cross-tabulations with chi-square tests were utilized to identify differences in mental health and substance use outcomes between SGM and non-SGM groups. Separate multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for mental health and substance use outcomes for all SGM respondents. Compared to non-SGM respondents, a greater proportion of SGM participants reported mental health and substance use impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, including deterioration in mental health, poor coping, suicidal thoughts, self-harm, alcohol and cannabis use, and use of substances to cope. Among SGM respondents, various risk factors, including having a pre-existing mental health condition, were identified as associated with mental health and substance use impacts. These widening inequities demonstrate the need for tailored public mental health actions during and beyond the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Substance-Related Disorders , Adult , Canada/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1279, 2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538072

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Peer workers (those with lived/living experience of substance use working in overdose response settings) are at the forefront of overdose response initiatives in British Columbia (BC). Working in these settings can be stressful, with lasting social, mental and emotional impacts. Peer workers have also been disproportionately burdened by the current dual public health crises characterized by the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and rise in illicit drug overdose deaths. It is therefore critical to develop supports tailored specifically to their realities. METHODS: We used the six steps outlined in the Intervention Mapping (IM) framework to identify needs of peer workers and design an intervention model to support peer workers in overdose response settings. RESULTS: Eight peer-led focus groups were conducted in community settings to identify peer workers' needs and transcripts were analyzed using interpretive description. The strategies within the intervention model were informed by organizational development theory as well as by lived/living experience of peer workers. The support needs identified by peer workers were categorized into three key themes and these formed the basis of an intervention model titled 'ROSE'; R stands for Recognition of peer work, O for Organizational support, S for Skill development and E for Everyone. The ROSE model aims to facilitate cultural changes within organizations, leading towards more equitable and just workplaces for peer workers. This, in turn, has the potential for positive socio-ecological impact. CONCLUSIONS: Centering lived/living experience in the intervention mapping process led us to develop a framework for supporting peer workers in BC. The ROSE model can be used as a baseline for other organizations employing peer workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Overdose , Substance-Related Disorders , Drug Overdose/epidemiology , Drug Overdose/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Peer Group , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
5.
Clin Ter ; 172(6): 525-526, 2021 Nov 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534515

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Our lives and communities have been besieged by COVID-19 for almost two years, and society and its functioning have been turned upside down and upset, through limitations and restrictions aimed at stemming the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. Severe levels of anxiety, distress and uncertainty have taken a huge toll on our daily lives from the social, professional and emotional perspectives, but it is still rather unclear how serious an impact the emergency has had on a class of particularly vulnerable individuals: those with substance abuse issues. Particularly, we would like to draw attention to a uniquely troublesome development: forced isolation resulting from pandemic-related restrictions and how it has impacted drug users and their efforts to achieve recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
6.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E988-E997, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524571

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The extent to which heightened distress during the COVID-19 pandemic translated to increases in severe mental health outcomes is unknown. We examined trends in psychiatric presentations to acute care settings in the first 12 months after onset of the pandemic. METHODS: This was a trends analysis of administrative population data in Ontario, Canada. We examined rates of hospitalizations and emergency department visits for mental health diagnoses overall and stratified by sex, age and diagnostic grouping (e.g., mood disorders, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders), as well as visits for intentional self-injury for people aged 10 to 105 years, from January 2019 to March 2021. We used Joinpoint regression to identify significant inflection points after the onset of the pandemic in March 2020. RESULTS: Among the 12 968 100 people included in our analysis, rates of mental health-related hospitalizations and emergency department visits declined immediately after the onset of the pandemic (peak overall decline of 30% [hospitalizations] and 37% [emergency department visits] compared to April 2019) and returned to near prepandemic levels by March 2021. Compared to April 2019, visits for intentional self-injury declined by 33% and remained below prepandemic levels until March 2021. We observed the largest declines in service use among adolescents aged 14 to 17 years (55% decline in hospitalizations, 58% decline in emergency department visits) and 10 to 13 years (56% decline in self-injury), and for those with substance-related disorders (33% decline in emergency department visits) and anxiety disorders (61% decline in hospitalizations). INTERPRETATION: Contrary to expectations, the abrupt decline in acute mental health service use immediately after the onset of the pandemic and the return to near prepandemic levels that we observed suggest that changes and stressors in the first 12 months of the pandemic did not translate to increased service use. Continued surveillance of acute mental health service use is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health Services/trends , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Child , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Ontario/epidemiology , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(11): e29319, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506455

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Substance use is a risk factor for COVID-19 infection and adverse outcomes. However, reasons for elevated risk for COVID-19 in substance users are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether alcohol or other drug use is associated with adherence to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines for COVID-19 mitigation. Preregistered analyses tested the hypothesis that greater use of alcohol and other drugs would be associated with lower CDC guideline adherence. A secondary objective was to determine whether substance use was associated with the likelihood of COVID-19 testing or outcome. METHODS: A cross-sectional web-based survey was administered to a convenience sample recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk platform from June 18 to July 19, 2020. Individuals aged 18 years or older and residing in Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, or Rhode Island were eligible to participate. The exposure of interest was past 7-day use of alcohol, cigarettes, electronic cigarettes, cannabis, stimulants, and nonmedical opioids. The primary outcome was CDC guideline adherence measured using a scale developed from behaviors advised to reduce the spread of COVID-19. Secondary outcomes were likelihood of COVID-19 testing and a positive COVID-19 test result. All analyses accounted for the sociodemographic characteristics. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 1084 individuals (mean age 40.9 [SD 13.4] years): 529 (48.8%) men, 543 (50.1%) women, 12 (1.1%) other gender identity, 742 (68.5%) White individuals, 267 (24.6%) Black individuals, and 276 (25.5%) Hispanic individuals. Daily opioid users reported lower CDC guideline adherence than nondaily users (B=-0.24, 95% CI -0.44 to -0.05) and nonusers (B=-0.57, 95% CI -0.76 to -0.38). Daily alcohol drinkers reported lower adherence than nondaily drinkers (B=-0.16, 95% CI -0.30 to -0.02). Nondaily alcohol drinkers reported higher adherence than nondrinkers (B=0.10, 95% CI 0.02-0.17). Daily opioid use was related to greater odds of COVID-19 testing, and daily stimulant use was related to greater odds of a positive COVID-19 test. CONCLUSIONS: In a regionally-specific, racially, and ethnically diverse convenience sample, adults who engaged in daily alcohol or opioid use reported lower CDC guideline adherence for COVID-19 mitigation. Any opioid use was associated with greater odds of COVID-19 testing, and daily stimulant use was associated with greater odds of COVID-19 infection. Cigarettes, electronic cigarettes, cannabis, or stimulant use were not statistically associated with CDC guideline adherence, after accounting for sociodemographic covariates and other substance use variables. Findings support further investigation into whether COVID-19 testing and vaccination should be expanded among individuals with substance-related risk factors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Substance-Related Disorders , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Gender Identity , Humans , Internet , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502429

ABSTRACT

The main objective of the research was to examine the associations between problematic alcohol use, tobacco use and cannabis use among Czech and Slovak university students during the early COVID-19 pandemic. The research sample consisted of 1422 participants from the Czech Republic (CZ) and 1677 from the Slovak Republic (SK). The analyses included university students who drank alcohol in the past year (CZ: 1323 (93%); SK: 1526 (91%)). Regarding the analysed measures, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and its subscales, the Glover-Nilsson Smoking Behavioral Questionnaire (GN-SBQ) and the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) were selected to identify substance-related behaviour. Age, gender and residence were included in the analyses as socio-demographic variables. Correlation and regression analyses were used to achieve the main objective of the research. The main results revealed that the use of tobacco and cannabis were positively associated with alcohol use disorders among Czech and Slovak university students. Additionally, males were more likely to report alcohol use disorders. In the Czech Republic, it was found that students living in dormitories were characterized by a lower AUDIT score. The opposite situation was found in the Slovak Republic. Czech and Slovak policy-makers are encouraged to develop alcohol use prevention programs for university students in line with these findings.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Cannabis , Substance-Related Disorders , Alcohol Drinking , Cross-Sectional Studies , Czech Republic/epidemiology , Demography , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Slovakia/epidemiology , Students , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Tobacco Use , Universities
9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1742, 2021 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496156

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Substance use among young people is a significant public health concern, particularly in Scotland. Primary prevention activities are essential in delaying young people's substance use and reducing the harms associated with use. However, such prevention activities are generally lacking. The Icelandic Model (IM) has received increasing attention and has been associated with improvements in substance use in Iceland since the 1990s. There is interest in implementing the IM in Scotland but concerns regarding transferability. This research study aimed to address a gap in the evidence base by providing insight into stakeholders' views of the IM in Dundee and more widely in Scotland. METHODS: Qualitative data were collected via semi-structured telephone interviews with 16 stakeholders. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis in NVivo, informed by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research. RESULTS: Participants were keen for more prevention activities to be delivered in Scotland and were generally supportive of the IM, given the high rates of substance use and related harm. A range of positive factors were identified, including the evidence base, the multi-component nature of the IM, and availability of current services that could be embedded into delivery. Several barriers were noted, relating to funding, the franchise model, support and buy-in and cultural differences. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide insight into the views of a range of stakeholders regarding the potential implementation of the IM in Scotland, and perceived barriers and facilitators. There is a desire for primary prevention activities in Scotland, driven by concerns about high rates of substance use and related harms, and a general lack of effective and evidence based prevention activities across the country. Several key barriers would need to be addressed in order for implementation to be successful, and participants were clear that initial piloting is required. Future research and evaluation is required to examine its potential and the outcomes of the approach in Scotland.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Adolescent , Humans , Iceland , Primary Prevention , Qualitative Research , Scotland , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e049209, 2021 10 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495463

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study analyses longitudinal data to understand how youth mental health and substance use are evolving over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, which is critical to adjusting mental health response strategies. SETTING: Participants were recruited from among existing participants in studies conducted in an urban academic hospital in Ontario, Canada. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 619 youth aged 14-28 years participated in the study (62.7% girls/young women; 61.4% Caucasian). MEASURES: Data on mood, substance use and COVID-19-related worries were collected over four time points, that is, every 2 months beginning in the early stages of the pandemic in April 2020. Latent class analyses were conducted on the longitudinal data to identify distinct groups of youth who have different trajectory profiles of pandemic impact on their mood, substance use and COVID-19-related worries. RESULTS: For the majority of participants, mood concerns increased early in the pandemic, declined over Canada's summer months and subsequently increased in autumn. Among the youth with the highest level of mood symptoms at the beginning of the pandemic, increases in mental health concerns were sustained. Substance use remained relatively stable over the course of the pandemic. COVID-19-related worries, however, followed a trajectory similar to that of mood symptoms. Girls/young women, youth living in urban or suburban areas, in larger households, and with poorer baseline mental and physical health are the most vulnerable to mental health concerns and worries during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Youth mental health symptom levels and concerns are evolving over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, in line with the evolution of the pandemic itself, and longitudinal monitoring is therefore required. It is also essential that we engage directly with youth to cocreate pandemic response strategies and mental health service adaptations to best meet the needs of young people.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Adolescent , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488563

ABSTRACT

Previous research has established that gender and sexual minority (2SLGBTQ+) youth experience worse mental health and substance use outcomes than their heterosexual and cisgender counterparts. Research suggests that mental health and substance use concerns have been exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. The current study used self-reported online survey responses from 1404 Canadian 2SLGBTQ+ youth which included, but were not limited to, questions regarding previous mental health experiences, diagnoses, and substance use. Additional questions assessed whether participants had expressed a need for mental health and/or substance use resources since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic (March 2020) and whether they had experienced barriers when accessing this care. Bivariate and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine associations between variables and expressing a need for resources as well as experiencing barriers to accessing these resources. Bivariate analyses revealed multiple sociodemographic, mental health, and substance use variables significantly associated with both expressing a need for and experiencing barriers to care. Multinomial regression analysis revealed gender identity, sexual orientation, ethnicity, and level of educational attainment to be significantly correlated with both cases. This study supports growing research on the mental health-related harms that have been experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic and could be used to inform tailored intervention plans for the 2SLGBTQ+ youth population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Adolescent , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Gender Identity , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
12.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E957-E965, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478466

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given the harms associated with tobacco use, continuing the provision of smoking cessation treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic is critical. The aim of this study was to examine pandemic-related changes in enrolment, total treatment use and participant characteristics in a large, publicly funded smoking cessation program in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We conducted a secondary data analysis of patients who enrolled in the program between Jan. 1, 2018, and Dec. 7, 2020. We used descriptive statistics to examine changes in treatment use. To test for differences in sociodemographic and health variables, we used segmented mixed-effects regression with a break point on Mar. 17, 2020, when Ontario declared a state of emergency. We tested 25 variables, using Holm's correction for multiplicity. RESULTS: We analyzed 60 373 enrolments. In the month after the break point, enrolments fell 69% and total visits fell 42% relative to previous years. After Mar. 17, 2020, those who enrolled were less likely to report employment in the previous week (absolute expected difference -12.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] -15.0% to -9.8%); were more likely to be occasional (1.3%, 95% CI 0.6% to 1.9%) or noncurrent smokers (1.7%, 95% CI 0.8% to 2.6%); were less likely to have set a target quit date (-4.8%, 95% CI -7.0% to -2.6%); and were more likely to have a physical health (6.6%, 95% CI 4.0% to 9.2%), mental health (4.6%, 95% CI 1.9% to 7.2%) or substance use diagnosis (3.5%, 95% CI 1.3% to 5.6%). INTERPRETATION: Sharp decreases in new enrolments and subsequent visits to smoking cessation programs were seen when pandemic restrictions were implemented in Ontario, but the characteristics of the people who accessed the programs did not change markedly. Incorporating an equity perspective is essential when new models of care for smoking cessation are developed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Smokers/statistics & numerical data , Smoking Cessation/statistics & numerical data , Smoking Prevention/methods , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking Cessation/methods , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Tobacco Use/prevention & control
14.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1678, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430414

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The well-being of people who use drugs (PWUD) continues to be threatened by substances of unknown type or quantity in the unregulated street drug supply. Current efforts to monitor the drug supply are limited in population reach and comparability. This restricts capacity to identify and develop measures that safeguard the health of PWUD. This study describes the development of a low-barrier system for monitoring the contents of drugs in the unregulated street supply. Early results for pilot sites are presented and compared across regions. METHODS: The drug content monitoring system integrates a low-barrier survey and broad spectrum urine toxicology screening to compare substances expected to be consumed and those actually in the drug supply. The system prototype was developed by harm reduction pilot projects in British Columbia (BC) and Montreal with participation of PWUD. Data were collected from harm reduction supply distribution site clients in BC, Edmonton and Montreal between May 2018-March 2019. Survey and urine toxicology data were linked via anonymous codes and analyzed descriptively by region for trends in self-reported and detected use. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 878 participants from 40 sites across 3 regions. Reported use of substances, their detection, and concordance between the two varied across regions. Methamphetamine use was reported and detected most frequently in BC (reported: 62.8%; detected: 72.2%) and Edmonton (58.3%; 68.8%). In Montreal, high concordance was also observed between reported (74.5%) and detected (86.5%) cocaine/crack use. Among those with fentanyl detected, the percentage of participants who used fentanyl unintentionally ranged from 36.1% in BC, 78.6% in Edmonton and 90.9% in Montreal. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to describe a feasible, scalable monitoring system for the unregulated drug supply that can contrast expected and actual drug use and compare trends across regions. The system used principles of flexibility, capacity-building and community participation in its design. Results are well-suited to meet the needs of PWUD and inform the local harm reduction services they rely on. Further standardization of the survey tool and knowledge mobilization is needed to expand the system to new jurisdictions.


Subject(s)
Drug Overdose , Illicit Drugs , Substance-Related Disorders , British Columbia/epidemiology , Fentanyl , Harm Reduction , Humans , Illicit Drugs/supply & distribution , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(18)2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409593

ABSTRACT

Unlike men, who are disproportionately affected by severe disease progression and mortality from COVID-19, women may be more affected by the economic, social and psychological consequences of the pandemic. Psychological distress and mental health problems are general risk factors for increases in the use of alcohol and other substances as a dysfunctional coping mechanism. METHODS: An analysis was carried out of the female subset (n = 2153) of a population-based, cross-sectional online survey (October-December 2020), covering the "second wave" of the COVID-19 pandemic in Germany. RESULTS: Among women, 23% increased their alcohol use, 28.4% increased their nicotine use and 44% increased their illicit substance use during the COVID-19 pandemic. Twenty percent reported major depressive symptoms and 23.4% symptoms of generalized anxiety. Generalized anxiety proved to be a significant predictor of increases in alcohol and nicotine use in logistic regression. DISCUSSION: The mental health burden remained high during the second wave of COVID-19 and alcohol, nicotine and other substance use increased. However, the association between mental health and substance use was weak. Psychological distress does not seem to be the main motivator of substance use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Substance-Related Disorders , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(34): 1142-1149, 2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1406893

ABSTRACT

Adults with disabilities, a group including >25% of U.S. adults (1), experience higher levels of mental health and substance use conditions and lower treatment rates than do adults without disabilities* (2,3). Survey data collected during April-September 2020 revealed elevated adverse mental health symptoms among adults with disabilities (4) compared with the general adult population (5). Despite disproportionate risk for infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and COVID-19-associated hospitalization and mortality among some adults with disabilities (6), information about mental health and substance use in this population during the pandemic is limited. To identify factors associated with adverse mental health symptoms and substance use among adults with disabilities, the COVID-19 Outbreak Public Evaluation (COPE) Initiative† administered nonprobability-based Internet surveys to 5,256 U.S. adults during February-March 2021 (response rate = 62.1%). Among 5,119 respondents who completed a two-item disability screener, nearly one third (1,648; 32.2%) screened as adults with disabilities. These adults more frequently experienced symptoms of anxiety or depression (56.6% versus 28.7%, respectively), new or increased substance use (38.8% versus 17.5%), and suicidal ideation (30.6% versus 8.3%) than did adults without disabilities. Among all adults who had received a diagnosis of mental health or substance use conditions, adults with disabilities more frequently (42.6% versus 35.3%; p <0.001) reported that the pandemic made it harder for them to access related care or medication. Enhanced mental health and substance use screening among adults with disabilities and improved access to medical services are critical during public health emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Disabled Persons/psychology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disabled Persons/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
Front Public Health ; 9: 709410, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403521

ABSTRACT

People can increase their use of psychoactive substances in response to stressful situations as a maladaptive mechanism for reducing negative affective states. It is therefore necessary to examine changes in the use of such substances and their relationship to mental health in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. Objective: Evaluate the relationship between psychoactive substances and stress, emotional state, and symptomatology during the COVID-19 lockdown in Mexico. Method: A national survey was conducted, using the free Google Forms platform, of residents of Mexico aged 18 and older. The survey was disseminated through social media. Results: The sample comprised 4,122 individuals, mostly women (71.8%), with an age range of 18-81 years (M = 37.08, SD = 12.689), of which 46.8% were single, and 42.9% married. In general, there was a reduction in substance use during the first 2 months of the quarantine; the most commonly used substances were alcohol, tobacco, and tranquilizers. Respondents who described having greater use than before the pandemic presented greater stress, depressive symptomatology, and perceived threat than those who did not use substances. Conclusions: Respondents who did not use substances reported lower levels of stress, depressive symptomatology, impact of the coronavirus pandemic, and perception of its threat. Women reported greater stress, depressive symptomatology, and emotional intensity than men.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Substance-Related Disorders , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e045946, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398652

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has driven unprecedented social and economic reform in efforts to curb the impact of disease. Governments worldwide have legislated non-essential service shutdowns and adapted essential service provision in order to minimise face-to-face contact. We anticipate major consequences resulting from such policies, with marginalised populations expected to bear the greatest burden of such measures, especially those with substance use disorders (SUDs). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We aim to conduct (1) a scoping review to summarise the available evidence evaluating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with SUDs, and (2) an evidence map to visually plot and categorise the current available evidence evaluating the impact of COVID-19 on patients with SUDs to identify gaps in addressing high-risk populations. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval is not required for this scoping review as we plan to review publicly available data. This is part of a multistep project, whereby we intend to use the findings generated from this review in combination with data from an ongoing prospective cohort study our team is leading, encompassing over 2000 patients with SUDs receiving medication-assisted therapy in Ontario prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols , Cisplatin , Doxorubicin , Humans , Mitomycin , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
19.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 227: 109015, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Problematic substance use (SU) has increased substantially during the COVID-19 pandemic. While studies have identified risk factors for problematic SU during the pandemic (e.g., anxiety, depression, using substances to cope), these studies have been predominately cross-sectional, rarely examined changes in SU contexts during the pandemic as potential risk factors, and neglected sexual and gender minorities (SGM) - a health disparity population disproportionately impacted by substance use disorders and the pandemic. METHOD: We utilized two waves of data collected one month apart from a sample of 212 SGM assigned female at birth who used alcohol and/or cannabis (18-25 years old) collected between August 2020-February 2021. We examined associations between potential risk factors (i.e., retrospectively reported changes in anxiety/depression and in using substances in different contexts since before the pandemic): and 1) retrospectively reported changes in alcohol and cannabis consumption; 2) coping motives for use and SU consequences; and 3) subsequent changes in coping motives and consequences. RESULTS: An increase in solitary SU was a robust risk factor for concurrent and prospective increases in SU, coping motives, and consequences. Increases in SU with romantic partners were associated with concurrent increases in alcohol/cannabis consumption and consequences. Increases in anxiety and depression were associated with concurrent increases in SU and higher coping motives and consequences. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that solitary SU and increases in SU with romantic partners are robust risk factors for increases in SU and consequences in the context of the pandemic. Further, findings provide support for the self-medication theory of substance use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Substance-Related Disorders , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
20.
J Affect Disord ; 295: 1259-1268, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Unpaid caregivers of adults play critical roles in health care systems by providing care to older adults and those with chronic conditions. The COVID-19 pandemic has heightened caregiving needs, forcing some into caregiving roles and disrupting others. We sought to estimate the prevalence of and identify factors associated with adverse mental health symptoms, substance use, and suicidal ideation amongst unpaid caregivers of adults versus non-caregivers. METHODS: During June 24-30, 2020, surveys were administered to U.S. adults. Quota sampling and survey weighting were implemented to improve sample representativeness of age, gender, and race/ethnicity. RESULTS: Of 9,896 eligible invited adults, 5,412 (54.7%) completed surveys and 5,011 (92.6%) met screening criteria and were analyzed, including 1,362 (27.2%) caregivers. Caregivers had higher adverse mental health symptom prevalences than non-caregivers, including suicidal ideation (33.4% vs 3.7%, p < 0.0001). Symptoms were more common among caregivers who were young vs older adults (e.g., aged 18-24 vs ≥65 years, aPR 2.75, 95% CI 1.95-3.88, p < 0.0001) and with moderate and high vs low Caregiver Intensity Index scores (2.31, 1.65-3.23; 2.81, 2.00-3.94; both p < 0.0001). LIMITATIONS: Self-report data may be subject to recall, response, and social desirability biases; unpaid caregivers were self-identified; child caregiving roles were not assessed; and internet-based survey samples might not fully represent the U.S. CONCLUSIONS: Caregivers experienced disproportionately high levels of adverse mental health symptoms. Younger caregivers and those with higher caregiving intensity were disproportionately affected. Increased visibility of and access to mental health care resources are urgently needed to address mental health challenges of caregiving.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Aged , Caregivers , Child , Employment , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Suicidal Ideation , United States/epidemiology
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