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1.
Neuropharmacology ; 198: 108766, 2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376075

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic intensified the already catastrophic drug overdose and substance use disorder (SUD) epidemic, signaling a syndemic as social isolation, economic and mental health distress, and disrupted treatment services disproportionally impacted this vulnerable population. Along with these social and societal factors, biological factors triggered by intense stress intertwined with incumbent overactivity of the immune system and the resulting inflammatory outcomes may impact the functional status of the central nervous system (CNS). We review the literature concerning SARS-CoV2 infiltration and infection in the CNS and the prospects of synergy between stress, inflammation, and kynurenine pathway function during illness and recovery from Covid-19. Taken together, inflammation and neuroimmune signaling, a consequence of Covid-19 infection, may dysregulate critical pathways and underlie maladaptive changes in the CNS, to exacerbate the development of neuropsychiatric symptoms and in the vulnerability to develop SUD. This article is part of the special Issue on 'Vulnerabilities to Substance Abuse'.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Misuse/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Adaptation, Psychological , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , Animals , Axons/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/psychology , Comorbidity , Disease Susceptibility , Endothelial Cells/virology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/etiology , Kynurenine/metabolism , Neurons/virology , Neurotransmitter Agents/metabolism , Olfactory Mucosa/virology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Social Isolation , Stress, Psychological , Substance-Related Disorders/etiology , Substance-Related Disorders/physiopathology , Tryptophan/metabolism , Viral Tropism
2.
Scand J Work Environ Health ; 47(7): 509-520, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359380

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: High-quality longitudinal evidence exploring the mental health risk associated with low-quality employment trajectories is scarce. We therefore aimed to investigate the risk of being diagnosed with common mental disorders, substance use disorders, or suicide attempt according to low-quality employment trajectories. METHODS: A longitudinal register-study based on the working population of Sweden (N=2 743 764). Employment trajectories (2005-2009) characterized by employment quality and pattern (constancy, fluctuation, mobility) were created. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models for first incidence (2010-2017) diagnosis of common mental disorders, substance use disorders and suicide attempt as dependent on employment trajectories. RESULTS: We identified 21 employment trajectories, 10 of which were low quality (21%). With the exception of constant solo self-employment, there was an increased risk of common mental disorders (HR 1.07-1.62) and substance use disorders (HR 1.05-2.19) for all low-quality trajectories. Constant solo self-employment increased the risk for substance use disorders among women, while it reduced the risk of both disorders for men. Half of the low-quality trajectories were associated with a risk increase of suicide attempt (HR 1.08-1.76). CONCLUSIONS: Low-quality employment trajectories represent risk factors for mental disorders and suicide attempt in Sweden, and there might be differential effects according to sex - especially in terms of self-employment. Policies ensuring and maintaining high-quality employment characteristics over time are imperative. Similar prospective studies are needed, also in other contexts, which cover the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic as well as the mechanisms linking employment trajectories with mental health.


Subject(s)
Employment/statistics & numerical data , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders , Suicide, Attempted/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Incidence , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Disorders/complications , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/etiology , Sweden/epidemiology
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2118134, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321667

ABSTRACT

Importance: Diseases of despair (ie, mortality or morbidity from suicidality, drug abuse, and alcoholism) were first characterized as increasing in rural White working-class populations in midlife with low educational attainment and associated with long-term economic decline. Excess mortality now appears to be associated with working-class citizens across demographic and geographic boundaries, but no known qualitative studies have engaged residents of rural and urban locales with high prevalence of diseases of despair to learn their perspectives. Objective: To explore perceptions about despair-related illness and potential intervention strategies among diverse community members residing in discrete rural and urban hotspots. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this qualitative study, high-prevalence hotspots for diseases of despair were identified from health insurance claims data in Central Pennsylvania. Four focus groups were conducted with 60 community members in organizations and coalitions from 3 census block group hotspot clusters in the health system between September 2019 and January 2020. Focus groups explored awareness and beliefs about causation and potential intervention strategies. Main Outcomes and Measures: A descriptive phenomenological approach was applied to thematic analysis, and a preliminary conceptual model was constructed to describe how various factors may be associated with perpetuating despair and with public health. Results: In total, 60 adult community members participated in 4 focus groups (44 women, 16 men; 40 White non-Hispanic, 17 Black, and 3 Hispanic/Latino members). Three focus groups with 43 members were held in rural areas with high prevalence of diseases of despair, and 1 focus group with 17 members in a high-prevalence urban area. Four themes emerged with respect to awareness and believed causation of despair-related illness, and participants identified common associated factors, including financial distress, lack of critical infrastructure and social services, deteriorating sense of community, and family fragmentation. Intervention strategies focused around 2 themes: (1) building resilience to despair through better community and organizational coordination and peer support at the local level and (2) encouraging broader state investments in social services and infrastructure to mitigate despair-related illness. Conclusions and Relevance: In this qualitative study, rural and urban community members identified common factors associated with diseases of despair, highlighting the association between long-term political and economic decline and public health and a need for both community- and state-level solutions to address despair. Health care systems participating in addressing community health needs may improve processes to screen for despair (eg, social history taking) and codesign primary, secondary, and tertiary interventions aimed at addressing factors associated with distress. Such actions have taken on greater urgency with the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism/prevention & control , Attitude , Residence Characteristics , Rural Population , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Suicide/prevention & control , Urban Population , Adult , Alcoholism/etiology , Awareness , COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care , Family , Female , Focus Groups , Hope , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peer Group , Qualitative Research , Resilience, Psychological , Social Class , Social Work , Substance-Related Disorders/etiology , Suicide/psychology , Young Adult
5.
J Addict Med ; 14(6): e293-e296, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1020286

ABSTRACT

: The COVID-19 pandemic is likely to exacerbate existing anxiety and substance use disorders (SUDs) and increase vulnerability among individuals previously free of these conditions. Numerous pandemic-related stressors-coronavirus infection fears, social distancing and isolation, activity restrictions, financial insecurity and unemployment, caregiving or childcare responsibilities-place a substantial burden both on the general population and on many health care providers. Anxiety symptoms such as worry, tension, irritability, difficulty concentrating, and sleep disruption are increasingly prevalent. For individuals in SUD treatment, anxiety can complicate efforts to achieve treatment goals. In this commentary, we outline the potential impact of anxiety on substance use problems during the COVID-19 crisis and describe key behavioral, pharmacological, and digital health treatment considerations. We highlight populations of special concern due to heightened vulnerability and challenges accessing services, strategies to support health care providers, and directions for future research.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Anxiety Disorders/etiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Infection Control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/etiology , Vulnerable Populations
6.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e19630, 2020 09 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-793308

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The international outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has led many countries to enforce drastic containment measures. It has been suggested that this abrupt lockdown of populations will foster addiction-related habits such as caloric/salty food intake, screen use, and substance use. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the global changes and factors of increase in addiction-related habits during the early COVID-19 containment phase in France. METHODS: A web-based survey was provided from day 8 to day 13 of the containment and was completed by 11,391 participants. The questions explored sociodemographic features, psychiatric/addiction history, material conditions of lockdown, general stress, mental well-being, and reported changes in several addiction-related behaviors. Global changes were described and factors of increase were explored using population-weighted and adjusted logistic regression models, providing adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and their 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Overall, the respondents reported more increases in addiction-related habits than decreases, specifically 28.4% (caloric/salty food intake), 64.6% (screen use), 35.6% (tobacco use), 24.8% (alcohol use), and 31.2% (cannabis use). Reduced well-being scores and increased stress scores were general factors of increase in addiction-related habits (P<.001 for all habits). Factors of increase in caloric/salty food intake (n=10,771) were female gender (aOR 1.62, 95% CI 1.48-1.77), age less than 29 years (P<.001), having a partner (aOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06-1.35), being locked down in a more confined space (per 1 square meter/person decrease: aOR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03), being locked down alone (aOR 1.29, 95% CI 1.11-1.49), and reporting current (aOR 1.94, 95% CI 1.62-2.31) or past (aOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.09-1.47) psychiatric treatment. Factors of increase in screen use (n=11,267) were female gender (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.21-1.43), age less than 29 years (P<.001), having no partner (aOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.06-1.32), being employed (P<.001), intermediate/high education level (P<.001), being locked down with no access to an outdoor space (aOR 1.16, 95% CI 1.05-1.29), being locked down alone (aOR 1.15, 95% CI 1.01-1.32), living in an urban environment (P<.01), and not working (P<.001). Factors of increase in tobacco use (n=2787) were female gender (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.11-1.55), having no partner (aOR 1.30, 95% CI 1.06-1.59), intermediate/low education level (P<.01), and still working in the workplace (aOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.17-1.86). Factors of increase in alcohol use (n=7108) were age 30-49 years (P<.05), a high level of education (P<.001), and current psychiatric treatment (aOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.10-1.88). The only significant factor of increase in cannabis use (n=620) was intermediate/low level of education (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: The early phase of COVID-19 containment in France led to widespread increases in addiction-related habits in the general population. Reduced well-being and increased stress were universal factors of increase. More specific factors were associated with increases in each of the explored habits.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections , Diet , Health Behavior , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Screen Time , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Feeding Behavior , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/administration & dosage , Substance-Related Disorders/etiology , Young Adult
7.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(4): 475-482, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-748564

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has necessitated widespread lockdown to mitigate the pandemic. This study examines the influence of resilience on the impact of COVID-related stress and enforced lockdown on mental health, drug use, and treatment adherence among people living with HIV (PLWH) in Argentina. SETTING: PLWH residing predominantly in Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area and urban regions of Argentina were identified from a private clinic electronic database. METHODS: Participants completed an anonymous online survey to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on economic disruption, resilience, mental health outcomes (depression, anxiety, stress, and loneliness), adherence to HIV treatment, and substance use. We performed ordinary least squares and logistic regressions to test whether resilient coping buffered the impact of economic disruption on mental health and drug use during quarantine. RESULTS: A total of 1336 PLWH aged 18-82 were enrolled. The impact of economic disruption on mental health ΔF(1,1321) = 8.86, P = 0.003 and loneliness ΔF(1,1326) = 5.77, P = 0.016 was buffered by resilience. A 3-way interaction between resilient buffering, stress, and sex was significant ΔF(1,1325) = 4.76, P = 0.029. Participants reported less than excellent adherence to medication (33%), disruption to mental health services (11%), and disruption to substance abuse treatment (1.3%) during lockdown. DISCUSSION: The impact of COVID-stress and lockdown on emotional distress seemed mitigated by resilience coping strategies, and the buffering impact of resilience on perceived stress was greater among women. Results highlight PLWH's capacity to adhere to treatment in challenging circumstances and the importance of developing resilience skills for better coping with stress and adversity.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , HIV Infections/psychology , Mental Health/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Argentina , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/trends , Least-Squares Analysis , Logistic Models , Loneliness , Male , Mental Health Services/standards , Middle Aged , Pandemics/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Resilience, Psychological , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Social Isolation/psychology , Social Support , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/etiology , Substance-Related Disorders/etiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Young Adult
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