Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 70
Filter
1.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 18(1): 39, 2023 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Breaking Free Online (BFO), a computer-assisted therapy (CAT) program for substance use disorders (SUD), has been available across UK treatment services for the past decade and has demonstrated efficacy. The Covid-19 pandemic has contributed to digital and 'telehealth' approaches to healthcare delivery becoming more common and accepted, and has in parallel, increased numbers of referrals to SUD services because of the impact pandemic-related stress has had on substance using habits in the general population. Digital and telehealth approaches, such as BFO, have the potential to support the treatment system to meet this increased demand for SUD services. METHODS: Parallel-group randomized controlled trial of eight-week BFO as an adjunct to standard treatment for SUD, in comparison to standard treatment only, at a National Health Service (NHS) Mental Health Trust in North-West England. Participants will be service users aged 18 years and over with demonstrable SUD for at least 12-months. Interventional and control groups will be compared on multiple measures from baseline to post-treatment assessment at eight-weeks, and then three and six-months follow-up. Primary outcome will be self-reported substance use, with secondary outcomes being standardized assessments of substance dependence, mental health, biopsychosocial functioning and quality of life. DISCUSSION: This study will examine whether BFO and telehealth support, when delivered as an adjunct to standard SUD interventions, improves outcomes for services users receiving NHS SUD treatment. Findings from the study will be used to inform both developments to the BFO program and guidance around augmenting the delivery of CAT programs via telehealth. Trial registration registered with ISRCTN on 25th May 2021-registration number: 13694016. PROTOCOL VERSION: 3.0 05th April 2022. TRIAL STATUS: This trial is currently open to recruitment-estimated to be completed in May 2023.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Therapy, Computer-Assisted , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life , State Medicine , Therapy, Computer-Assisted/methods , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Treatment Outcome , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
2.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 248: 109894, 2023 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2307399

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Polysubstance use among adolescents is a significant public health concern, yet most studies on adolescent substance use focus on a singular substance. This study is one of the first to investigate the association between perceived racial discrimination (PRD) in school and polysubstance use among racial/ethnic minority adolescents using a nationally representative sample. METHODS: Data was from the 2021 Adolescent Behaviors and Experiences Survey. The sample included 4145 racial/ethnic minority adolescents (52.8% female). Hierarchical binary logistic regression was used to examine the association between PRD in school and polysubstance use among racial/ethnic minority adolescents. RESULTS: About 12% of racial/ethnic minority adolescents engaged in polysubstance use and 23.4% reported experiencing PRD in school sometimes/most of the time/always. Controlling for other factors, experiencing PRD in school sometimes/most of the time/always was associated with 1.52 times higher odds of polysubstance use when compared to adolescents who never experienced PRD in school (OR=1.52, p=.044, 95% CI=1.01-2.30). Cyberbullying victimization, symptoms of depression, and being emotionally abused by a parent during COVID-19 were also associated with polysubstance use. CONCLUSION: Controlling for demographic characteristics and psychosocial stressors, PRD in school was significantly associated with higher odds of polysubstance use among racial/ethnic minority adolescents. The findings of this study could inform clinicians and policymakers of the association between PRD in school and polysubstance use, which could contribute to early identification of polysubstance use among racial/ethnic minority adolescents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Adolescent , Female , United States/epidemiology , Male , Racism/psychology , Ethnicity , Minority Groups/psychology , Ethnic and Racial Minorities , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
3.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 35(4): 259-264, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299857

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update of studies on the effectiveness of digital and telephonic approaches to providing remote continuing care for substance use disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Effective continuing care can be provided via smartphone apps, text messaging, interactive voice response, and structured telephone counseling. The remote continuing care interventions with the strongest evidence of efficacy are the Addiction Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System app and Telephone Monitoring and Counseling. Positive effects for these intervention on drinking outcomes in patients with alcohol use disorders were replicated in a recent randomized controlled study. SUMMARY: Continuing care is widely believed to be an important component of treatment for substance use disorders, especially for sustaining positive outcomes. However, many individuals do not attend clinic-based continuing care, due to a variety of reasons, including competing work and family responsibilities, disabilities, transportation challenges, and recently the COVID-19 pandemic. Remote continuing care, provided via smartphone apps, text messaging, and various telephonic approaches, has been shown to be effective, and could be used to provide continuing care to patients who would otherwise not receive it. Further work is needed to determine how to effectively combine more traditional continuing care with newer digitized and telephonic approaches.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Text Messaging , Alcoholism/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
4.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0284457, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296165

ABSTRACT

In response to a need to implement an evidence-based prevention program, D.A.R.E. America adopted keepin' it REAL. The program was previously developed and tested in middle school settings. As part of its adoption, an elementary version of the program was developed. This study tests the effectiveness of keepin' it REAL when delivered to fifth graders. The intervention was delivered to two cohorts of students, the first in the 2019-2020 school year, the second in the 2020-2021 school year. Pretest surveys were completed by 6,122 students. The COVID-19 pandemic interfered with posttest and follow-up data collection. At immediate posttest, 2,049 students (33.5%) completed analyzable posttest surveys. One year after the pretest, 1,486 (24.3%) students completed usable follow-up surveys. We used algorithmically generated cases (virtual controls) that use treatment cases' pretest psychosocial scores to assess program effectiveness. When compared to virtual control cases, the program had identifiable improvements in both a key psychosocial measure and in terms of deterring the onset of 30-day alcohol use, drunkenness, and vaping. Outcomes suggest that the delivery of elementary school keepin' it REAL by D.A.R.E. officers is having a positive effect in terms of deterring the onset of alcohol use and vaping.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Curriculum , Program Evaluation , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , School Health Services
5.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 84(1)2022 12 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286929

ABSTRACT

Objective: There is a high prevalence of prescription stimulant misuse (PSM) among college students in the United States (US). Preventing and identifying PSM requires an understanding of risk factors and correlates, but large-scale surveys regarding this issue have been lacking. We present the largest multi-institution study to date on the correlates of PSM among US college students.Methods: We performed a secondary analysis of the 2017 American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment (ACHA-NCHA), an annual national survey on the demographics, health, and academic experiences of US college students. Logistic regression models examined associations between past-year PSM in 40,645 undergraduate college students and hypothesized risk factors.Results: PSM was reported in 8% of college students. PSM was associated with past-year diagnosis or treatment of depression (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.16; 99% CI, 1.01-1.33), anorexia (AOR = 1.44; 99% CI, 1.02-2.03), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AOR = 1.66; 99% CI, 1.41-1.95), and substance use disorder/other addiction (AOR = 1.79; 99% CI, 1.30-2.46). The odds of PSM were 5.5 times higher for students who endorsed past-month use of "Legal drugs" and 8 times higher for students who endorsed past-month use of "Illegal drugs" than for those who did not. Other factors associated with PSM included academic difficulty, daytime sleepiness, fraternity or sorority involvement, White race, and cis-male gender.Conclusions: This study identifies many potential risk factors for PSM among US undergraduate college students. Targeted outreach, prevention, and clinical management are discussed. As the COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated psychiatric distress, sleep difficulties, substance use, and attentional challenges among college students, this study may serve as a baseline for future studies examining the impact of COVID-19 on PSM among college students.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Central Nervous System Stimulants , Prescription Drug Misuse , Substance-Related Disorders , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Pandemics , Central Nervous System Stimulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , Students/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Prescriptions , Universities
6.
Womens Health Issues ; 33(3): 250-257, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253210

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Mental health symptoms and substance use increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, and women may be disproportionately affected. Women report substantial mental health consequences, and women veterans may experience additional risks associated with military service. However, rates and correlates of substance use and consequences among women veterans are largely unknown. This study aimed to 1) report rates of substance use and consequences among women veterans; 2) identify correlates of substance use and consequences; and 3) test COVID-specific anxiety as a moderator. METHOD: Women veterans (n = 209) enrolled in Veterans Health Administration primary care completed measures of demographics, psychiatric and substance use disorder (SUD) diagnoses, current mental health symptoms, alcohol consumption, drug-related problems, and COVID-specific anxiety. Bivariate correlations evaluated demographics (age, race, employment, relationship status), psychiatric (depression/anxiety/posttraumatic stress disorder) and SUD diagnoses, and current mental health (depression/anxiety) symptoms as correlates of substance use outcomes. For any relationships between correlates and outcomes that were statistically significant, COVID-specific anxiety was tested as a moderator using the PROCESS macro in SPSS version 27. Any statistically significant moderation effects were further investigated using the PROCESS macro to estimate conditional effects. COVID-specific anxiety was mean-centered before analyses. Alpha was set to 0.05 for all statistical tests. RESULTS: Thirty-six percent screened positive for hazardous (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Consumption [AUDIT-C] ≥ 3) alcohol consumption and 26% reported drug-related problems (18% low-level, 7% moderate-level, and 2% substantial per Drug Abuse Screening Test [DAST-10] scores). Drug-related problems were positively associated with COVID-specific anxiety, psychiatric diagnosis, SUD diagnosis, and depression symptoms. Alcohol consumption was significantly associated with SUD diagnosis. COVID-specific anxiety significantly moderated relationships between SUD diagnosis and both outcomes. DISCUSSION: Results help identify women veterans with SUD diagnoses and high COVID-specific anxiety as at risk for increased substance use during COVID-19 and suggest a potential intervention target (COVID-specific anxiety).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Veterans , Humans , Female , Veterans/psychology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Anxiety/epidemiology
8.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 92(5): 378-384, 2023 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2267724

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Chemsex is a growing concern among men who have sex with men (MSM). COVID-19 lockdowns have had consequences on social and sexual interactions. We aimed to assess changes in chemsex practices during COVID-19 lockdown in France among MSM and factors associated with maintaining or increasing chemsex practice. METHODS: Repeated face-to-face questionnaires were conducted at "Le 190" Sexual Health Center, Paris, France, exploring lifestyle, sexual, and chemsex practices, COVID-19 concerns and mental health before and during second lockdown in France (30/10/2020-15/12/2020). Inclusion criteria were chemsex practices at least 3 times throughout lifetime and at least once in the 3 months before second lockdown. The primary end point was the proportion of participants who declared having stopped, decreased, maintained, or increased their chemsex practice during lockdown. Univariable and multivariable logistic regressions were used to analyze factors associated with evolutions of chemsex practice. RESULTS: Ninety-three MSM were included: 66% HIV-positive and 30% taking PrEP. Drugs most used were cathinones (91%) and GHB/GBL (52%). Participants reported stopping, decreasing, maintaining, and increasing chemsex drugs use in 14%, 22%, 22%, and 42% of cases, respectively. Despite this overall increase in chemsex practice, MSM decreased their number of sexual partners. Factors significantly associated with maintaining or increasing chemsex drugs use were feeling lonely (OR = 3.24), craving (OR = 4.51), and working during lockdown (OR = 3.27), contrasting with fear of COVID-19 (OR = 0.31). CONCLUSION: Restriction measures lead to changes in sexual behavior and seem to increase chemsex practice. Maintaining care for most isolated patients should be a priority in COVID-19 context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Substance-Related Disorders , Male , Humans , Homosexuality, Male , HIV Infections/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Communicable Disease Control , Sexual Behavior
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(5)2023 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287786

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the impact of COVID-19 fear on the well-being of Israeli and Maltese female "help" profession (e.g., social work and psychology) undergraduate students. This cross-national comparison includes factors of depression, anxiety, anger, loneliness, nervousness, substance use, eating behavior, burnout, and resilience. The study hypothesis is that country status, even with different social-cultural characteristics including religiosity, is not a significant factor associated with COVID-19 fear impact on select behavioral characteristics of female university students. METHODS: A total of 453 female "help" profession students completed an online survey from January to July 2021. Various statistical methods of analysis including regression were used for this study. RESULTS: The mean COVID-19 fear scores were the same among Israeli and Maltese students. Resilience was found to be higher among Israeli females; burnout was found to be higher among those from Malta. Substance use (i.e., tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, or prescription drugs) in the last month was reported by 77.2% of the respondents. No significant differences were found for previous-month substance use based on country status. Regardless of country, respondents who reported more previous-month substance use had higher COVID-19 fear and burnout scores, as well as lower resilience. Due to COVID-19, most respondents (74.3%) reported deterioration of their psycho-emotional well-being in the last month; however, no significant differences were found based on country and religiosity statuses. Furthermore, no significant differences were found for eating behavior changes and weight increase based on country and religiosity statuses. CONCLUSION: Study findings showed the impact of COVID-19 fear on the well-being of Israeli and Maltese female "help" profession undergraduate students. This study examined only female students; however, additional research is needed to address male students and their experiences. Prevention and treatment intervention measures aimed to increase resilience and decrease burnout, including those that can be made available on campus, should be thought about by university administration personnel and student association leaders in consultation with mental health professionals.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Humans , Male , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Israel , Students/psychology , Fear , Burnout, Professional/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
11.
J Psychiatr Res ; 155: 443-450, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086486

ABSTRACT

Although research has examined disparities in suicidal ideation across multiple groups, few investigations have analyzed such disparities in the context of COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, there is limited research on differences within and across countries, further limiting the extent to which meaningful comparisons can be made. Therefore, this study examines risk and protective factors of suicidal ideation during COVID-19 lockdown in adults across five countries. Adults (N = 2,509) from the United States, Italy, Spain, Saudi Arabia, and India completed a survey to measure suicidal ideation, recent drug use, and sociodemographic factors. Prevalence of suicidal ideation was assessed using simple and multivariable logistic regression models, and severity of suicidal ideation was analyzed via a multinomial multivariable logistic regression. Cohen's d statistics were reported for all analyses to report effect size. In the United States subsample, racial/ethnic minorities endorsed a significantly greater prevalence of suicidal ideation compared to their White peers (aOR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.26-4.27, d = 0.46). However, no significant racial differences in suicidal ideation were found in other countries. Past 90-day illicit drug use was associated with greater prevalence (aOR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.06-1.80, d = 0.18) and severity (aRRR = 2.17, 95% CI: 1.33-3.53, (aRRR = 0.43) of suicidal ideation during COVID-19 lockdown. This study further highlights the social disparities that exist in suicidal ideation during COVID-19 lockdown in international samples, for which greater medical and mental health interventions are critical. As such, targeted multicomponent interventions that address substance use are important for reducing the rising prevalence and severity of COVID-related suicidal ideation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Illicit Drugs , Substance-Related Disorders , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Suicidal Ideation , United States/epidemiology
12.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270582, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039347

ABSTRACT

The beginning of the U.S. COVID-19 pandemic interrupted integral services and supports for those in recovery from substance use disorders. The current study used qualitative and quantitative data to identify 1) pandemic-related barriers/stressors, 2) coping strategies employed, and 3) how the stressors and strategies predicted subsequent substance use frequency. Participants were 48 adults (40.5% female; 90.2% White) between 26 and 60 years old (M = 42.66, SD = 8.44) who were part of a larger, multi-year longitudinal study of individuals in recovery from substance use disorders. Individuals completed two interviews, one during the six weeks of initial stay-at-home orders in the state in which data were collected and the second within six to twelve months of their initial interview. Common barriers to recovery included cancelled support meetings, changes in job format (i.e., being fired or furloughed), and lack of social support. Common coping strategies included self-care, leisure activities/hobbies, taking caution against exposure, and strengthening personal relationships. The relationship between cravings at baseline and substance use at follow up was stronger for those who experienced worsening of their mental health (B = 21.80, p < .01) than for those who did not (B = 5.45, p = 0.09), and for those who were taking caution against exposure (B = 24.57, p < .01) than for those who were not (B = 1.87, p = 0.53). Those who engaged in self-care (B = 0.00, p>.99) had lower rates of substance use at follow-up than those who did not employ self-care as a coping mechanism (B = 16.10, p < .01). These findings inform research priorities regarding prospective effects of the pandemic on treatment endeavors, particularly emphasizing treating mental health and encouraging self-care strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
13.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0268961, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021763

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Substance use amongst adolescents remains a global public health challenge. The potential negative health outcomes of substance use suggest the need to understand the pattern of use and the associated factors among adolescents. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of substance use, SUDs, and PD and the associated factors in adolescent learners at public schools in Gaborone, Botswana. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at 13 public secondary schools in Gaborone among 742 students. Assessment tools included the World Health Organization drug questionnaire, DSM-5 interview for SUD, and the General Health Questionnaire-12. RESULTS: The mean age (SD) of the participants was 15.26 (1.57) years, and there were more females (55.5%). Over two-fifths (44.6%) of learners reported psychoactive substance use in the past 12 months, and 31.5% meeting DSM 5 criteria for a SUD. Alcohol was the most used psychoactive substance (25.1%). Male gender (AOR = 1.94; 95% CI: 1.26-2.995), having a friend (AOR = 4.27; 95% CI: 2.68-6.78), or father (AOR = 1.87; 95% CI: 1.14-3.04), who uses substance, and higher levels of PD (AOR = 1.09; 95% CI: 1.03-1.17) remained significantly associated with SUD. Regular participation in religious activities negatively correlated with SUD (AOR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.38-0.96). CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of substance use and SUDs among in-school adolescents is concerning. Substance use programs need to include family-focused and religious-based therapy and youth empowerment in developing positive peer relationships. Also, they should be integrated with mental health screening to assess comorbid PD.


Subject(s)
Schools , Substance-Related Disorders , Adolescent , Botswana/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Students/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
14.
AIDS Educ Prev ; 34(4): 333-347, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002360

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated HIV-related disparities and has likely disrupted service provision by organizations providing critical HIV-related services, especially in the U.S. Deep South, an area disproportionately affected by HIV. To assess the impact of COVID-19 on organizations providing services for people living with HIV and/or sexual and gender minorities throughout the Deep South, an online survey was developed and disseminated from January to June 2021 regarding service disruption, organizational changes and needs, and staff and client impact and needs. Organizations reported ongoing organization-level financial and structural complications, staff difficulties including mental health challenges and lack of technology proficiency, and exacerbated challenges for clients including increased mental health concerns, substance use, and housing instability, among others. Organizations will need to be supported as they navigate the exacerbated mental health challenges of clients and staff as well as financially supported as they address economic disparities related to the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Substance-Related Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Sexual Behavior , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
15.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 239: 109605, 2022 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kratom, a psychoactive substance, use is an evolving research area that needs more studies to augment the limited literature. Our study examines the association between kratom use categories and mental health and substance use disorders in the U.S. METHODS: We used the 2020 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data (N = 32,893), a cross-sectional survey data, on the U.S. population aged 12 years or older. We used STATA/SE version 16 to perform a multinomial logistic regression analysis to assess our study aims. RESULTS: Bisexuals, compared to heterosexuals, had higher risks of kratom use within the past 30 days (relative risk ratio [RRR]= 2.47, 95% CI= 1.07, 5.71). Major depressive episode was positively associated with kratom use more than 30 days ago (RRR= 2.04, 95% CI= 1.24, 3.34). This association was also observed for mild (RRR= 2.04, 95% CI= 1.38, 3.02), moderate (RRR= 2.25, 95% CI= 1.13, 4.51), or severe alcohol use disorder (RRR= 1.88, 95% CI= 1.05, 3.36); and mild (RRR= 1.98, 95% CI= 1.27, 3.11), moderate (RRR= 2.38, 95% CI= 1.27, 4.45), or severe marijuana use disorder (RRR= 2.13, 95% CI= 1.02, 4.47). Illicit drug other than marijuana use disorder was associated positively with kratom use more than 30 days ago (RRR= 2.81, 95% CI= 1.85, 4.26) and kratom use within the past 30 days (RRR= 5.48, 95% CI= 1.50, 20.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that identifying as bisexual, experiencing depression, alcohol use disorder, or illicit drug use disorder increased the risks of kratom use. There is a need to consider mental health and substance use disorders and sexual identity in kratom use interventions and policies geared toward reducing or preventing kratom use.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Illicit Drugs , Mitragyna , Substance-Related Disorders , Alcoholism/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
16.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 228, 2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1986777

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with substance use disorders may be at a greater risk of contracting COVID-19 infection and developing medical complications. Several institutional and governmental health agencies across the world developed ad hoc guidance for substance use disorder services and care of individuals misusing substances. We aimed to synthesise the best available recommendations on management and care of people with or at risk of substance use disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic from existing guidelines published in UK, USA, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and Singapore. METHODS: We systematically searched existing guidelines and websites from 28 international institutions and governmental bodies in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic (May 4th 2021). We summarized the extracted data as answers to specific clinical questions. RESULTS: We organised the available recommendations from 19 sources in three sections. First, we focused on general advice and recommendations for people who misuse alcohol or drugs during the COVID-19 pandemic, the design of contingency plans, safeguarding issues for children and families of service users and advice to the public, patients, and carers. Then, we summarised specific guidelines for people who use illicit drugs and related services, such as opioid substitution treatment and needle and syringe programmes. Finally, we provided a synthesis on specific recommendations for services supporting people who misuse alcohol and key topics in the field, such as management of alcohol detoxification and safe transition between supervised and unsupervised consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Available guidance reflected different approaches, ranging from being extremely cautious in providing recommendations other than generic statements to proposing adaptation of previously available guidelines to confront the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic. After the early phase, guidance focused on reduction of infection transmission and service delivery. Guidance did not provide advice on infection prevention via vaccination programmes and service access strategies tailored to individuals with substance use disorders.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Alcoholism/psychology , Alcoholism/therapy , Child , Guidelines as Topic , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
17.
Int J Drug Policy ; 108: 103818, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People who are homeless and using substances frequently encounter barriers to accessing support. This paper aims to inform policy and practice by analysing changes in the tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use of people experiencing homelessness. METHODS: Data derive from a qualitative longitudinal study (undertaken 2020/2021) and involving telephone interviews (n = 310) conducted with 34 people accommodated in two London hotels provided as part of a UK policy response to COVID-19. The hotels offered various supports, including opioid replacement therapy, prescribed alcohol, licensed nicotine replacement therapy, and e-cigarettes. Participants' substance use data were organised by Iterative Categorization and subjected to a content analysis to identify patterns and themes.. RESULTS: At entry to the hotel, 5/34 participants (14.7%) had never used alcohol nor illicit drugs; 10/34 (29.4%) had only ever used alcohol (mostly without a problem); 11/34 (32.4%) had ever used illicit drugs but without a problem; and 8/34 (23.5%) had ever had a problem with illicit drugs. Sub-groups had different socio-demographic characteristics, particularly regarding being/not being a UK national, sex, and homelessness duration. Tobacco smoking was common across all sub-groups (18/34; 52.9%). Participants were often anxious about living with others who were using substances, and some worried about their own substance use. Substance use was changeable, with more decreases than increases. Changes related to intrapersonal (psychological), interpersonal (social) and structural (resource-based) factors. For example, decreases were precipitated by people feeling motivated to change, separation from others who used drugs, and receiving treatment or support. CONCLUSION: Findings indicate that various interventions and accommodation models may benefit people who are homeless and using substances. An initiative that combined shelter and basic amenities, pharmacological treatment, psychosocial support, and space where substances were not available and other people using substances could be avoided resulted in an overall reduction in substance use amongst those accommodated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Ill-Housed Persons , Illicit Drugs , Smoking Cessation , Substance-Related Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ill-Housed Persons/psychology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Policy , Qualitative Research , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Tobacco Use Cessation Devices
18.
Can J Psychiatry ; 67(11): 841-853, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1868909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Youth mental health appears to have been negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The impact on substance use is less clear, as is the impact on subgroups of youth, including those with pre-existing mental health or substance use challenges. OBJECTIVE: This hypothesis-generating study examines the longitudinal evolution of youth mental health and substance use from before the COVID-19 pandemic to over one year into the pandemic among youth with pre-existing mental health or substance use challenges. METHOD: A total of 168 youth aged 14-24 participated. Participants provided sociodemographic data, as well as internalizing disorder, externalizing disorder, and substance use data prior to the pandemic's onset, then every two months between April 2020-2021. Linear mixed models and Generalized Estimating Equations were used to analyze the effect of time on mental health and substance use. Exploratory analyses were conducted to examine interactions with sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: There was no change in internalizing or externalizing disorder scores from prior to the pandemic to any point throughout the first year of the pandemic. Substance use scores during the pandemic declined compared to pre-pandemic scores. Exploratory analyses suggest that students appear to have experienced more mental health repercussions than non-students; other sociodemographic and clinical characteristics did not appear to be associated with mental health or substance use trajectories. CONCLUSIONS: While mental health remained stable and substance use declined from before the COVID-19 pandemic to during the pandemic among youth with pre-existing mental health challenges, some youth experienced greater challenges than others. Longitudinal monitoring among various population subgroups is crucial to identifying higher risk populations. This information is needed to provide empirical evidence to inform future research directions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Adolescent , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Mental Health , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
19.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0269044, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865348

ABSTRACT

It has been reported that the COVID-19 pandemic has predisposed adolescents to risky behaviors such as substance use and subsequent substance use disorder (SUD). However, it is unknown how the pandemic has changed the prevalence of SUD among adolescents in Uganda. We aimed to determine the prevalence of SUD and associated factors among adolescents in southwestern Uganda. Retrospectively, psychiatry ward records from November 2018 to July 2021 were collected from the largest tertiary hospital in southwestern Uganda. A total of 441 adolescent records were included in the analysis, with a mean age was 17±1.88 years, and the majority were males (50.34%). The overall prevalence of SUD was 7.26% (5.90% and 9.80% before and during the pandemic). Despite a little rise in SUD (3.9% increment) during the COVID-19 pandemic, there was no statistical difference compared to before the pandemic. The likelihood of being diagnosed with SUD was more among older adolescents at any period. In addition, having a diagnosis of bipolar mood disorder reduced the likelihood of SUD during the pandemic. This study indicated no statistical change in the diagnosis of SUD among adolescents before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. As older-male adolescents (17 to 19 years) were at higher risk of SUD, there is a need for early intervention for this group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Psychiatric Department, Hospital , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Uganda/epidemiology
20.
J Prev Interv Community ; 50(2): 151-162, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864848

ABSTRACT

Recovery homes are a widespread community resource that might be utilized by some individuals with substance use disorders (SUD) and COVID-19. A growing collection of empirical literature suggests that housing can act as a low-cost recovery support system which could be effective in helping those with SUD sustain their recovery. Such settings could be already housing many residents affected by COVID-19. Many of these residents are at high risk for COVID-19 given their histories of SUD, homelessness, criminal justice involvement, and psychiatric comorbidity. Stable housing after treatment may decrease the risk of relapse to active addiction, and these types of settings may have important implications for those with housing insecurity who are at risk for being infected with COVID-19. Given the extensive network of community-based recovery homes, there is a need to better understand individual- and organizational-level responses to the COVID-19 pandemic among people in recovery homes as well as those managing and making referrals to the houses. At the present time, it is unclear what the effects of COVID-19 are on recovery home membership retention or dropout rates. This article attempts to provide a better understanding of the possible impact of COVID-19 on the infected and on recovery resources in general.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Adaptation, Psychological , Housing , Humans , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL