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1.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0269044, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865348

ABSTRACT

It has been reported that the COVID-19 pandemic has predisposed adolescents to risky behaviors such as substance use and subsequent substance use disorder (SUD). However, it is unknown how the pandemic has changed the prevalence of SUD among adolescents in Uganda. We aimed to determine the prevalence of SUD and associated factors among adolescents in southwestern Uganda. Retrospectively, psychiatry ward records from November 2018 to July 2021 were collected from the largest tertiary hospital in southwestern Uganda. A total of 441 adolescent records were included in the analysis, with a mean age was 17±1.88 years, and the majority were males (50.34%). The overall prevalence of SUD was 7.26% (5.90% and 9.80% before and during the pandemic). Despite a little rise in SUD (3.9% increment) during the COVID-19 pandemic, there was no statistical difference compared to before the pandemic. The likelihood of being diagnosed with SUD was more among older adolescents at any period. In addition, having a diagnosis of bipolar mood disorder reduced the likelihood of SUD during the pandemic. This study indicated no statistical change in the diagnosis of SUD among adolescents before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. As older-male adolescents (17 to 19 years) were at higher risk of SUD, there is a need for early intervention for this group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Psychiatric Department, Hospital , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Uganda/epidemiology
2.
J Prev Interv Community ; 50(2): 151-162, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864848

ABSTRACT

Recovery homes are a widespread community resource that might be utilized by some individuals with substance use disorders (SUD) and COVID-19. A growing collection of empirical literature suggests that housing can act as a low-cost recovery support system which could be effective in helping those with SUD sustain their recovery. Such settings could be already housing many residents affected by COVID-19. Many of these residents are at high risk for COVID-19 given their histories of SUD, homelessness, criminal justice involvement, and psychiatric comorbidity. Stable housing after treatment may decrease the risk of relapse to active addiction, and these types of settings may have important implications for those with housing insecurity who are at risk for being infected with COVID-19. Given the extensive network of community-based recovery homes, there is a need to better understand individual- and organizational-level responses to the COVID-19 pandemic among people in recovery homes as well as those managing and making referrals to the houses. At the present time, it is unclear what the effects of COVID-19 are on recovery home membership retention or dropout rates. This article attempts to provide a better understanding of the possible impact of COVID-19 on the infected and on recovery resources in general.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Adaptation, Psychological , Housing , Humans , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
3.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 228, 2022 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770512

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with substance use disorders may be at a greater risk of contracting COVID-19 infection and developing medical complications. Several institutional and governmental health agencies across the world developed ad hoc guidance for substance use disorder services and care of individuals misusing substances. We aimed to synthesise the best available recommendations on management and care of people with or at risk of substance use disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic from existing guidelines published in UK, USA, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and Singapore. METHODS: We systematically searched existing guidelines and websites from 28 international institutions and governmental bodies in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic (May 4th 2021). We summarized the extracted data as answers to specific clinical questions. RESULTS: We organised the available recommendations from 19 sources in three sections. First, we focused on general advice and recommendations for people who misuse alcohol or drugs during the COVID-19 pandemic, the design of contingency plans, safeguarding issues for children and families of service users and advice to the public, patients, and carers. Then, we summarised specific guidelines for people who use illicit drugs and related services, such as opioid substitution treatment and needle and syringe programmes. Finally, we provided a synthesis on specific recommendations for services supporting people who misuse alcohol and key topics in the field, such as management of alcohol detoxification and safe transition between supervised and unsupervised consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Available guidance reflected different approaches, ranging from being extremely cautious in providing recommendations other than generic statements to proposing adaptation of previously available guidelines to confront the challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic. After the early phase, guidance focused on reduction of infection transmission and service delivery. Guidance did not provide advice on infection prevention via vaccination programmes and service access strategies tailored to individuals with substance use disorders.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Alcoholism/psychology , Alcoholism/therapy , Child , Guidelines as Topic , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742462

ABSTRACT

People experiencing homelessness have higher rates of mental ill-health and substance use and lower access to health services compared to the general population. The COVID-19 pandemic led to changes in service delivery across health and social care services, with many adopting virtual or telephone support for service users. This paper explores the experiences of access to community-based mental health and substance use support for people experiencing homelessness during the COVID-19 pandemic. Qualitative telephone interviews were conducted with 10 women and 16 men (ages 25 to 71) who self-identified as experiencing homelessness in North East England between February and May 2021. With five individuals with lived experience, results were analysed using inductive reflexive thematic analysis. Reactive changes to support provision often led to inadvertent exclusion. Barriers to access included: physical locations, repetition of recovery stories, individual readiness, and limited availability. Participants suggested creating services reflective of need and opportunities for choice and empowerment. Community mental health and substance use support for people experiencing homelessness should ensure the support is personalised, responsive to need, inclusive, and trauma-informed. The findings of this research have important implications for mental health and substance use policy and practice for individuals who experience homelessness during a public health crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeless Persons , Substance-Related Disorders , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Homeless Persons/psychology , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Social Work , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
5.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 179, 2022 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741935

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 with its severe social restrictions touched the daily life of most people. While everyday social life becomes difficult for citizens with economic and cultural capital, it becomes even worse for vulnerable groups such as persons with mental health and substance use disorders, who are particularly vulnerable to social exclusion. The aim of this study is to investigate how the first COVID-19 lockdown affected the everyday life and health of persons with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders. METHODS: This qualitative study reports data from 17 individual interviews and one focus group of five participants, all with a self-reported mental health and substance use disorder. Interviews were conducted based on a semi-structured interview guide in September and October 2020 in a medium-sized local authority in Norway. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. A reference group of people with varied knowledge and experiences of the phenomenon were involved in study design, recruitment, data generation and analysis. RESULTS: The analysis identified four interrelated main themes, describing how the first lockdown affected the everyday life and health of persons suffering from a mental health and substance use disorder: (1) The COVID-19 outbreak as a perceived challenge, (2) A decline in mental health and well-being, (3) Increased substance use challenges, and (4) Diverse experiences with health and social services. The results show that people with a co-occurring disorder have challenges with digital tools and/or do not have the appropriate equipment. Further, participants were not concerned about becoming infected themselves, but infecting others. CONCLUSIONS: Persons with a mental health and substance use disorder face major challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic. There is a need to maintain continuous low-threshold services especially directed towards persons with co-occurring disorders during the pandemic. Furthermore, it is important to improve the digital skills of every service user or offer alternatives to digital consultations and meetings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Communicable Disease Control , Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry) , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
6.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263892, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1690704

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Professionals working in intensive care units (ICUs) during the COVID-19 pandemic have been exposed to stressful situations and increased workload. The association between symptoms of traumatic stress disorders, substance abuse and personal/occupational characteristics of Brazilian COVID-19-ICU workers is still to be addressed. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence of those conditions and to find if those associations exist. METHODS: In this observational, single-center, cross-sectional study, all professionals working in a COVID-19 ICU were invited to fill an anonymous form containing screening tools for traumatic stress disorders and substance abuse, and a section with questions regarding personal and occupational information. RESULTS: Three hundred seventy-six ICU professionals participated. Direct exposure to patients infected by COVID-19, history of relatives infected by COVID-19, and sex (female) were significantly associated with signs and symptoms of traumatic stress disorders. 76.5% of the participants had scores compatible with a diagnosis of traumatic stress disorders. Moreover, the prevalence of scores suggestive of Tobacco and Alcohol abuse were 11.7% and 24.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: ICU workers had significantly elevated scores on both screening forms. Providing psycho-social support to ICU professionals may prevent future problems with traumatic stress disorders or substance abuse.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Multivariate Analysis , Prevalence
7.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263016, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674008

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Substance use among adolescents in the U.S. is associated with adverse physical and mental health outcomes in the long-term. Universal youth-focused substance use prevention programs have demonstrated effectiveness but are often not sustainable due to the significant amount of time, effort, and resources required. We describe a trial protocol for a brief, low-participant-burden intervention to improve substance use-specific parent-child communication through the promotion of family meals and increased parental engagement. METHODS: This study is a parallel-group randomized controlled trial designed to assess the efficacy of a 13-week intervention. A total of 500 dyads of parents and their 5th-7th grade children are recruited from across Massachusetts. Dyads are randomized to the intervention or attention-control condition using block urn randomization, based on child grade, gender, and school. Parents/guardians in the substance use preventive intervention arm receive a short handbook, attend two meetings with an interventionist, and receive two SMS messages per week. Parents/guardians in the control arm receive the same dose but with content focused on nutrition, physical activity, and weight stigma. Participant dyads submit videos of family meals, audio recordings of prompted conversations, and quantitative surveys over an 18-month period (baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18 months post-intervention). The primary outcomes measure the quantity and quality of parent-child substance use conversations and proximal child indicators (i.e., substance use attitudes and expectancies, affiliation with substance-using peers, and intentions and willingness to use substances). The secondary outcome is child substance use initiation. DISCUSSION: This is a novel, brief, communication-focused intervention for parents/guardians that was designed to reduce participant burden. The intervention has the potential to improve parent-child engagement and communication and conversations about substance use specifically and decrease child substance use risk factors and substance use initiation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03925220. Registered on 24 April 2019.


Subject(s)
Communication , Health Promotion/methods , Parent-Child Relations , Parents/psychology , Pediatric Obesity/prevention & control , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Substance-Related Disorders/prevention & control , Adolescent , Case-Control Studies , Crisis Intervention , Humans , Meals , Pediatric Obesity/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
8.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(1): 291-297, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1639397

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has profoundly affected the social fabric and the economic and health care viability and functioning of most countries. Aside from its deeply destructive impact on health care systems and national economies, the pandemic has jeopardized people's emotional and psychological well-being as well. The authors aimed to shed a light on how the pandemic has been affecting patients with addiction issues and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), which is characterized by negative thoughts about appearance and body misperceptions. People with body dysmorphic disorder are in fact at increased risk of developing substance use disorders, and such a destructive association has only been made more severe by pandemic-related restrictions, emotional distress and anxiety, as well as longer exposure to social media and online interactions. This is a major cause for concern, because substance use worsens symptoms of BDD and contributes to unfavorable treatment outcomes.


Subject(s)
Body Image/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Anxiety , Behavior, Addictive/complications , Behavior, Addictive/epidemiology , Behavior, Addictive/psychology , Body Dysmorphic Disorders/complications , Body Dysmorphic Disorders/epidemiology , Body Dysmorphic Disorders/psychology , Humans , Social Media , Substance-Related Disorders/complications
9.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 34(4): 351-356, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635161

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The COVID-19 pandemic and associated restrictions have uniquely and disproportionately affected vulnerable populations. This review summarizes recent evidence on the relationship between psychiatric disorders, substance use disorders and COVID-19, highlighting acute and long-term risks, pharmacotherapy interactions and implications regarding appropriate and timely evidence-based treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence points to a complex relationship between psychiatric and substance use disorders and COVID-19. A range of risk factors associated with psychiatric and substance use disorders increases the risk of exposure to, and complications arising from, the COVID-19 virus. COVID-19 infection has been indicated as having acute and potential long-term impacts on both psychiatric and substance use disorders. Social disruption associated with restrictions imposed to curb transmission has also been identified as a risk factor for new onset of disorders and recurrence and exacerbation of existing conditions. SUMMARY: Early recognition and intervention are key to preventing chronic disability associated with psychiatric disorders, substance use disorders, and their co-occurrence. It is critical that those most in need of services do not fall through the cracks of our healthcare systems. The pandemic has fast tracked the opportunity for widespread implementation of digital health interventions but ensuring these are accessible and available to all, including our most vulnerable, will be a critical task for our future health and social ecosystems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders/complications , Mental Disorders/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Drug Interactions , Humans , Mental Disorders/drug therapy , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Vulnerable Populations/psychology
10.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262136, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622352

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the emergency department (ED) has evolved into the de-facto site of care for a variety of substance use disorder (SUD) presentations, trends in ED utilization are an essential public health surveillance tool. Changes in ED visit patterns during the COVID-19 pandemic may reflect changes in access to outpatient treatment, changes in SUD incidence, or the unintended effects of public policy to mitigate COVID-19. We use a national emergency medicine registry to describe and characterize trends in ED visitation for SUDs since 2019. METHODS: We included all ED visits identified in a national emergency medicine clinical quality registry, which included 174 sites across 33 states with data from January 2019 through June 2021. We defined SUD using ED visit diagnosis codes including: opioid overdose and opioid use disorder (OUD), alcohol use disorders (AUD), and other SUD. To characterize changes in ED utilization, we plotted the 3-week moving average ratio of visit counts in 2020 and 2021 as compared to visit counts in 2019. FINDINGS: While overall ED visits declined in the early pandemic period and had not returned to 2019 baseline by June 2021, ED visit counts for SUD demonstrated smaller declines in March and April of 2020, so that the proportion of overall ED visits that were for SUD increased. Furthermore, in the second half of 2020, ED visits for SUD returned to baseline, and increased above baseline for OUD ever since May 2020. CONCLUSIONS: We observe distinct patterns in ED visitation for SUDs over the course of the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly for OUD for which ED visitation barely declined and now exceeds previous baselines. These trends likely demonstrate the essential role of hospital-based EDs in providing 24/7/365 care for people with SUDs and mental health conditions. Allocation of resources must be directed towards the ED as a de-facto safety net for populations in crisis.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/psychology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Mental Disorders/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Humans , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data
12.
Maturitas ; 154: 31-45, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415643

ABSTRACT

Health problems of women experiencing homelessness are driven either from the usual background characteristics of this population, or from the homeless lifestyle. Apart from poverty and unemployment, transition to homelessness is often associated with substance abuse, history of victimization, stress, poor mental health and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Water insecurity can undermine bodily hygiene and dental health, posing a greater risk of dehydration and opportunistic infections. Exposure to extreme environmental conditions like heat waves and natural disasters increases morbidity, accelerates aging, and reduces life expectancy. Nutrition-wise, a high prevalence of food insecurity, obesity, and micronutrient deficiencies are apparent due to low diet quality and food waste. Poor hygiene, violence, and overcrowding increase the susceptibility of these women to communicable diseases, including sexually transmitted ones and COVID-19. Furthermore, established cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus are often either undertreated or neglected, and their complications are more widespread than in the general population. In addition, lack of medical screening and contraception non-use induce a variety of reproductive health issues. All these health conditions are tightly related to violations of human rights in this population, including the rights to housing, water, food, reproduction, health, work, and no discrimination. Thus, the care provided to women experiencing homelessness should be optimized at a multidimensional level, spanning beyond the provision of a warm bed, to include access to clean water and sanitation, psychological support and stress-coping strategies, disease management and acute health care, food of adequate quality, opportunities for employment and support for any minor dependants.


Subject(s)
Aging , COVID-19 , Food Insecurity , Health Status , Homeless Persons/psychology , Human Rights , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Aging/physiology , Aging/psychology , Female , Food , Humans , Reproductive Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Water Supply
13.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 61 Suppl 2: S10-S17, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355876

ABSTRACT

Many Americans use alcohol and recreational drugs. Some will develop substance use disorders that affect a person's brain and behavior, leading to continued use despite problems caused. We review the epidemiology of addiction in the United States, including changes in use patterns over time, highlighting rates in adolescents and young adults, as well as adults. An overview of the health and societal impacts of substance use is provided alongside the importance of multimodal, evidence-based treatment comprising psychosocial interventions and medication management. The article concludes by exploring the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic on people who use drugs and their access to treatment.


Subject(s)
Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Adolescent , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Illicit Drugs/adverse effects , Psychosocial Intervention/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
J Dual Diagn ; 17(3): 248-256, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281819

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has posed a great challenge for the existing health systems. The restrictions imposed across countries on the movement of people and the realignment of health care services in response to the pandemic are likely to negatively affect the health status and delivery of mental health services to persons with dual disorders (PWDD). Methods: An online survey was conducted among mental health professionals involved in providing care to PWDD to better understand the problems encountered and identify potential solutions in providing continued treatment for PWDD during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: The findings confirmed significant disruption in the delivery of treatment services for PWDD during the COVID-19 pandemic. Dissatisfaction with personal protective equipment, inadequate COVID-19 testing services at treatment facility, and lack of guidelines on providing continued treatment services to PWDD by national authorities or professional bodies were identified as the likely reasons for this disruption. Conclusions: These concerns in turn need to be addressed by the policy-makers, hospital management staff, and other stakeholders. Specifically, there should be a focus on developing and disseminating guidelines to assist mental health professionals in setting-up and providing continued treatment services to PWDD via tele-psychiatry and other novel digital strategies.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Health Services Needs and Demand , Mental Disorders/therapy , Mental Health Services , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , COVID-19 , Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry) , Health Personnel , Humans , Mental Disorders/psychology , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
15.
J Prev Interv Community ; 50(2): 151-162, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266058

ABSTRACT

Recovery homes are a widespread community resource that might be utilized by some individuals with substance use disorders (SUD) and COVID-19. A growing collection of empirical literature suggests that housing can act as a low-cost recovery support system which could be effective in helping those with SUD sustain their recovery. Such settings could be already housing many residents affected by COVID-19. Many of these residents are at high risk for COVID-19 given their histories of SUD, homelessness, criminal justice involvement, and psychiatric comorbidity. Stable housing after treatment may decrease the risk of relapse to active addiction, and these types of settings may have important implications for those with housing insecurity who are at risk for being infected with COVID-19. Given the extensive network of community-based recovery homes, there is a need to better understand individual- and organizational-level responses to the COVID-19 pandemic among people in recovery homes as well as those managing and making referrals to the houses. At the present time, it is unclear what the effects of COVID-19 are on recovery home membership retention or dropout rates. This article attempts to provide a better understanding of the possible impact of COVID-19 on the infected and on recovery resources in general.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Adaptation, Psychological , Housing , Humans , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
16.
Cogn Behav Ther ; 50(3): 179-184, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238117

ABSTRACT

The novel 2019 SARS-2-CoV causing COVID-19 has had a devastating impact on the entire world. COVID-19 is a broad-based stressor, and research to date has documented increases in mental health problems, including anxiety, depression, and substance use, since the onset of COVID-19. By taking a transdiagnostic approach, scholars can help elucidate mechanisms and vulnerability as well as resiliency related to behavioral health problems in the context of COVID-19. The aim of the current special issue of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy was to showcase ongoing research focused on transdiagnostic factors in the context of COVID-19. The purpose of this issue is to highlight the significance of this work in the pandemic for research and practice; illustrate some of the many domains currently being explored via innovative approaches; and explicate fruitful areas for programmatic study. We hope that readers will recognize the important role of transdiagnostic models and their potential to offset the mental, addictive, and physical health disease burden of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety/diagnosis , Behavior, Addictive/diagnosis , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder/diagnosis , Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Behavior, Addictive/psychology , Depression/psychology , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
17.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(4): 391-401, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236061

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Guided by accounts of adjustment in daily life as a key indicator of health, the current study examined prospective changes in young adults' emotions and substance behaviors assessed during a normative baseline period and during the acute COVID-19 disruption period in late March/early April 2020. The COVID-19 assessment also collected psychosocial risk factors expected to moderate changes in adjustment across time. METHOD: Participants included 295 young adults (70.8% female; ages 18-21 at baseline), drawn from an ongoing study of daily behaviors and health in college life that oversampled for recent substance behaviors, who completed both the baseline and COVID-19 assessments. Hypotheses were tested using analyses of repeated-measures data that included covariates of length of time between assessments and sampling group status. RESULTS: Direct tests in support of hypotheses indicated an increase in negative affect (d = .67, p < .001), and greater alcohol use (d = .75, p < .001) and marijuana use (d = .58, p < .001), in daily life across time. Levels of positive affect (d = .08, p > .05), nicotine use (d = .01, p > .05), and prescription drug misuse (d = .003, p > .05) did not reliably change in tests of direct models. Moderation tests indicated several risk factors for experiencing steeper increases in negative affect, and increased likelihood of marijuana and nicotine use, in daily life across time. CONCLUSIONS: Findings offer implications for future research and clinical efforts to improve young adult adjustment in response to the pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Affect , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , COVID-19 , Marijuana Use/epidemiology , Marijuana Use/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Nicotine , Prescription Drug Misuse/psychology , Prescription Drug Misuse/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Smoking/epidemiology , Smoking/psychology , Universities , Young Adult
18.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 68(5): 977-990, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233567

ABSTRACT

Studies have yielded mixed findings regarding changes in adolescent substance use during the COVID-19 pandemic; some report increased alcohol and cannabis use, others show less binge drinking and vaping behaviors, and others no change. In 2019, only 8.3% of the 1.1 million adolescents with a substance use disorder received specialized treatment. Treatment rates for 2020 have not yet been published. Stay-at-home orders and social distancing guidelines put into place in March 2020 caused the partial closure of many outpatient substance use clinics. The implications of this treatment suspension and special considerations for working with adolescents during stay-at-home orders are discussed.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Social Isolation/psychology , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Adolescent , Alcoholism/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Humans , Marijuana Abuse/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Vaping/epidemiology
19.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 34(4): 363-368, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232249

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) virus imposes a higher risk of complications and mortality among people with mental disorders. Until widely available vaccines, adherence to preventive behaviours remains the most crucial tool to prevent SARS/COVID-19 virus transmission. Our review focuses on the determinants of adherence behaviours. RECENT FINDINGS: Adherence behaviours include the use of a face mask and protective gloves, personal hygienic behaviours (handwashing or using hand sanitiser), and keeping physical distance and avoiding social gatherings. In almost all studies, males and younger people show less adherence. Risk perception and health beliefs (especially perceived severity of COVID-19 related conditions) can explain the sex and age differences in adherence. Studies covering the impact of mental disorders on adherence are surprisingly missing, with the exception of smoking. SUMMARY: Engaging men and young people in adopting preventive behaviours is crucial in protecting the whole community and specific vulnerable populations. There is a lack of studies investigating preventive behaviours among people living with mental disorders and addiction problems. Furthermore, descriptive and intervention studies are needed to understand and improve the adherence of this population to preventive behaviours.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Masks , Physical Distancing , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology , Adolescent , Age Factors , Female , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
20.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 34(4): 325-331, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232248

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The international, public health crisis caused by the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in unforeseen medical and psychiatric consequences. We reviewed publications from January 2020 to January 2021, given that earlier documents were not relevant, to review findings on changes in substance use and overdoses during the pandemic. Additionally, this review of the literature also documents advocacy efforts, health service modification and challenges, as well as COVID-related health complications associated with substance use. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent work focused on identifying changes in the distribution and use of substances as well as the unique challenges to promoting the health of persons who use substances in the current pandemic. Although COVID-19 has triggered unprecedented innovations in the organizational and public policy, the use of certain substances (alcohol, cannabis, cigarettes, fentanyl, heroin, and opiates) is increasing internationally. Unique associations between substance use and pandemic-related adverse health outcomes were identified. In addition, the pandemic precipitated significant barriers and disruptions to care. SUMMARY: Given increased overdose rates and infections among people who use drugs, continued surveillance and vigilance are needed to assess changes and reduce use and adverse consequences during the continuing COVID-19 crisis. Changes are urgently needed to reduce adverse health outcomes because of treatment barriers and lack of adequate treatment options. Additionally, integrative approaches are necessary to promote the public health of persons who use substances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Internationality , Public Health , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
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