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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 775, 2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886942

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare providers were forced to shift many services quickly from in-person to virtual, including substance use disorder (SUD) and mental health (MH) treatment services. This led to a sharp increase in telehealth services, with health systems seeing patients virtually at hundreds of times the rate as before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. By analyzing qualitative data about SUD and MH care organizations' experiences using telehealth, this study aims to elucidate emergent themes related to telehealth use by the front-line behavioral health workforce. METHODS: This study uses qualitative data from large-scale web surveys distributed to SUD and MH organizations between May and August 2020. At the end of these surveys, the following question was posed in free-response form: "Is there anything else you would like to say about use of telehealth during or after the COVID-19 pandemic?" Respondents were asked to answer on behalf of their organizations. The 391 responses to this question were analyzed for emergent themes using a conventional approach to content analysis. RESULTS: Three major themes emerged: COVID-specific experiences with telehealth, general experiences with telehealth, and recommendations to continue telehealth delivery. Convenience, access to new populations, and lack of commute were frequently cited advantages of telehealth, while perceived ineffectiveness of and limited access to technology were frequently cited disadvantages. Also commonly mentioned was the relaxation of reimbursement regulations. Respondents supported continuation of relaxed regulations, increased institutional support, and using a combination of telehealth and in-person care in their practices. CONCLUSIONS: This study advanced our knowledge of how the behavioral health workforce experiences telehealth delivery. Further longitudinal research comparing treatment outcomes of those receiving in-person and virtual services will be necessary to undergird organizations' financial support, and perhaps also legislative support, for virtual SUD and MH services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health Services , Substance-Related Disorders , Telemedicine , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Workforce , Humans , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy
2.
J Behav Health Serv Res ; 49(3): 262-281, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872666

ABSTRACT

This study aims to describe which substance use service (SUS) organizations and who within these organizations support the maintenance of policies targeted at improving substance use treatment services. An online survey assessing respondent, organizational and program demographics, and knowledge and support regarding policy changes was distributed to all certified SUS and harm reduction programs in NYS. Bivariate and latent class analyses were used to identify patterns and associations to policy choices. Across the 227 respondents, there was a support for maintaining expansion of insurance coverage, virtual behavioral health/counseling and medication initiation/maintenance visits, reductions in prior authorizations, and access to prevention/harm reduction services. Three classes of support for policies were derived: (1) high-supporters (n = 49; 21%), (2) low-supporters (n = 66; 29%), and (3) selective-supporters. Having knowledge of policy changes was associated with membership in the high-supporters class. Implications regarding the role of knowledge in behavioral health policies dissemination structures, decision-making, and long-term expansion of SUS are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Policy , Humans , Insurance Coverage , New York , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy
3.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1063, 2022 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1866318

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intersecting opioid overdose, COVID-19, and systemic racism epidemics have brought unprecedented challenges to the addiction treatment and recovery workforce. From 2017 to 2020, the New England Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC) collected data in real-time on the training and technical assistance (TA) requested and attended by the front-line workforce. This article synthesizes practice-based evidence on the types of TA requests, topics of TA, attendance numbers, and socio-demographics of TA attendees over a 3-year period spanning an unprecedented public health syndemic. METHODS: We assessed TA events hosted by the New England ATTC using SAMHSA's Performance Accountability and Reporting System post-event survey data from 2017 to 2020. Events were coded by common themes to identify the most frequently requested training types/topics and most frequently attended training events. We also evaluated change in training topics and attendee demographics over the three-year timeline. RESULTS: A total of 258 ATTC events reaching 10,143 participants were analyzed. The number of TA events and attendance numbers surged in the 2019-2020 fiscal year as TA events shifted to fully virtual during the COVID-19 pandemic. The absolute number of opioid-related events increased, but the relative proportion remained stable over time. The relative proportions of events and attendance rates focused on evidence-based practice and health equity both increased over the 3-year period, with the largest increase after the onset of the pandemic and the murder of George Floyd. As events shifted to virtual, events were attended by providers with a broader range of educational backgrounds. CONCLUSIONS: Results of the current analysis indicate that the demand for TA increased during the pandemic, with a prioritization of TA focused on evidence-based practice and health equity. The practice-based evidence generated from the New England ATTC may help other training and TA centers to anticipate and nimbly respond to the needs of the workforce in the face of the intersecting epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health/methods , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Workforce
4.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 87(4): 1016-1023, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic disadvantages and potential immunocompromise raise particular concerns for people living with HIV (PLWH) and other marginalized communities during the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we explored COVID-19 testing and the impact of the pandemic among participants from the Miami Adult Studies on HIV cohort, predominantly composed of low-income minorities living with and without HIV. METHODS: Between July and August 2020, a telephone survey was administered to 299 Miami Adult Studies on HIV participants to assess COVID-19 testing, prevention behaviors, and psychosocial stressors. Health care utilization, antiretroviral adherence, food insecurity, and substance use during the pandemic were compared with those of their last cohort visit (7.8 ± 2.9 months earlier). RESULTS: Half of surveyed participants had been tested for COVID-19, 8 had tested positive and 2 had been hospitalized. PLWH (n = 183) were 42% times less likely than HIV-uninfected participants to have been tested. However, after adjustment for age, employment, COVID-19 symptoms, mental health care, and substance use, the effect of HIV status was no longer significant. PLWH were more likely to have seen a health care provider, use face coverings, and avoid public transportation and less likely to be food insecure and drink hazardously. There were significant changes in substance use patterns during the pandemic when compared with those before. CONCLUSION: PLWH, compared with their HIV-uninfected peers, were more likely to engage in preventive measures and health care during the pandemic, potentially reducing their exposure to COVID-19. There were no reported changes in antiretroviral adherence or health care utilization, but there were changes in substance use; these need to be monitored as this crisis progresses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/complications , HIV Infections/complications , Cohort Studies , Female , Florida , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Poverty , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Vulnerable Populations
5.
Subst Use Misuse ; 57(8): 1322-1327, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864846

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to examine differences between; telehealth and in-person visits during COVID-19 and in a pre-COVID-19 reference period; COVID-19 televisit completion for patients with varying engagement in treatment during the reference period. METHODS: Electronic medical record data were collected and analyzed with chi-squared or t-tests to compare patient demographics. Generalized estimating equations for estimating the odds of outcomes were used, controlling for demographics. RESULTS: Patients were 3.34 and 1.74 times more likely to complete a telehealth visit (n = 11,839) compared with an in-person visit during (n = 7,917) and prior (n = 15,497) to COVID-19. For patients on buprenorphine, patients with no prior in-person visits during the pre-televisit period were 2.26 more likely to complete televisits compared with patients with two or more prior in-person visits. For all patients, those with two or more prior in-person visits in the reference period were 1.27 times more likely to complete a televisit compared with a patient with no in-person visits during the pre-televisit period. There was no significant difference when comparing with patients who had only one prior in-person visit to those patients with no prior visits. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, outpatient substance use disorder (SUD) telehealth appointments were associated with higher odds of visit completion compared with in-person visits during and prior to COVID-19. Patients receiving buprenorphine, without prior in person visits, were more likely to attend if they did not have in-person visits prior to COVID-19. Regulators should consider permanently adopting telehealth flexibilities for SUD treatment once the federal emergency status has ended.


Subject(s)
Buprenorphine , COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Telemedicine , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , Hospitals, Public , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , United States/epidemiology
6.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(4): 475-482, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861000

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has necessitated widespread lockdown to mitigate the pandemic. This study examines the influence of resilience on the impact of COVID-related stress and enforced lockdown on mental health, drug use, and treatment adherence among people living with HIV (PLWH) in Argentina. SETTING: PLWH residing predominantly in Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area and urban regions of Argentina were identified from a private clinic electronic database. METHODS: Participants completed an anonymous online survey to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on economic disruption, resilience, mental health outcomes (depression, anxiety, stress, and loneliness), adherence to HIV treatment, and substance use. We performed ordinary least squares and logistic regressions to test whether resilient coping buffered the impact of economic disruption on mental health and drug use during quarantine. RESULTS: A total of 1336 PLWH aged 18-82 were enrolled. The impact of economic disruption on mental health ΔF(1,1321) = 8.86, P = 0.003 and loneliness ΔF(1,1326) = 5.77, P = 0.016 was buffered by resilience. A 3-way interaction between resilient buffering, stress, and sex was significant ΔF(1,1325) = 4.76, P = 0.029. Participants reported less than excellent adherence to medication (33%), disruption to mental health services (11%), and disruption to substance abuse treatment (1.3%) during lockdown. DISCUSSION: The impact of COVID-stress and lockdown on emotional distress seemed mitigated by resilience coping strategies, and the buffering impact of resilience on perceived stress was greater among women. Results highlight PLWH's capacity to adhere to treatment in challenging circumstances and the importance of developing resilience skills for better coping with stress and adversity.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , HIV Infections/psychology , Mental Health/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Argentina , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/trends , Least-Squares Analysis , Logistic Models , Loneliness , Male , Mental Health Services/standards , Middle Aged , Pandemics/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Resilience, Psychological , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Social Isolation/psychology , Social Support , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/etiology , Substance-Related Disorders/etiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Young Adult
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(10)2022 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855603

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Youth who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, queer, 2-spirit, and of other identities (LGBTQ2S+) experience mental health disparities and higher rates of substance use when compared to their cisgender and heterosexual peers and yet also experience more barriers to access to services. The purpose of this paper is to determine the types of mental health and substance use programs and services exclusive to LGBTQ2S+ youth in Ontario during the pandemic. METHODS: An environmental scan was conducted to identify existing programs and services in Ontario, Canada that offered exclusive mental health and addiction services to LGBTQ2S+ individuals aged 16-29, either by offering services to all or subgroups within the population. Organizations, services and programs were classified by the geographical distribution of services, populations served, types of programming or services, methods of service delivery, and program criteria. RESULTS: In total, 113 organizations and 240 programs and services were identified as providing mental health and substance use services exclusively to LGBTQ2S+ youth. Identified adaptations for the COVID-19 pandemic included cancelling in-person services, increasing online and telephone services, and expansion to province wide from local availability. CONCLUSIONS: The findings highlight the importance of offering services that provide culturally inclusive care for LGBTQ2S+ youth, and these results can also be used by policy makers to inform policies. In particular, there was a lack of culturally relevant clinical services for youth requiring a greater intensity of treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Mental Health , Ontario/epidemiology , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy
9.
J Health Care Poor Underserved ; 33(2): 1107-1113, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846908

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, challenges arose for a Native American residential substance use disorder treatment program in California (e.g., insufficient housing for quarantining, inadequate telehealth bandwidth, food shortages, client skepticism regarding safety needs). These challenges were addressed, culturally appropriate services continued, no clients tested positive for COVID-19, and unexpected benefits arose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Substance-Related Disorders/ethnology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Telemedicine/standards , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , California/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
11.
J Dual Diagn ; 18(2): 71-80, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758539

ABSTRACT

Objective COVID-19 and lockdown measures impacted mental health globally and had a particular impact on patients with substance use disorders (SUD). However, the impact of gender, age, and dual diagnosis on consumption patterns and mental health during COVID-19 lockdown among patients with SUD has not been analyzed in depth. Therefore, this study aimed to examine substance use and mental health status during COVID-19 lockdown considering gender, age, and previous dual diagnosis in patients with SUD treated in different outpatient addiction clinics in Catalonia. Methods: Thirteen clinics participated and 588 patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 70.7% were men and 29.3% were women. The mean age was 48 ± 11.3 years, and 63.2% had dual diagnoses. Results: Men reported significantly more frequent alcohol and cocaine consumption during lockdown, while women experienced more anxiety and depressive symptoms. Younger patients more frequently reported consuming cocaine and cannabis, breaking the lockdown rule, worsened family relationships, and reduced incomes. Older patients more frequently reported maintaining abstinence. Previous dual diagnosis was more often associated with benzodiazepine use disorder, less active working during lockdown, and more anxiety and depressive symptoms than not having previous dual diagnosis. Conclusions: Both new psychiatric symptoms and general worsening of existing symptoms were frequent during the lockdown. Differences based on the gender, age, and dual diagnosis of outpatients treated for substance use disorders should be considered in the planning of protection measures such as home confinement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cocaine , Substance-Related Disorders , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry) , Female , Health Status , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy
12.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 500, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741939

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: People who use drugs (PWUD) are considered vulnerable to COVID-19 exposure and the sequelae of infection due to their social circumstances, health conditions, drug purchasing, and substance use. They can depend on access to services that provide harm reduction, substance use treatment, recovery and support, and general healthcare. Social distancing measures and service restrictions posed significant challenges to the health and wellbeing of PWUD. METHODS: Ethical approvals were secured. PWUD were recruited from voluntary sector homeless and housing, harm reduction, and recovery organisations across central Scotland. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews and analysed using the Framework Method. RESULTS: Twenty nine PWUD participated and reported mixed experiences of the impacts of COVID-19 lockdown. Several benefitted from policy and practice developments designed to sustain or increase access to harm reduction services. Some PWUD reported improved access to substitute prescribing and/or appreciated being trusted to manage multiple take-home doses. Others noted the loss of regular in-person contact with treatment providers and dispensers. Access to recovery support was challenging for many, especially those unable to access or uncomfortable with online provision who experienced greater isolation. Lack of access to general healthcare services was common, and especially problematic for PWUD with chronic physical and mental health conditions. CONCLUSIONS: This qualitative research describes the impacts of COVID-19 social and service restrictions on PWUD in Scotland. These impacts were anticipated by policy makers and service providers. Effective and acceptable developments were shown to maintain and even increase service provision for PWUD. Developments were geographically dependent and significant challenges remained for many people. The learning generated can inform responses to increase service access and uptake in post-pandemic times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Communicable Disease Control , Harm Reduction , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Qualitative Research , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy
13.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 17(1): 15, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724513

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has impacted people with substance use disorders (SUDs) worldwide. The aim of this study was to explore, changes in the number of SUD treatment episodes provided during the height of the pandemic and, SUD treatment providers' perceptions of the impact of COVID-19-related restrictions on people with SUDs and the delivery of SUD treatment services in South Africa. METHODS: We used administrative data collected as part of the South African Community Epidemiology Network on Drug Use (SACENDU) project to assess whether the number of treatment episodes changed during the height of COVID-19 restrictions. We used data from an online survey of SUD treatment providers to assess providers' perceptions of the impact of COVID-19 on SUD treatment delivery. Eight seven SUD facilities were recruited to participate in the online survey. RESULTS: Sixty-three organisations (out of a total of 86) participated in the survey, yielding a 73.2% response rate. About half (n = 30; 47.6%) of the sample thought the need for SUD treatment had remained the same or had increased during the COVID-19 lockdown. Half the sample (n = 32; 50.7%) reported decreased availability of SUD services during COVID-19 lockdowns. Participants believed that the lack of services during COVID-19 lockdown impacted negatively on patients that were enrolled in their programmes and on individuals who wished to access the service. Furthermore, changes in service provision seemed to increase patients' anxiety, exacerbate pre-existing mental health problems and in some cases were thought to precipitate relapse. In addition, patient disengagement and attrition from treatment were thought to have increased during this period. Whilst 47.6% (n = 30) of providers agreed with the value of the alcohol ban, 23.8% (n = 15) of providers thought it had unintended negative consequences. CONCLUSION: Based on the findings it is evident that SUD treatment services in South Africa have been significantly affected during the COVID-19 pandemic and more severely during the onset of the pandemic. Together with service providers, more effective ways should be sought on how to feasibly expand access to SUD treatment for all South Africans and enhance the country's preparedness for future health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy
15.
Psychiatr Clin North Am ; 45(1): 95-107, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665394

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related stressors and restrictions, in the absence of social and institutional support, have led many individuals to either increase their substance consumption or relapse. Consequently, treatment programs for substance use disorders (SUDs) made a transition from in-person to remote care delivery. This review discusses the following evidence regarding changes prompted by the COVID pandemic to the clinical care of individuals with SUDs: (1) reduction in availability of care, (2) increase in demand for care, (3) transition to telemedicine use, (4) telemedicine for treatment of opioid use disorders, and (5) considerations for use of telemedicine in treating SUDs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Opioid-Related Disorders , Substance-Related Disorders , Telemedicine , Humans , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy
16.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 69: 102987, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1588384

ABSTRACT

We examined the impact of telehealth on appointment retention among individuals with substance use disorder (SUD) by housing status. We evaluated appointment status using multivariate logistic regression with primary predictor variables of visit modality, patient's housing status and interaction between these two variables. Between March 1 and September 30, 2020, there were 18,206 encounters among 1,626 clients with SUD. For telehealth encounters, the probability of an appointment no-show was significantly higher for persons experiencing homelessness compared to stably housed (37% versus 25%, p < 0.001). Housing status influences the effectiveness of telehealth as a modality of healthcare delivery for individuals with SUD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeless Persons , Substance-Related Disorders , Telemedicine , Housing , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy
17.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261115, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574235

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The United States is experiencing a drug addiction and overdose crisis, made worse by the COVID-19 pandemic. Relative to other types of health services, addiction treatment and overdose prevention services are particularly vulnerable to disaster-related disruptions for multiple reasons including fragmentation from the general medical system and stigma, which may lead decisionmakers and providers to de-prioritize these services during disasters. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, U.S. states implemented multiple policies designed to mitigate disruptions to addiction treatment and overdose prevention services, for example policies expanding access to addiction treatment delivered via telehealth and policies designed to support continuity of naloxone distribution programs. There is limited evidence on the effects of these policies on addiction treatment and overdose. This evidence is needed to inform state policy design in future disasters, as well as to inform decisions regarding whether to sustain these policies post-pandemic. METHODS: The overall study uses a concurrent-embedded design. Aims 1-2 use difference-in-differences analyses of large-scale observational databases to examine how state policies designed to mitigate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on health services delivery influenced addiction treatment delivery and overdose during the pandemic. Aim 3 uses a qualitative embedded multiple case study approach, in which we characterize local implementation of the state policies of interest; most public health disaster policies are enacted at the state level but implemented at the local level by healthcare systems and local public health authorities. DISCUSSION: Triangulation of results across methods will yield robust understanding of whether and how state disaster-response policies influenced drug addiction treatment and overdose during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results will inform policy enactment and implementation in future public health disasters. Results will also inform decisions about whether to sustain COVID-19 pandemic-related changes to policies governing delivery addiction and overdose prevention services long-term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Drug Overdose/drug therapy , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Disasters , Drug Overdose/mortality , Health Policy , Health Services , Humans , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , United States
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523982

ABSTRACT

This review aimed to identify and synthesize strategies and actions adopted by addiction facilities to support and maintain treatment during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A scoping review was conducted using the following information sources: Virtual Health Library, SCOPUS, Web of Science, PubMed, CINAHL, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Literature. From a total of 971 articles, 28 studies were included. The strategies to maintain the care offer were telehealth/telemedicine, counselling/screening, 24-h telephone, webinars, conducting group therapy and support among users, adaptation for electronic health records, increased methadone/naloxone dispensing, restriction in the number of medication dispensing/day, and electronic prescription and home delivery medications. These strategies can be used to support health professionals in addressing the impact of the pandemic on the treatment of those in recovery or struggling with a substance use disorder when in-person treatment is not possible.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Telemedicine , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy
19.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259525, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496541

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Alcohol and substance misuse are a public health priority. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that harmful alcohol use accounts for 5.1% of the global burden of disease and that 35.6 million people worldwide are affected by substance misuse. The Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has disrupted delivery of face-to-face alcohol and substance misuse interventions and has forced the development of alternative remote interventions or adaptation to existing ones. Although existing research on remote interventions suggests they might be as effective as face-to-face delivery, there has been a lack of systematic exploration of their content, the experience of service users, and their effectiveness for behavioural outcomes. This review will provide a narrative synthesis of the behaviour change techniques (BCT) contained in interventions for alcohol and/or substance misuse and their association with effectiveness. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Systematic searches will be conducted in MEDLINE, Scopus, PsycINFO (ProQuest), and the Cochrane Library. Included studies will be those reporting remote interventions focusing on alcohol and/or substance misuse among adults living in the community and which have a primary behaviour change outcome (i.e., alcohol levels consumed). Data extraction will be conducted by one author and moderated by a second, and risk of bias and behaviour change technique (BCT) coding will be conducted by two authors independently. A narrative synthesis will be undertaken focussing upon the association of BCTs with intervention effectiveness using promise ratios. PATIENT AND PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT (PPI): The Public Involvement in Research Group (PIRG), part of the NIHR-funded PHIRST, will be involved in refining the review questions, eligibility criteria, data synthesis and dissemination. DISSEMINATION: Dissemination will be through an academic peer reviewed publication, alongside other outputs to be shared with non-academic policy, professional, and public audiences, including local authorities, service users and community organisations.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism/therapy , Behavior Therapy , Internet-Based Intervention , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Ethanol , Humans , Internet-Based Intervention/trends
20.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 135: 108640, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474769

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment experience disproportionate rates of tobacco use. California has prioritized smoking cessation among these individuals through the Tobacco-Free for Recovery Initiative, which includes an intervention aimed at supporting programs in implementing tobacco-free grounds. The current study examined changes in client smoking prevalence, tobacco use behaviors, and receipt of cessation services among the first seven programs participating in the initiative. METHODS: Residential treatment program clients completed cross-sectional surveys at the start of the intervention (baseline: n = 249), at an interim timepoint post-baseline (interim: n = 275), and at the end of the intervention 15 months later (post-intervention: n = 219). All participants reported smoking status. Current smokers reported tobacco use behaviors, and both current smokers and those who quit in treatment reported receipt of cessation services. Univariate analyses explored differences across the three timepoints and multivariate logistic regression assessed change from baseline to interim and baseline to post-intervention. RESULTS: Client smoking prevalence decreased from 54.2% at pre- to 26.6% at post-intervention (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.45). Current smokers and those who quit while in treatment reported an increase in NRT/pharmacotherapy (11.9% vs. 25.2%; AOR = 3.02, CI = 1.24, 7.35). When comparing baseline to the interim timepoint (a timepoint before the COVID-19 pandemic), data analyses also demonstrated a significant decrease in smoking prevalence (54.2% vs. 41.8%; AOR = 0.62, CI = 0.42, 0.92) and increase in NRT/pharmacotherapy (11.9% vs. 24.5%; AOR = 3.68, CI = 1.11, 12.19). CONCLUSION: An intervention to promote tobacco-free grounds implemented in residential SUD treatment programs was associated with a significant reduction in client smoking and an increase in NRT/pharmacotherapy. These associations were observed both before the COVID-19 pandemic and in the early stages of the pandemic, suggesting that they may be due to the intervention rather than to the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Tobacco , Tobacco Use
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