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1.
Intern Med J ; 52(6): 1089-1092, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861357

ABSTRACT

The post-COVID-19 care era is likely to see a burgeoning of metabolic dysfunction and chronic kidney disease. Attention to self-care, including nutrition, will underpin the management of those affected. The damaging effects of sugar-sweetened beverages are well documented and profound and counter many accepted medical treatments. Government leadership is urgently required with explicit and strong messaging to avoid sugar-sweetened beverages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sugar-Sweetened Beverages , Beverages , Humans , Sugars
2.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2452: 63-74, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844260

ABSTRACT

Identification of viruses that infects animals or plants, and determination of their quantity are essential for the diagnosis of infectious disease and for the determination of a strategy in the treatment of virus-derived diseases. However, the concentration of viruses existing in a living body (in bodily fluid), food, drinking water, river water, and so on. is not high enough to be detected using conventional diagnostic methods. For example, since the concentration of influenza virus released from an infected person is less than the detection limit of conventional simple examination kits (rapid kit) or even a PCR process at the initial stage of infection, it is difficult to detect the presence of influenza virus which will lead to influenza disease. Our technology allows for safe, efficient, and selective concentration of viruses without troublesome ultracentrifugation, using sugar chain-immobilized metal nanoparticles based on the binding interaction between viruses and sugar chains. For COVID-19, we have developed and commercialized two molecular diagnosis kits: SUDx SARS-CoV-2 detection kit, and SGNP nCoV/Flu PCR detection kit, for the Japanese market in 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Nanoparticles , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva , Sensitivity and Specificity , Sugars
3.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD013320, 2022 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838125

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High intake of added sugar have been suggested to impact the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Knowledge on the subject can contribute to preventing CVD. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of a high versus low-added sugar consumption for primary prevention of CVD in the general population. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S) on 2 July 2021. We also conducted a search of ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) Search Portal for ongoing or unpublished trials. The search was performed together with reference checking, citation searching and contact with study authors to identify additional studies. We imposed no restriction on language of publication or publication status. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), including cross-over trials, that compared different levels of added sugar intake. Exclusion criteria were: participants aged below 18 years; diabetes mellitus (type 1 and 2); and previous CVD. Primary outcomes were incident cardiovascular events (coronary, carotid, cerebral and peripheral arterial disease) and all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting plasma glucose and adverse events (gastrointestinal symptoms and impaired dental health). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: We included 21 RCTs (1110 participants completing the interventions) examining the effects of different levels of added sugar intake with a mean duration of 14 weeks. The study participants were generally described as healthy and the mean age ranged from 22 to 57 years. No studies reported on cardiovascular events or all-cause mortality. There was minimal effect of low intake of added sugar on total cholesterol levels (MD 0.11, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.21; I² = 0%; 16 studies; 763 participants; low certainty of evidence) and triglycerides (MD 0.10, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.17; I² = 3%; 14 studies; 725 participants) but no evidence of effect on LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol. There was minimal effect on diastolic blood pressure (MD 1.52, 95% CI 0.67 to 2.37; I² = 0%; 13 studies; 873 participants) and on systolic blood pressure (MD 1.44, 95% 0.08 to 2.80; I² = 27%, 14 studies; 873 participants; low certainty of evidence), but no evidence of effect on fasting plasma glucose. Only one study reported on dental health, with no events. No other trials reported adverse events (impaired dental health or gastrointestinal symptoms). All results were judged as low-quality evidence according to GRADE. The risk of bias was generally unclear, five studies were classified at an overall low risk of bias (low risk in at least four domains, not including other bias). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: No trials investigating the effect of added sugar on cardiovascular events or all-cause mortality were identified in our searches. Evidence is uncertain whether low intake of added sugar has an effect on risk factors for CVD; the effect was small and the clinical relevance is, therefore, uncertain. Practical ways to achieve reductions in dietary added sugar includes following current dietary recommendations. Future trials should have longer follow-up time and report on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in order to clarify the effect of added sugar on these outcomes. Future trials should also aim for more direct interventions and preferably be more independent of industry funding.


Subject(s)
Cardiovascular Diseases , Adult , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Cholesterol , Dietary Sugars/adverse effects , Humans , Middle Aged , Primary Prevention , Sugars , Young Adult
4.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(5): 680-688, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833671

ABSTRACT

Temporary expansion of the Child Tax Credit (CTC) during the COVID-19 pandemic provided additional monthly income for US families, with no restrictions on use, from July through December 2021. This study examined food security and children's dietary intake after three months of expanded CTC payments. Parents completed online surveys before and after three months of CTC payments. Among parents participating in the expansion, food and beverage purchases were the most common use of expanded CTC funds (45.9 percent), particularly in households with very low food security (63.0 percent). From before to midway through the CTC expansion, very low food security decreased from 12.7 percent to 5.6 percent, and simultaneously, food security increased from 57.4 percent to 66.4 percent. The CTC expansion was also associated with decreases in children's consumption of added sugar, sugar-sweetened beverages, and sweetened fruit beverages. No changes were observed in children's intake of other dietary components. Our findings suggest that the expanded CTC payments may have helped lessen food insecurity and supported reductions in children's intake of added sugar in participating households.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Eating , Food Security , Humans , Sugars
5.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572667

ABSTRACT

Pre-existing comorbidities such as obesity or metabolic diseases can adversely affect the clinical outcome of COVID-19. Chronic metabolic disorders are globally on the rise and often a consequence of an unhealthy diet, referred to as a Western Diet. For the first time in the Syrian hamster model, we demonstrate the detrimental impact of a continuous high-fat high-sugar diet on COVID-19 outcome. We observed increased weight loss and lung pathology, such as exudate, vasculitis, hemorrhage, fibrin, and edema, delayed viral clearance and functional lung recovery, and prolonged viral shedding. This was accompanied by an altered, but not significantly different, systemic IL-10 and IL-6 profile, as well as a dysregulated serum lipid response dominated by polyunsaturated fatty acid-containing phosphatidylethanolamine, partially recapitulating cytokine and lipid responses associated with severe human COVID-19. Our data support the hamster model for testing restrictive or targeted diets and immunomodulatory therapies to mediate the adverse effects of metabolic disease on COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Dietary Carbohydrates/adverse effects , Lipid Metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Animals , COVID-19/pathology , Cricetinae , Cytokines/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Edema , Fibrin , Hemorrhage , Humans , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-6 , Lipidomics , Lipids/blood , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology , Male , Mesocricetus , Obesity , SARS-CoV-2 , Sugars , Vasculitis/pathology , Virus Shedding
6.
Blood ; 138(16): 1386-1387, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560565
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(20)2021 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480794

ABSTRACT

Sugar transporters play important or even indispensable roles in sugar translocation among adjacent cells in the plant. They are mainly composed of sucrose-proton symporter SUT family members and SWEET family members. In rice, 5 and 21 members are identified in these transporter families, and some of their physiological functions have been characterized on the basis of gene knockout or knockdown strategies. Existing evidence shows that most SUT members play indispensable roles, while many SWEET members are seemingly not so critical in plant growth and development regarding whether their mutants display an aberrant phenotype or not. Generally, the expressions of SUT and SWEET genes focus on the leaf, stem, and grain that represent the source, transport, and sink organs where carbohydrate production, allocation, and storage take place. Rice SUT and SWEET also play roles in both biotic and abiotic stress responses in addition to plant growth and development. At present, these sugar transporter gene regulation mechanisms are largely unclear. In this review, we compare the expressional profiles of these sugar transporter genes on the basis of chip data and elaborate their research advances. Some suggestions concerning future investigation are also proposed.


Subject(s)
Membrane Transport Proteins/physiology , Oryza/physiology , Plant Proteins/physiology , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Oryza/microbiology , Stress, Physiological/physiology , Sucrose/metabolism , Sugars/metabolism
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20877, 2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479811

ABSTRACT

Adenovirus vectors offer a platform technology for vaccine development. The value of the platform has been proven during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although good stability at 2-8 °C is an advantage of the platform, non-cold-chain distribution would have substantial advantages, in particular in low-income countries. We have previously reported a novel, potentially less expensive thermostabilisation approach using a combination of simple sugars and glass micro-fibrous matrix, achieving excellent recovery of adenovirus-vectored vaccines after storage at temperatures as high as 45 °C. This matrix is, however, prone to fragmentation and so not suitable for clinical translation. Here, we report an investigation of alternative fibrous matrices which might be suitable for clinical use. A number of commercially-available matrices permitted good protein recovery, quality of sugar glass and moisture content of the dried product but did not achieve the thermostabilisation performance of the original glass fibre matrix. We therefore further investigated physical and chemical characteristics of the glass fibre matrix and its components, finding that the polyvinyl alcohol present in the glass fibre matrix assists vaccine stability. This finding enabled us to identify a potentially biocompatible matrix with encouraging performance. We discuss remaining challenges for transfer of the technology into clinical use, including reliability of process performance.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae/genetics , Adenovirus Vaccines/chemistry , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccine Potency , Adenoviruses, Simian , Biocompatible Materials , Calorimetry, Differential Scanning , Glass , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Light , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Materials Testing , Microscopy, Confocal , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Polyvinyl Alcohol , Rabies Vaccines , Scattering, Radiation , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Sugars/chemistry , Temperature , Thermogravimetry , Trehalose/chemistry
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(13)2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302309

ABSTRACT

Background: in the context of the ongoing obesity epidemic and increase in cases of metabolic disorders among the population, it is significant, from the health, nutritional, and economic point of view, to a look at the habits of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption of adults in Poland. This study aims to determine the sweetened beverages, which are the most popular and most frequently consumed by Polish consumers in correlation with sex, age, income, and education of the studied group of adults. Methods: The survey study was based on the Computer-Assisted Web Interview (CAWI) and was conducted on a representative sample of 500 adult Poles, within the period from May to June 2020. The fundamental stage of the survey included the question, which asked the respondents to assess the frequency of consuming selected eleven sweetened or unsweetened beverages. Socio-economic characteristics of the respondents were considered when evaluating whether these factors aligned with the behaviors regarding the frequency of beverage consumption. Results: The consumption of SSBs tends to decrease along with consumer's age. A decrease, which could be associated with level of consumers' education level and correlation with income could not be verified. Adults drink sugar sweetened beverages less often than younger consumers, and women drink them less often than men. Conclusions: Identification of the frequency of sugar-sweetened beverage intake can indicate directions for further national or regional action against the spread of obesity. Moreover, attention should be drawn to young males who consume beverages abundant in high sugar most often.


Subject(s)
Sugar-Sweetened Beverages , Adult , Beverages , Female , Humans , Male , Obesity/epidemiology , Poland/epidemiology , Sugars
12.
Science ; 372(6546): 1041-1042, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276878
13.
Carbohydr Polym ; 268: 118259, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242891

ABSTRACT

Nitrocellulose (NC) membrane can have value-added applications for lateral flow assay (LFA)-based diagnostic tools, which has great potential for the detection of pathogens, such as COVID-19, in different environments. However, poor sensitivity of the NC membrane based LFA limits its further application in many cases. Herein, we developed a facile method for LFA sensitivity enhancement, by incorporating two-sugar barrier into LFAs: one between the conjugation pad and the test line, and the other between the test line and the control line. ORF1ab nucleic acid of COVID-19 was used as the model target to demonstrate the concept on the HF120 membrane. Results show that at optimum conditions, the two sugar barrier LFAs have a detection limit of 0.5 nM, which is compared to that of 2.5 nM for the control LFA, achieving a 5-fold sensitivity increase. This low cost, easy-to-fabricate and easy-to-integrate LFA method may have potential applications in other cellulose paper-based platforms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Collodion/chemistry , RNA, Messenger/analysis , Sugars/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , DNA/chemistry , DNA Probes/chemistry , Gold/chemistry , Limit of Detection , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Polyproteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
Br Dent J ; 228(8): 595, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241804
15.
Appetite ; 163: 105214, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157121

ABSTRACT

Fluid dairy milk consumption has decreased over the last 4 decades, and this drop has accelerated with the introduction of many competing beverage alternatives, such as plant-based milks and bottled water. Conversely, flavored milk sales remain strong, but many adults avoid flavored milk because of concerns about added sugar and calories and/or excessive sweetness. Here we used two discrete choice experiments to assess interest for a dark chocolate milk drink in adults, and explored whether there might be a consumer segment who prefers a more bitter, lower sugar chocolate milk. Adults were recruited from the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States for two conjoint analysis studies. In a general population cohort (n = 735), type of sweetener was the most important attribute (24%), followed by milk fat (19%), grams of added sugar (16%), front of pack messaging (15%), package type (12%), carton size (8%), and protein content (6%). Attribute importance was relatively consistent in a second study with a younger, more physically active cohort (n = 1017). Product choices in the active cohort were related to orthorexia and physically activity scores, indicating revealed preferences in a choice task are reflective of personal lifestyle and eating behavior. In both cohorts, three consistent consumer segments were identified and characterized: the calorie conscious, the average consumer, and the natural eaters. These data can help uncover lifestyle differences between adult consumers that impact their food product choices.


Subject(s)
Chocolate , Sweetening Agents , Adult , Animals , Consumer Behavior , Exercise , Humans , Milk , Sugars , United States
16.
Biomed J ; 43(5): 393-398, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893637

ABSTRACT

This issue of the Biomedical Journal acquaints us with the compelling hypothesis that the vascular glycocalyx lies at the intersection of severe COVID-19 risk factors and damages, and the ways used by artificial intelligence to predict interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and human proteins. Furthermore, we explore the antiviral potential of valinomycin and the long list of COVID-19-related clinical trials, and learn how (not) to fix a broken femoral head. Last but not least, we get to enjoy the tale of the cellular oxygen-sensing system as well as the role of the host complement system during Leptospira infection, and learn that SARS-CoV-2 can sometimes come with a pathogenic plus one.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sugars , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Risk Factors , Sugars/pharmacology
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