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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2143144, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620075

ABSTRACT

Importance: Self-harm and deaths among adolescents and young adults are notably related to drug poisonings and suicide. With the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, there are projections about a greater likelihood of such events arising among adolescents and young adults. Objective: To evaluate the risk of self-harm, overdose, and all-cause mortality among adolescents and young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study took place in Ontario, Canada, where a universal health care system captures all emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths. The participants included all adolescents and young adults born in Ontario between 1990 and 2006, who were aged 14 to 24 years between March 1, 2018, and June 30, 2021. Exposures: The COVID-19 pandemic era (April 1, 2020 to June 30, 2021), relative to the 2 years preceding the pandemic (March 1, 2018 to February 28, 2020). Main Outcomes and Measures: ED encounters or hospitalizations for self-harm or overdose. A secondary outcome was self-harm, overdose, or all-cause mortality. Cause-specific hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CIs were used for the primary outcome. Follow-up started at March 1, 2018, or the individual's 14th birthday, whichever was later, and age was used as the time scale. Results: In this study, 1 690 733 adolescents and young adults (823 904 [51.3%] female participants) were included with a median (IQR) age of 17.7 (14.1-21.4) years at start of follow-up. After 4 110 903 person-years of follow-up, 6224 adolescents and young adults experienced the primary outcome of self-harm or overdose during the pandemic (39.7 per 10 000 person-years) vs 12 970 (51.0 per 10 000 person-years) prepandemic, with an HR of 0.78 (95% CI, 0.75-0.80). The risk of self-harm, overdose, or death was also lower during than before the pandemic (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.76-0.81), but not all-cause mortality (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.86-1.05). Conclusions and Relevance: Among adolescents and young adults, the initial 15-month period of the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a relative decline in hospital care for self-harm or overdose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Overdose , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Pandemics , Self-Injurious Behavior , Suicide , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cause of Death , Cohort Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Drug Overdose/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
2.
Lancet ; 398(10303): 920-930, 2021 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593950

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has heightened interest in how physician mental health can be protected and optimised, but uncertainty and misinformation remain about some key issues. In this Review, we discuss the current literature, which shows that despite what might be inferred during training, physicians are not immune to mental illness, with between a quarter and a third reporting increased symptoms of mental ill health. Physicians, particularly female physicians, are at an increased risk of suicide. An emerging consensus exists that some aspects of physician training, working conditions, and organisational support are unacceptable. Changes in medical training and health systems, and the additional strain of working through a pandemic, might have amplified these problems. A new evidence-informed framework for how individual and organisational interventions can be used in an integrated manner in medical schools, in health-care settings, and by professional colleagues is proposed. New initiatives are required at each of these levels, with an urgent need for organisational-level interventions, to better protect the mental health and wellbeing of physicians.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Physicians/psychology , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Burnout, Professional , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/prevention & control , Pandemics , Physicians, Women/psychology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Suicide/prevention & control , Work Schedule Tolerance
3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260931, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581766

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, US populations have experienced elevated rates of financial and psychological distress that could lead to increases in suicide rates. Rapid ongoing mental health monitoring is critical for early intervention, especially in regions most affected by the pandemic, yet traditional surveillance data are available only after long lags. Novel information on real-time population isolation and concerns stemming from the pandemic's social and economic impacts, via cellular mobility tracking and online search data, are potentially important interim surveillance resources. Using these measures, we employed transfer function model time-series analyses to estimate associations between daily mobility indicators (proportion of cellular devices completely at home and time spent at home) and Google Health Trends search volumes for terms pertaining to economic stress, mental health, and suicide during 2020 and 2021 both nationally and in New York City. During the first pandemic wave in early-spring 2020, over 50% of devices remained completely at home and searches for economic stressors exceeded 60,000 per 10 million. We found large concurrent associations across analyses between declining mobility and increasing searches for economic stressor terms (national proportion of devices at home: cross-correlation coefficient (CC) = 0.6 (p-value <0.001)). Nationally, we also found strong associations between declining mobility and increasing mental health and suicide-related searches (time at home: mood/anxiety CC = 0.53 (<0.001), social stressor CC = 0.51 (<0.001), suicide seeking CC = 0.37 (0.006)). Our findings suggest that pandemic-related isolation coincided with acute economic distress and may be a risk factor for poor mental health and suicidal behavior. These emergent relationships warrant ongoing attention and causal assessment given the potential for long-term psychological impact and suicide death. As US populations continue to face stress, Google search data can be used to identify possible warning signs from real-time changes in distributions of population thought patterns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Cell Phone/statistics & numerical data , Search Engine/statistics & numerical data , Socioeconomic Factors , Suicide/psychology , Geographic Information Systems , Humans , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , New York City , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Search Engine/trends , Stress, Psychological , Time Factors , United States
4.
Front Public Health ; 9: 756360, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581117

ABSTRACT

Suicide events may have a negative impact on all of society. The media plays a significant role in suicide prevention. Therefore, the aims of this study are (a) to understand the association between characteristics of suicide events and characteristics of who committed suicide, and event impact indexes (EIIs) of suicide reported on the internet; (b) to analyze violation of recommendations for reporting suicide by Weibo, and (c) to investigate the effect of online reports of suicide on public opinion. We carried out a content analysis of online reports of suicide. This study analyzed 113 suicide events, 300 news reports of suicide, and 2,654 Weibo comments about suicide collected from the WeiboReach between 2015 and 2020. We used a t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) to explore the potential factors associated with the EIIs of suicide events. The results found that (a) The suicide events reported on the internet during COVID-19 and those related to celebrities and students tend to have higher EIIs; (b) suicide reports on Weibo frequently violated WHO recommendations for suicide reporting in the media; and (c) public opinion of suicide reporting in the online media was mostly emotional and irrational, which is not beneficial for public mental health and suicide prevention. In conclusion, first, the situation of many people working from home or studying from home and spreading more time online during COVID-19 may lead to suicide events obtain more public attention. Online media could further improve public responsible reporting and daily media-content surveillance, especially taking particular care in those suicide events during COVID-19, and related to celebrities and students, which may have a higher event impact on the internet. Second, health managers should regular assessment of observance of the WHO recommendations for suicide reporting by online social media to prevent suicide. Third, health communication managers should use big data to identify, assess, and manage harmful information about suicide; and track anyone affected by suicide-related reports on social media to reduce the negative impact of public opinion to intervene suicide in the early stage of suicide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Suicide , Humans , Public Opinion , SARS-CoV-2 , Suicide/prevention & control
5.
J Contin Educ Nurs ; 52(11): 500-501, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551670

ABSTRACT

Recently, some high-profile athletes and other celebrities have raised the visibility and public discussion of issues of mental health. The dialogue about mental health and the most extreme effect of depression, increased suicide rates, is needed now more than ever. The level of moral distress that our health care workers are experiencing in this recent spike of corona-virus disease (COVID-19) infection is taking an incredible social, emotional, and professional toll. Some describe their experience as post-traumatic stress disorder, and others report experiencing numbness, fog, despair, and hopelessness. The intervention discussed here, R U OK?, is gaining traction on social media as a way that everyone can engage to help to address the effects on individuals. [J Contin Educ Nurs. 2021;52(11):500-501.].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Suicide , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Nurs Adm Q ; 46(1): 19-28, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550630

ABSTRACT

Nurses are known to be at an increased risk of death by suicide, and recent studies have found links between nurse suicide, substance use, mental health issues, and job problems. Because of stigma, inaccessibility of resources, and regulatory and legal issues, nurses are unlikely to seek help unless a crisis forces them into treatment. The purpose of this article is to review the current understanding of nurse suicide, the psychological impact of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, the strategic planning approach to identify the needs of nurses, and promising interventions and practices. Evidence-based strategies to intervene at the personal, institutional, and regulatory levels should be employed to reduce nurse suicide by focusing not only on suicide but also on treatment of substance and mental health issues, as well as a renewed focus on disciplinary procedures that may place nurses in immediate danger of death by suicide. Nurse leaders have a moral obligation to provide proactive, meaningful interventions to reduce the risk of death by suicide among nurses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Substance-Related Disorders , Suicide , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Pediatrics ; 148(1)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Depression is common, and suicide rates are increasing. Adolescent depression screening might miss those with unidentified suicide risk. Our primary objective in this study was to compare the magnitude of positive screen results across different approaches. METHODS: From June 2019 to October 2020, 803 mostly Medicaid-enrolled adolescents aged ≥12 years with no recent history of depression or self-harm were screened with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Modified for Adolescents (PHQ-9A) and the Ask Suicide-Screening Questions (ASQ) across 12 primary care practices. Two PHQ-9A screening strategies were evaluated: screening for any type of depression or other mental illness (positive on any item) or screening for major depressive disorder (MDD) (total score ≥10). RESULTS: Overall, 56.4% of patients screened positive for any type of depression, 24.7% screened positive for MDD, and 21.1% screened positive for suicide risk. Regardless of PHQ-9A screening strategy, the ASQ identified additional subjects (eg, 2.2% additional cases compared with screening for any type of depression or other mental illness and 8.3% additional cases compared with screening positive for MDD). Of those with ≥6 month follow-up, 22.9% screened positive for any type of depression (n = 205), 35.6% screened positive for MDD (n = 90), and 42.7% with a positive ASQ result (n = 75) had a depression or self-harm diagnosis or an antidepressant prescription. CONCLUSIONS: Suicide risk screening identifies cases not identified by depression screening. In this study, we underscore opportunities and challenges in primary care related to the high prevalence of depression and suicide risk. Research is needed regarding optimal screening strategies and to help clinicians manage the expected number of screening-identified adolescents.


Subject(s)
Depression/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Primary Health Care/methods , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Loneliness , Male , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Suicide/prevention & control , Young Adult
9.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 66: 102858, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525660

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the health and wellbeing of communities worldwide. Measures to limit transmission, have enhanced vulnerability of individuals to well identified risk factors associated with mental illness and suicide. These include a sense of loneliness, anxiety, depression, insomnia, PTSD, harmful alcohol and drug use. Given that the potential for increased rates of suicide persist, the suicide prevention agenda remains urgent and essential. The same is one of the cornerstones of resilience in a society that is facing an array of challenges due to the pandemic. In this article, we recommend few possible strategies for attenuating suicide risk amidst the COVID-19 pandemic with particular relevance to the Indian context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Suicide/prevention & control
11.
Eur J Public Health ; 31(Supplement_4): iv31-iv35, 2021 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506315

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic is a disaster that has impacted lives globally. The purpose of this paper is to understand the linkage between COVID-19 and its impact on mental health. To reach this aim, we reviewed the literature on COVID-19 and mental conditions. Based on the literature, we identified COVID-19 as an unexpected, large-scale event that disrupted communities and caused death, destruction and trauma which upended normal existence. For mental conditions, effects of the pandemic are likely to manifest in different ways: development of symptoms in previously healthy individuals, new episodes in those with predisposition to mental disorders and development of symptoms that do not meet diagnostic criteria. The level of mental health problems varies depending on the stage of the pandemic, country, population groups and types of conditions. This also applies to the level of suicide, although suicides do not seem to have increased during the pandemic. Yet, we identified a net of factors contributing to mental conditions, in general. These factors include demographic factors (e.g. female gender, younger and older age), social factors (e.g. economically disadvantaged), mental factors (e.g. pre-existing mental conditions) and relationship factors (e.g. stressful relationship, lack of relationships). Additionally, we identified COVID-19-specific factors such as threat to own life and threat to life of loved ones, containment measures and interruption of services and social life. We further explored potentially additional suicide-related risk factors. Regardless of differences, health care and psychosocial systems were in many countries not prepared to respond to a viral disaster. Viral disaster requires that responses not only include direct care but also responses to populations that may need support due to known determinants of mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disasters , Suicide , Aged , Female , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(20): 6397-6407, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503071

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic and leading cause of death. Beyond the deaths directly caused by the virus and the suicides related to the psychological response to the dramatic changes as socioeconomic related to the pandemic, there might also be suicides related to the inflammatory responses of the infection. Infection induces inflammation as a cytokine storm, and there is an increasing number of studies that report a relationship between infection and suicide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched the World Health Organization status report and the PubMed database for keywords (COVID-19, suicide, infection, inflammation, cytokines), and reviewed five cytokine pathways between suicide and inflammation using two meta-analyses and two observational studies starting from November 31, 2020, focusing on the relationship between suicide and inflammation by infection. First, we discussed existing evidence explaining the relationship between suicidal behaviors and inflammation. Second, we summarized the inflammatory features found in COVID-19 patients. Finally, we highlight the potential for these factors to affect the risk of suicide in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Patients infected with COVID-19 have high amounts of IL-1ß, IFN-γ, IP10, and MCP1, which may lead to Th1 cell response activation. Also, Th2 cytokines (e.g., IL-4 and IL-10) were increased in COVID-19 infection. In COVID-19 patients, neurological conditions, like headache, dizziness, ataxia, seizures, and others have been observed. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pandemic can serve as a significant environmental factor contributing directly to increased suicide risk; the role of inflammation by an infection should not be overlooked.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Suicide , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Risk Factors , Suicide/psychology
13.
Prev Med ; 152(Pt 1): 106735, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492770

ABSTRACT

Suicide in old age represents a sad public health concern. Despite the global decline in rates of suicide and the general amelioration of quality of life and access to health care for older adults, their rates of suicide remain the highest virtually in every part of the world. With the aging of the world population and the growing number of mononuclear families, the risk of an increase in isolation, loneliness and dependency does not appear ungrounded. The Covid-19 pandemic is claiming the life of many older persons and creating unprecedented conditions of distress, particularly for this segment of the population. This article briefly examines the main characteristics of suicidal behavior in late life, including observations deriving from the spread of the Sars-2 coronavirus and possible strategies for prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Humans , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(19): 6003-6012, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478938

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to identify potential safety signals of chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), over the period preceding their repurpose as COVID-19 treatment options, through the analysis of safety data retrieved from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) pharmacovigilance database. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a disproportionality analysis of FAERS data between the first quarter of 2004 and December 2019 using the OpenVigil2.1-MedDRA software. Disproportionality was quantified using the reporting odds ratio (ROR) and its 95% confidence interval (CIs). The reported mortality of CQ and HCQ was also investigated. RESULTS: The dataset contained 6,635,356 reports. Comparison of the RORs revealed significant differences between CQ and HCQ for the following adverse events: cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrhythmias, retinal disorders, corneal disorders, hearing disorders, headache, hepatic disorders, severe cutaneous reactions, musculoskeletal disorders, and cytopenia. Only CQ was associated with psychotic disorders, suicide, self-injury, convulsions, peripheral neuropathy, and decreased appetite. In multivariable logistic regression, death was more frequently associated with CQ use, advanced age, male sex, co-reported suicide and self-injury, cardiomyopathy, cardiac arrhythmias, and decreased appetite. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm previously published evidence and suggest that HCQ has a safer clinical profile compared to CQ, and thus could serve as the drug of choice for future therapeutic purposes.


Subject(s)
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , United States Food and Drug Administration , COVID-19/drug therapy , Confidence Intervals , Databases, Factual , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pharmacovigilance , Suicide , United States
15.
Eur Psychiatry ; 64(1): e63, 2021 10 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477491

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Personality traits have been associated with long-term suicide risk but their relationship with short-term risk is still unknown. Therefore, to address this gap, we explored the moderating effect of personality traits on the relationship between the Suicide Crisis Syndrome (SCS) and short-term suicidal behaviors (SB). SAMPLING AND METHODS: Adult participants (N = 459) were administered the Suicide Crisis Inventory (SCI), a validated self-report questionnaire designed to measure the intensity of the Suicidal Crisis Syndrome, the Big Five Inventory for personality traits, and the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale for SB at intake and at a 1-month follow-up. The PROCESS macro in SPSS was used to test the moderation model. Covariates hypothesized to influence the results were added: age, gender, ethnicity, years of education, and depressive symptomatology on the Beck Depression Inventory. This study was a secondary analysis drawn from a larger study on the SCS. RESULTS: SCI total score had a significant positive relationship with SB at the 1-month follow-up for patients with lower levels of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness, respectively. Hence, these four traits were protective against SB. There was an association between SCI and SB for patients with high levels of neuroticism at the 1-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of neuroticism served as a risk factor, whereas high levels of the other Big Five traits were protective factors against short-term SB in the context of elevated SCS symptoms. Thus, personality traits play a role in moderating the relationship between the SCS and imminent SB.


Subject(s)
Suicidal Ideation , Suicide , Adult , Extraversion, Psychological , Humans , Neuroticism , Risk Factors
16.
Psychiatry Res ; 301: 113998, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475002

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, and efforts to mitigate its spread, are creating extensive mental health problems. Experts have speculated the mental, economic, behavioral, and psychosocial problems linked to the COVID-19 pandemic may lead to a rise in suicide behavior. However, a quantitative synthesis is needed to reach an overall conclusion regarding the pandemic-suicide link. In the most comprehensive test of the COVID-19-suicidality link to date, we meta-analyzed data from 308,596 participants across 54 studies. Our results suggested increased event rates for suicide ideation (10.81%), suicide attempts (4.68%), and self-harm (9.63%) during the COVID-19 pandemic when considered against event rates from pre-pandemic studies. Moderation analysis indicated younger people, women, and individuals from democratic countries are most susceptible to suicide ideation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Policymakers and helping professionals are advised that suicide behaviors are alarmingly common during the COVID-19 pandemic and vary based upon age, gender, and geopolitics. Strong protections from governments (e.g., implementing best practices in suicide prevention) are urgently needed to reduce suicide behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide, Attempted/psychology , Suicide/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Suicide/psychology , Suicide, Attempted/statistics & numerical data
17.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S6): e2021417, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1472547

ABSTRACT

Suicide risk and resilience strategies during the different phases of the COVID-19 pandemic are of great interest to researchers. At the pandemic onset, a dramatic suicides exacerbation was feared. Some authoritative authors warned the scientific and clinical community about this risk by pointing out that especially psychiatric, psychological, and social factors could interact with each other to create a vicious cycle. While worldwide case-reports and studies conducted at emergency departments did indeed find an increase in suicidal behavior, recent systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and time-series analyses could not confirm this for the first COVID-19 wave. Instead, it appears that the increased suicide risk outlasted the acute phase of the pandemic and thus affected people more during the pandemic following phases. One possible reason for this phenomenon may be a persistent state of insecurity regarding the economic crisis evolution with serious financial stressors in terms of income decrease, unemployment, repaying debts difficulty, home loss, one's social status derive, social hierarchy drop, and poverty. During the COVID-19 first wave, with particular regard to vulnerable populations, one of the postulated theories unifying different risk factors under a single frame was the "Interpersonal Theory of Suicide". Conversely, the "Interpersonal Trust" theory emerged as a protective factor even during an economic crisis. In a possible mirroring of the two theories, it seems to be feasible to find common themes between them and, above all, to gain relevant insights to devise effective prevention and supportive strategies for dealing with suicide risk challenges that COVID-19 will continue to pose in the foreseeable future. (www.actabiomedica.it).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide , Economic Recession , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Trust
18.
Public Health Res Pract ; 31(3)2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471205

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence, based on the synthesis of reports from past infectious disease-related public health emergencies, supports an association between previous pandemics and a heightened risk of suicide or suicide-related behaviours and outcomes. Anxiety associated with pandemic media reporting appears to be one critical contributing factor. Social isolation, loneliness, and the disconnect that can result from public health strategies during global pandemics also appear to increase suicide risk in vulnerable individuals. Innovative suicide risk assessment and prevention strategies are needed to recognise and adapt to the negative impacts of pandemics on population mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Suicide/prevention & control , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Mental Health , Public Health , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation/psychology , Suicide/psychology
19.
Psychiatr Serv ; 72(10): 1240-1241, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467780
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463642

ABSTRACT

The notion of candidacy emerged three decades ago through Davison and colleagues' exploration of people's understanding of the causes of coronary heart disease. Candidacy was a mechanism to estimate one's own or others risk of disease informed by their lay epidemiology. It could predict who would develop illness or explain why someone succumbed to it. Candidacy's predictive ability, however, was fallible, and it was from this perspective that the public's reticence to adhere to prevention messages could be explained, as ultimately anybody could be 'at-risk'. This work continues to resonate in health research, with over 700 citations of Davison's Candidacy paper. Less explored however, is the candidacy framework in its entirety in other illness spheres, where prevention efforts could potentially impact health outcomes. This paper revisits the candidacy framework to reconsider it use within prevention. In doing so, candidacy within coronary heart disease, suicide prevention, diabetes, and cancer will be examined, and key components of candidacy and how people negotiate their candidacy within differing disease contexts will be uncovered. The applicability of candidacy to address modifiable breast cancer risk factors or cancer prevention more broadly will be considered, as will the implications for public health policy.


Subject(s)
Neoplasms , Suicide , Humans , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/prevention & control
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