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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(12): e2136137, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1567891

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial psychological effect on young people. A quantitative assessment of the association between the pandemic and stress and suicidality in youths is needed. Objective: To investigate the association of the COVID-19 pandemic with self-reported stress and suicide-related behaviors in youths. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used data from the the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS) conducted in 2019 and 2020 with youths aged 12 to 18 years. Statistical analysis was performed from January to February 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: The odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs for subjective stress level, sadness or despair, suicidal thoughts, suicide planning, and suicide attempts among 2020 participants were compared with those of the 2019 participants using multiple logistic regression analysis with complex sampling using weighted values. Results: The 48 443 youths in the 2019 KYRBWS (24 917 male youths [51.3%]; mean [SD] age, 15.0 [1.7] years) and the 44 216 youths in the 2020 KYRBWS (23 103 male youths [52.5%]; mean [SD] age, 15.1 [1.7] years) were compared. The degree of subjective stress was lower in the 2020 participants than in the 2019 participants (severe stress: adjusted OR [aOR], 0.90 [95% CI, 0.83-0.97]; very severe stress: aOR, 0.65 [95% CI, 0.60-0.72]). Sadness or despair was also lower in the 2020 participants than in the 2019 participants (aOR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.78-0.84]). There were fewer suicide-related behaviors, including suicidal thoughts, suicide planning, and suicide attempts, among the 2020 participants than among the 2019 participants (suicidal thoughts: aOR, 0.77 [95% CI, 0.73-0.80]; suicide planning: aOR = 0.88 [95% CI, 0.81-0.96]; suicide attempts: aOR, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.58-0.70]). Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that severe stress, sadness or despair and suicide-related behaviors had inverse associations with the early COVID-19 pandemic in Korean youths. These findings suggest that levels of high stress decreased among Korean youths in the early period of the pandemic compared with prepandemic levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics , Sadness , Stress, Psychological , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide, Attempted , Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Odds Ratio , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Br J Psychiatry ; 218(1): 4-6, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556723

ABSTRACT

Although long-term outcomes of girls with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder are understudied, high risk for adolescent and young-adult self-harm is salient. We present data on predictors and mediators of such risk, highlighting a recent dual-process model involving trait impulsivity plus family- and peer-related contributors. We conclude with recommendations for assessment and preventive intervention.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Self-Injurious Behavior , Adolescent , Adult , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Impulsive Behavior , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Suicide, Attempted
4.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 571, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518262

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to find out the change in the rate and pattern of suicide attempts during severe acute respiratory syndrome COVID-19 pandemic period. METHODS: This study was a retrospective analysis of data collected as a part of an emergency room-based post-suicide management program. The data were collected through interviews and from medical records of suicide attempts, maintained in the emergency room, from January 19 to October 31, 2020, during the "COVID-19 period," and those who attempted suicide from January 19 to October 31, 2019 "pre-COVID-19 period." We extracted educational background, marital status, occupation, presence of domestic partner, history of mental illness, alcohol consumption, history of previous suicide attempts; suicide attempt method and location (i.e., at home or a place other than home) at the time of attempt, and whether the attempt was a mass suicide. In addition, we compared patient severity between "COVID-19 period" and "pre-COVID-19 period" using the initial KTAS (South Korean triage and acuity scale) level, consciousness level, and systolic blood pressure. In 2012, KTAS was developed through the Ministry of Health and Welfare's research project to establish triage system in South Korea. RESULTS: The analysis of the number of suicide attempts during "pre-COVID-19 period" and " COVID-19 period" showed that the number of suicide attempts during "COVID-19 period" (n = 440) increased compared to the "pre-COVID-19 period" (n = 400). Moreover, the method of suicide attempts during "COVID-19 period" included overdose of drugs such as hypnotics, antipsychotics, and pesticides that were already possessed by the patient increased compared to the "pre-COVID-19 period" (P < 0.05). At the time of the visit to the emergency room, high KTAS level, low level of consciousness, and low systolic blood pressure, were observed, which were significantly different between "COVID-19 period" and "pre-COVID-19 period" (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: With the worldwide COVID-19 virus spread, suicide rate and suicide attempts at home have significantly increased. In addition, patient severity was higher in the "COVID-19 period" than that in the "pre-COVID-19 period." The increasing suicide attempt rate should be controlled by cooperation between the emergency room and regional organizations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide, Attempted , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Prev Med ; 152(Pt 1): 106547, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492766

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is affecting the health of people all around the world including mental health as social isolation which has been one of the best infection mitigation efforts is strongly associated with anxiety, depression, self-harm and suicide attempts. These feelings are consistent with past pandemics where there was loss of routine and sociability. Suicidality has been on the rise in the United States and it is within this context that the pandemic has struck. With the risk of suicide being increased, preventative measures need to be implemented at the universal, selective and indicated levels. Universal suicide prevention is needed for the population as a whole regardless of their risk of suicide. Selective prevention is for subgroups at an increased risk and lastly indicated prevention corresponds to people at a very high risk, for example those with recent suicide attempts. Telemedicine, informative and responsible media, as well as monetary help from governments, banks and other major institutions can all help with suicide prevention in these during the pandemic. These resources can broadly help the population at large, but more targeted approaches will be needed for high risk individuals including those with psychiatric diagnoses, COVID-19 survivors, frontline healthcare workers and the elderly. Additionally, those with recent suicide attempts should warrant even more attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Humans , Mental Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Suicide, Attempted , United States
7.
J Affect Disord ; 298(Pt A): 65-68, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487796

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is serious concern over the increase in mental health problems during the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic. METHODS: Based on data from two Mexican National Health and Nutrition Surveys conducted in 2018-2019 and 2020 (n = 17,925 and 4,913, respectively), we estimated the prevalence of suicide attempts among adolescents 10-19 years old in the previous year. We constructed a multivariate logistic regression model adjusted by sociodemographic characteristics and contextual variables for the Covid-19 pandemic. RESULTS: The prevalence of suicide attempts in the previous year was similar in both surveys. We found that women, youth in urban localities and individuals living in households where a family member had lost her/his job as a result of the Covid-19 contingency were more likely to attempt suicide compared to their counterparts. On the other hand, attending classes online proved to be a protective factor (aOR=0.3, 95% CI=0.1, 0.8, p = 0.022). LIMITATIONS: The principal limitation of our study concerned the restricted size of our sample for the 2020 survey wave. CONCLUSIONS: Population-level policies aimed at providing economic protection and helping youth to return to school would exert a favorable impact on the mental health and suicidal behavior of youths.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide, Attempted , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Suicidal Ideation , Young Adult
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480718

ABSTRACT

Few studies have examined the relationship between the therapeutic alliance in therapy and suicidal experiences. No studies have examined this relationship with people with non-affective psychosis. The present study sought to redress this gap in the literature. Sixty-four participants with non-affective psychosis and suicidal experiences who were receiving a suicide-focused cognitive therapy were recruited. Self-reported suicidal ideation, suicide plans, suicide attempts, depression, and hopelessness were collected from participants prior to starting therapy. Suicidal experience measures were collected again post-therapy at 6 months. Therapeutic alliance ratings were completed by clients and therapists at session 4 of therapy. Dose of therapy was documented in number of minutes of therapy. Data were analyzed using correlation coefficients, independent samples t-tests, a multiple hierarchical regression, and a moderated linear regression. There was no significant relationship found between suicidal ideation prior to therapy and the therapeutic alliance at session 4, rated by both client and therapist. However, there was a significant negative relationship between the client-rated therapeutic alliance at session 4 and suicidal ideation at 6 months, after controlling for pre-therapy suicidal ideation, depression, and hopelessness. Furthermore, the negative relationship between the client-rated alliance and suicidal ideation was the strongest when number of minutes of therapy was 15 h or below. A stronger therapeutic alliance developed in the first few sessions of therapy is important in ameliorating suicidal thoughts in people with psychosis. Nevertheless, it is not necessarily the case that more hours in therapy equates to a cumulative decrease in suicidal ideation of which therapists could be mindful. A limitation of the current study was that the alliance was analyzed only at session 4 of therapy, which future studies could seek to redress.


Subject(s)
Psychotic Disorders , Therapeutic Alliance , Humans , Psychotherapy , Psychotic Disorders/therapy , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide, Attempted
9.
Psychiatry Res ; 301: 113998, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475002

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, and efforts to mitigate its spread, are creating extensive mental health problems. Experts have speculated the mental, economic, behavioral, and psychosocial problems linked to the COVID-19 pandemic may lead to a rise in suicide behavior. However, a quantitative synthesis is needed to reach an overall conclusion regarding the pandemic-suicide link. In the most comprehensive test of the COVID-19-suicidality link to date, we meta-analyzed data from 308,596 participants across 54 studies. Our results suggested increased event rates for suicide ideation (10.81%), suicide attempts (4.68%), and self-harm (9.63%) during the COVID-19 pandemic when considered against event rates from pre-pandemic studies. Moderation analysis indicated younger people, women, and individuals from democratic countries are most susceptible to suicide ideation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Policymakers and helping professionals are advised that suicide behaviors are alarmingly common during the COVID-19 pandemic and vary based upon age, gender, and geopolitics. Strong protections from governments (e.g., implementing best practices in suicide prevention) are urgently needed to reduce suicide behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide, Attempted/psychology , Suicide/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Suicide/psychology , Suicide, Attempted/statistics & numerical data
12.
J Int Med Res ; 49(9): 3000605211003452, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410014

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the epidemiological data on suicide in French Polynesia (FP). METHODS: Data on suicides were collected from the Public Health Direction, Judicial Police Investigations Court of Justice records, the Centre d'Opérations et de Renseignements de la Gendarmerie, patient records for those hospitalized in psychiatry and from psychological autopsies. RESULTS: The dataset consisted of 316 suicide cases in FP over 25 years (1992-2016). In FP, suicide was more frequent in men (sex ratio 3.2:1), young people (mean age, 34.4 years) and individuals with previously diagnosed psychiatric disorders (100 of 316; 31.6%) The most common method of suicide was hanging (276 of 316; 87.3%). A history of previous suicide attempts was found in 25 of 56 (44.6%) of suicide cases, when documented. The most common potential triggering factors for suicide were emotional problems. The suicide rates have remained stable during 1992-2016 (mean 10.6/100 000 inhabitants per year), with periods of economic crises increasing suicide rates. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide valuable information to enable the effective targeting of suicide prevention strategies toward those at high risk. Economic crises had larger impacts in the French overseas territories than mainland France. Given the unprecedented economic impact of the Covid-19 pandemic in FP, there is an urgent need to implement suicide epidemiological surveillance and prevention programmes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Suicide, Attempted
13.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(34): e243, 2021 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1379957

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may increase the total number of suicide attempts and the proportion of low-rescue attempts. We investigated the factors affecting low-rescue suicide attempts using the risk-rescue rating scale (RRRS) among patients who visited the emergency department (ED) after attempting suicide before or during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated suicide attempts made by patients who visited our ED from March 2019 to September 2020. Patients were classified into two groups based on whether they attempted suicide before or during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data on demographic variables, psychiatric factors, suicide risk factors and rescue factors were collected and compared. RESULTS: A total of 518 patients were included in the study, 275 (53.1%) of whom attempted suicide during the COVID-19 pandemic. The proportion of patients who made low-rescue suicide attempts differed before and during the COVID-19 pandemic (37.1% vs. 28.8%) (P = 0.046). However, the proportions of patients who made high-risk suicide attempts and high-lethality suicide attempts did not significantly differ between the two periods. The independent risk factors for low-rescue suicide attempts were age and the COVID-19 pandemic (odds ratio [OR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.03; P = 0.006) (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.03-2.25; P = 0.034). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with low-rescue suicide attempts in patients visiting the ED after attempting suicide. Thus, we need to consider the implementation of measures to prevent low-rescue suicide attempts during similar infectious disease crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Failure to Rescue, Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Suicide, Attempted/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Hospitals, University , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Suicide, Attempted/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Care Centers , Young Adult
14.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 62(8): 919-921, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360502

ABSTRACT

This editorial discusses lessons learned from the COVID-19 public health emergency as they relate to the prevention of suicide, the second leading cause of death in adolescents and young adults globally. Recognizing that COVID-19 impact and response varied across nations, we offer a US perspective, addressing two questions: (a) what have we learned from this pandemic and mitigation strategies used to reduce cases of COVID-19 illness and deaths; and (b) how can our research advance knowledge and be advanced by work aimed at understanding the impact of this 'unusual' period? Provisional data indicate that during the pandemic and lockdown period, there were some declines in suicide rates for the total US population and no change in youth. However, data also indicate increases in reported suicidal ideation and behavior, mental health-related ED visits, and ED visits for suicidal ideation and behavior in youth. Heterogeneity of pandemic effects is noteworthy, with ethnic and racial minority populations suffering the most from COVID-19, COVID-19-related risk factors, and possibly suicide deaths. As vaccinations can prevent severe COVID-19 cases and deaths, we also have demonstrations of effective 'psychological inoculations' such as community-based interventions for reducing suicide attempts and deaths. During COVID-19, we mobilized to provide clinical care through telehealth and digital interventions. The challenge now is to continue to put our science to work to mitigate the adverse impacts of the pandemic on suicide and suicide risk factors, our children's mental health, and enhance mental health and well-being in our communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychology, Child , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide, Attempted/prevention & control , Suicide, Attempted/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
15.
Scand J Work Environ Health ; 47(7): 509-520, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1359380

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: High-quality longitudinal evidence exploring the mental health risk associated with low-quality employment trajectories is scarce. We therefore aimed to investigate the risk of being diagnosed with common mental disorders, substance use disorders, or suicide attempt according to low-quality employment trajectories. METHODS: A longitudinal register-study based on the working population of Sweden (N=2 743 764). Employment trajectories (2005-2009) characterized by employment quality and pattern (constancy, fluctuation, mobility) were created. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models for first incidence (2010-2017) diagnosis of common mental disorders, substance use disorders and suicide attempt as dependent on employment trajectories. RESULTS: We identified 21 employment trajectories, 10 of which were low quality (21%). With the exception of constant solo self-employment, there was an increased risk of common mental disorders (HR 1.07-1.62) and substance use disorders (HR 1.05-2.19) for all low-quality trajectories. Constant solo self-employment increased the risk for substance use disorders among women, while it reduced the risk of both disorders for men. Half of the low-quality trajectories were associated with a risk increase of suicide attempt (HR 1.08-1.76). CONCLUSIONS: Low-quality employment trajectories represent risk factors for mental disorders and suicide attempt in Sweden, and there might be differential effects according to sex - especially in terms of self-employment. Policies ensuring and maintaining high-quality employment characteristics over time are imperative. Similar prospective studies are needed, also in other contexts, which cover the effects of the Covid-19 pandemic as well as the mechanisms linking employment trajectories with mental health.


Subject(s)
Employment/statistics & numerical data , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders , Suicide, Attempted/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Incidence , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Disorders/complications , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/etiology , Sweden/epidemiology
16.
Psychiatry Res ; 303: 114072, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356405

ABSTRACT

There has been little research reported regarding both suicide ideation and suicide attempts during the COVID-19 pandemic and government lockdown restrictions in Italy, one of the countries most affected by the pandemic. We investigated whether the frequency of suicide ideation and suicide attempts differed between psychiatric patients admitted to a psychiatric unit before and during the COVID-19 pandemic and government lockdown restrictions. We also assessed psychiatric diagnosis, length of hospitalization, and types of admission. We collected data on 632 psychiatric patients admitted to a public psychiatric clinic. Patients were divided into two different groups according to their admission before or during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our results showed that only suicide attempts, but not suicide ideation, were more frequent in psychiatric patients admitted during the COVID-19 pandemic than before. Furthermore, mood disorder diagnoses were more frequent during the COVID-19 pandemic than before the pandemic. The types of admission and the mean length of hospitalization did not differ between the two groups. In conclusion the present study results adds consistent knowledge on the phenomenon of suicide during the challenging time of the pandemic, pointing to continuing effort in suicide prevention measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Inpatients , SARS-CoV-2 , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide, Attempted
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 15828, 2021 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343475

ABSTRACT

Precise remote evaluation of both suicide risk and psychiatric disorders is critical for suicide prevention as well as for psychiatric well-being. Using questionnaires is an alternative to labor-intensive diagnostic interviews in a large general population, but previous models for predicting suicide attempts suffered from low sensitivity. We developed and validated a deep graph neural network model that increased the prediction sensitivity of suicide risk in young adults (n = 17,482 for training; n = 14,238 for testing) using multi-dimensional questionnaires and suicidal ideation within 2 weeks as the prediction target. The best model achieved a sensitivity of 76.3%, specificity of 83.4%, and an area under curve of 0.878 (95% confidence interval, 0.855-0.899). We demonstrated that multi-dimensional deep features covering depression, anxiety, resilience, self-esteem, and clinico-demographic information contribute to the prediction of suicidal ideation. Our model might be useful for the remote evaluation of suicide risk in the general population of young adults for specific situations such as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/psychology , Neural Networks, Computer , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide, Attempted/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Area Under Curve , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/prevention & control , Prognosis , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Republic of Korea , Resilience, Psychological , Risk Factors , Self Concept , Sensitivity and Specificity , Suicide, Attempted/prevention & control , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
20.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 363, 2021 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1319460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic profoundly impacts on mental health, yet it is still unclear whether COVID-19 distress makes people more vulnerable to suicidal behavior. The present study aims to examine the association between COVID-19 related psychological distress and risk for suicide attempt, and moderators of this association, among hotline callers. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted at the largest psychological support hotline in China. Hotline callers who sought help for psychological distress and reported whether or not they attempted suicide in the last 2 weeks (recent suicide attempt) were analyzed. The primary predictor of recent suicide attempt was the presence or absence of COVID-19 related psychological distress. Demographic variables and common risk and protective factors for suicidal behavior were also studied. Callers with COVID-19 related distress (COVID-19 callers) and those without such distress (non-COVID-19 callers) were compared on these variables. Recent suicide attempt was regressed on COVID-19 related distress and the other variables, and significant interaction terms of aforementioned predictors by COVID-19 related distress, to identify variables that moderate the association of COVID-19 related distress and recent suicide attempt. RESULTS: Among 7337 included callers, there were 1252 COVID-19 callers (17.1%) and 6085 non-COVID-19 callers (82.9%). The COVID-19 callers were less likely to report recent suicide attempt (n = 73, 5.8%) than the non-COVID-19 callers (n = 498, 8.2%, P = 0.005). The COVID-19 callers were also less likely to have high scores on depressive symptoms (22.6% vs 26.3%, P < 0.001) and psychological distress (19.5% vs 27.3%, P < 0.001), and were more likely to have high hopefulness scores (46.5% vs 38.0%, P < 0.001). Tests of moderating effects showed that acute life events were associated with one-half lower risk (P = 0.021), and a trend that suicide attempt history was associated with two-thirds greater risk (P = 0.063) for recent suicide attempt, among COVID-19 callers than non-COVID-19 callers. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 calls are from individuals with lower suicide-related risk compared to more typical callers. Acute stressful life events provided a key context for suicide attempt in non-COVID-19 callers, i.e., more typical calls.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Case-Control Studies , China/epidemiology , Hotlines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Suicide, Attempted
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