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2.
Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 27(4): 325-327, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2136725

ABSTRACT

Reducing deaths by suicide in youth is an urgent public health goal and effective treatment approaches remain limited. This editorial reviews new research published in this issue of Child and Adolescent Mental health that may inform youth suicide prevention efforts, including an open trial of a new, family-focused group intervention for youth with suicidal ideation and findings showing that life problems associated with presentation to the emergency department for self-harm vary by age and gender. The need for multi-component treatments that have the flexibility to target a range of life problems/risk factors and to include families in treatment is discussed, along with the need to find a way to make such interventions scalable. Finally, this editorial addresses this issue's debate by discussing the role of mindfulness in dialectical behavior therapy for suicidal youth and the need to carefully monitor and further examine the effectiveness and safety of mindfulness with this patient population.


Subject(s)
Self-Injurious Behavior , Suicide , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Mental Health , Risk Factors , Self-Injurious Behavior/prevention & control , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide/prevention & control , Suicide/psychology
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(20)2022 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2093844

ABSTRACT

Addressing the mental health needs of healthcare workers (HCWs), who are at high risk of suicide, is an important public health issue. Therefore, this systematic review investigated the effect of psychosocial intervention targeting suicidal behavior (i.e., suicidal ideation, attempt, or fulfillment) of HCWs. Five electronic databases were searched for interventional studies reporting HCWs' suicidal behavior outcomes. Only two interventional studies were included in this review, and no consistent conclusion was drawn from the existing literature regarding the psychosocial prevention strategies focusing on the suicide risk of HCWs. The results indicate that compared with numerous observational studies reporting poor mental health and/or severity of suicidal risk among HCWs, intervention studies using psychosocial strategies to reduce the risk of suicide are relatively scarce. Although the insufficient number and heterogeneity of the included studies leave the results inconclusive, our findings emphasize the need to fill the research gap in this field. The causes of the gap are further explored, and suggestions for future research are provided.


Subject(s)
Suicide , Humans , Suicide/prevention & control , Suicidal Ideation , Mental Health , Research , Health Personnel
5.
Int J Surg ; 106: 106912, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076205
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(18)2022 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071402

ABSTRACT

Many Pre-K through grade 12 (PK-12) students have experienced traumatic events throughout the pandemic in a myriad of ways including the death of family members and peers, loss of social interaction and increased violence at home. The consequences can be traumatic and manifest themselves in fear, anxiety, anger, isolation, and loneliness. Too often this leads to depression, anxiety, grief, substance use disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder, suicidal ideation and even suicides. This study assesses the impact of an innovative virtual human role-play simulation that prepares PK-12 educators, administrators, and school staff to respond to a student death in the school community by creating communities of support to help manage traumatic loss. The simulation addresses crisis response planning, postvention plans, and provides learners with role-play practice in using evidence-based motivational interviewing communication strategies in conversations with students and colleagues after the occurrence of a death. The sample consisted of educators and staff who were recruited from geographically dispersed areas across the US between January 2021 through December 2021. Matched sample t-tests and ANOVAs were used to assess quantitative data, and a qualitative analysis software, MAXQDA, was used to assess open-ended response data. Results show statistically significant increases in school personnel's preparedness and self-efficacy to recognize signs of trauma in their students and colleagues, and to approach them to talk about concerns and, if necessary, make a referral to support services. Simulations such as this hold tremendous potential in teaching educators how address trauma due to a student death.


Subject(s)
Suicide , Adaptation, Psychological , Grief , Humans , Schools , Students , Suicide/prevention & control
7.
Psychiatr Danub ; 34(Suppl 8): 140-143, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2045343

ABSTRACT

The sudden and unexpected spread of the COVID 19 pandemic forced the political and health institutions of many countries to adopt drastic measures to contain the contagion, forcing millions of people into isolation and loneliness since 2020. For this reason, health organizations were committed from the beginning to develop all strategies available to support the mental health of the community and to reduce the risks of a rising suicide rate. Although an apparent "protective" role of emergency interventions on suicidal behavior was confirmed during the first months of forced isolation of the population, in the following months a close correlation was highlighted between pandemic period, rising of psychological and psychiatric disorders, and suicidal ideation. The increased suicide rate in Trentino in the first half of 2022 was not unexpected.Beyond the possible increase in suicide rates, a sustained and chronic increase in suicidal risk, suicidal ideation and in self harm could be confirmed in the future. The implementation of successful strategies for reducing suicidal deaths is a public health issue and will lay on the availability of local prevention projects, on their effort to better understand suicide and suicidal behaviors during outbreak, in order to develop the general capacity to early identify risk situation, and to enhance the effectiveness of prevention plans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Self-Injurious Behavior , Suicide , Depression/psychology , Humans , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Self-Injurious Behavior/psychology , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide/prevention & control , Suicide/psychology
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(16)2022 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023671

ABSTRACT

Suicide is a major public-health problem that exists in virtually every part of the world. Hundreds of thousands of people commit suicide every year. The early detection of suicidal ideation is critical for suicide prevention. However, there are challenges associated with conventional suicide-risk screening methods. At the same time, individuals contemplating suicide are increasingly turning to social media and online forums, such as Reddit, to express their feelings and share their struggles with suicidal thoughts. This prompted research that applies machine learning and natural language processing techniques to detect suicidality among social media and forum users. The objective of this paper is to investigate methods employed to detect suicidal ideations on the Reddit forum. To achieve this objective, we conducted a literature review of the recent articles detailing machine learning and natural language processing techniques applied to Reddit data to detect the presence of suicidal ideations. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we selected 26 recent studies, published between 2018 and 2022. The findings of the review outline the prevalent methods of data collection, data annotation, data preprocessing, feature engineering, model development, and evaluation. Furthermore, we present several Reddit-based datasets utilized to construct suicidal ideation detection models. Finally, we conclude by discussing the current limitations and future directions in the research of suicidal ideation detection.


Subject(s)
Social Media , Suicide , Humans , Machine Learning , Natural Language Processing , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide/prevention & control
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(17)2022 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010021

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Suicide is a key issue impacting children and young people. Helplines offer unique benefits, such as anonymity, varied communication avenues and low cost, which help to promote help-seeking behaviour. The aim of this study was to explore the views and experiences of helpline organisations of identifying, assessing, and managing suicide risk among children and young people. METHODS: Thirteen professionals from three UK-based helplines and online counselling services took part in semi-structured interviews between November 2020 and January 2021 via Zoom. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using Thematic Analysis. RESULTS: Three superordinate themes were identified: (i) Starting conversations about suicide; (ii) Identifying and responding to "imminent" suicide risk; and (iii) Responses to suicide risk in relation to safeguarding. LIMITATIONS: Recruitment was limited by COVID-19 due to the demands needed from helplines at this time. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight not only the different types and range of services helpline organisations offer to young people who might be at risk of suicide, but most importantly the distinct role they have in young people's help-seeking pathway.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communication , Counseling , Humans , Qualitative Research , Suicide/prevention & control
10.
Int J Ment Health Nurs ; 31(6): 1513-1522, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008744

ABSTRACT

Media impact on suicide is well-established. Groups at heightened risk of suicide, such as nurses, may be particularly influenced by poor news reporting. This study aimed to examine UK newspaper reporting of suicide of nurses and student nurses, including during the COVID-19 pandemic. Print and online newspaper reports about suicide in nurses (including students) published in the UK between January 2018 and August 2021 were obtained and data extracted for analysis in collaboration with Samaritans' media advisory team. Content and quality of newspaper reports were examined using a content analysis approach. The study was compliant with the STROBE checklist. Nurse or student nurse suicides were reported in 134 articles, including 50 individual suicides. Most articles were acceptable against Samaritans' media guidelines. However, common problems included absence of signposting to support organizations and lack of suicide prevention messages. A minority of articles included methods of suicide within article headlines (18, 13.4%) and sensationalist or romanticizing language (14, 10.7%). Most contained occupation-related content. Many named the individual's specific hospital or university and a substantial proportion included occupation-related images. Working on the frontline was the most reported link between COVID-19 and nurse suicide. While reporting on suicide among nurses and students was largely acceptable, quality of reporting was variable. Occupation was often discussed, and most articles published during COVID-19 linked suicide to the pandemic. The research findings can help shape guidance on reporting of suicide in specific professions and occupations, including nursing, to encourage responsible reporting and reduce inadvertent promotion of suicide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide , Humans , Suicide/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Language , Universities , Mass Media
11.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 35(6): 395-400, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1992452

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The rate of youth suicidal behaviors has gradually increased over the last 15 years and continues to grow during the COVID-19 pandemic. This trend burdens mental health services and demands significant developments in risk detection and delivery of interventions to reduce the risk. In this article we outline significant advances and recent findings in youth suicide research that may facilitate strategies for identifying and preventing suicide risk among youth at risk in general and in specific risk groups. RECENT FINDINGS: The rise in suicide and suicidal behaviors is most likely to affect young people of racial, ethnic, sexual, and gender identity minorities and those living in poverty or experiencing maltreatment. The suicide rate in children is rising and demands special attention. Proximal risk factors for suicidal behavior compared with suicidal ideation have been suggested to identify near-term suicidal risk. Effective and scalable prevention strategies were identified, and the role of new technologies in suicide prevention among youth is to be determined. SUMMARY: To reach broader suicide prevention in youth and reduce the pressure on mental healthcare, public health approaches and improved service access for minority youth and those living in underserved areas of the world are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Female , Gender Identity , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide/prevention & control , Suicide/psychology
12.
Mil Med Res ; 9(1): 36, 2022 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978795
14.
Am Indian Alsk Native Ment Health Res ; 29(2): 126-154, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964470

ABSTRACT

This paper presents how a community mobilization program to prevent suicide was adapted to an online format to accommodate the impossibility of in-person delivery in Alaska Native communities during the COVID-19 pandemic. The intervention, Promoting Community Conversations About Research to End Suicide (PC CARES), was created collaboratively by researchers and Alaska Native communities with the goal of bringing community members together to create research-informed and community-led suicide prevention activities in their communities. To continue our work during the COVID-19 pandemic and restrictions, we adapted the PC CARES model to a synchronous remote delivery format. This shift included moving from predominantly Alaska Native participants to one of a mainly non-Native school staff audience. This required a pivot from Alaska Native self-determination toward cultural humility and community collaboration for school-based staff, with multilevel youth suicide prevention remaining the primary aim. This reorientation can offer important insight into how to build more responsive programs for those who are not from the communities they serve. Here, we provide a narrative overview of our collaborative adaptation process, illustrated by data collected during synchronous remote facilitation of the program, and reflect on how the shift in format and audience impacted program delivery and content. The adaptation process strove to maintain the core animating features of self-determination for Alaska Native communities and people as well as the translation of scientific knowledge to practice for greater impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Indians, North American , Suicide , Adolescent , Alaska , COVID-19/prevention & control , Community-Based Participatory Research , Humans , Pandemics , Suicide/prevention & control
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 718, 2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951223

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has been impacting the need, utilization, and delivery of mental health services with greater challenges being faced by clients and providers. With many clients facing reduced access to services and social isolation, a focus on suicide risk assessment and prevention is critical. Concern is particularly increased for clients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders given data show suicide rates are disproportionately high for those with psychosis in comparison to the general population. Provider perspectives of challenges in service delivery are needed to inform efforts to improve access, feasibility, and quality of mental health care throughout the evolving pandemic. This study explored mental health provider perspectives of client challenges in service utilization and provider challenges in service delivery, including remote engagement, suicide risk assessment, and treatment of psychosis. METHODS: Data were collected from social work mental health providers (n = 12) in United States community mental health setting. Providers consented to participate and responded to questions about service delivery experiences in late 2020 and in relation to COVID-19. Demographic and practice-related provider data were explored descriptively using SPSS and qualitative data using open coding and grounded theory methods in Dedoose. RESULTS: Among the 9 providers who engaged in remote service delivery, 7 (77.8%) experienced challenges in remote engagement with clients and 8 (88.9%) experienced challenges in treatment of psychosis. Among the 7 providers who engaged in remote suicide assessment, 4(57%) experienced challenges. Qualitative themes emerged including logistic (e.g., technology access and use), engagement (e.g., virtual rapport-building and limited remote services), and clinical (e.g., difficulty assessing suicide risk, internal stimuli, abnormal involuntary movement, and affect) challenges in service delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Provider perspectives are essential to inform efforts to build resources and problem-solve challenges and barriers that both providers and clients face throughout various shifts in mental health service delivery. Findings emphasize the need to troubleshoot client access to technology, bolster support for providers to prevent burnout, and greater provider training to improve skills in remote engagement, assessment, and treatment, particularly in relation to psychosis and suicide prevention. Study implications are not only critical for the evolving COVID-19 pandemic, but also in preparation for ongoing shifts in service delivery as technology evolves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychotic Disorders , Suicide , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Psychotic Disorders/epidemiology , Psychotic Disorders/therapy , Risk Assessment , Suicide/prevention & control
16.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 63(8): 833-835, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1949495

ABSTRACT

The world has experienced an unprecedented mental health crisis associated with the COVID-19 pandemic (Liu et al., 2020). After more than two years navigating the associated uncertainty and distress, the impact on youth mental health continues to be a pressing concern. Those in the mental health field, as well as the children and families plagued by its impact, are inundated with seeing firsthand the impact on youth's functioning. This includes increases in depression and suicide (Asarnow & Chung, 2021; Manzar et al., 2021), and having to navigate siloes in care and often even an inability when in crisis to access a continuum of services (Zhai, 2021). This has highlighted the significant issues with accessibility of mental health care and inequitable access to care for youth mental health both in the United States and globally. We continue to experience daily the impact of insufficient resources for youth behavioral health. For those in the field who prioritize the need for more robust intervention approaches, the child mental health crisis associated with the pandemic has highlighted the need for us to develop more novel and innovative interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health Services , Suicide , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Humans , Pandemics , Schools , Suicide/prevention & control , Suicide/psychology , United States
17.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0264984, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938425

ABSTRACT

More than 700,000 people lose their lives to suicide each year and evidence suggests that the current COVID-19 pandemic is leading to increases in risk factors for suicide and suicide-related behaviour, in particular among young people. It is widely documented that some sectors of the population are over-represented in the suicide statistics. It is also well established that the pathways that lead someone to a suicidal crisis are complex and differ across regions and sectors of the population; as such a multi-faceted approach to prevention is required. Many of us would also argue that novel approaches, that combine broad population-based strategies with individual interventions, and approaches that capitalise on new technologies and methodologies are also required. For these reasons, when bringing together this collection, we deliberately sought studies that focused upon those groups who are over-represented in the suicide statistics yet under-represented in research. We also called for studies that reported on novel approaches to suicide prevention and for studies that reflected the voices of people with lived experience of suicide, also often unheard in research efforts.


Subject(s)
Suicide/prevention & control , Suicide/psychology , Suicide/trends , Humans , Risk Factors , Suicidal Ideation
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(13)2022 07 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934073

ABSTRACT

Suicide has become a serious problem, and how to prevent suicide has become a very important research topic. Social media provides an ideal platform for monitoring suicidal ideation. This paper presents an integrated model for multidimensional information fusion. By integrating the best classification models determined by single and multiple features, different feature information is combined to better identify suicidal posts in online social media. This approach was assessed with a dataset formed from 40,222 posts annotated by Weibo. By integrating the best classification model of single features and multidimensional features, the proposed model ((BSC + RFS)-fs, WEC-fs) achieved 80.61% accuracy and a 79.20% F1-score. Other representative text information representation methods and demographic factors related to suicide may also be important predictors of suicide, which were not considered in this study. To the best of our knowledge, this is the good try that feature combination and ensemble algorithms have been fused to detect user-generated content with suicidal ideation. The findings suggest that feature combinations do not always work well, and that an appropriate combination strategy can make classification models work better. There are differences in the information contained in different functional carriers, and a targeted choice classification model may improve the detection rate of suicidal ideation.


Subject(s)
Social Media , Suicide , Algorithms , Health Services , Humans , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide/prevention & control
19.
Med J Aust ; 216(10): 516-517, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1918035
20.
Australas Psychiatry ; 30(3): 294-297, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896277

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Implementing the Towards Zero Suicide (TZS) approach to suicide prevention in older adults requires evidence-based adaptation. This paper aims to highlight important differences and opportunities in healthcare service use by older adults relevant to implementation. CONCLUSION: The TZS approach may prevent suicide in older adults, but only if implementation aligns with systemic differences in healthcare utilisation by older people. Of greatest importance in older adults are (1) most mental healthcare is delivered outside of specialist mental health services; (2) physical conditions and disability are major modifiable contributors to suicide that must be addressed within TZS; and (3) older people have very low use of Medicare-funded psychological services. Primary healthcare providers, who may be seeing older people at risk of suicide, are often neither equipped to provide expert assessment and care planning for often complex needs, nor may see this as their role. However, they are essential in providing pathways to care, which may prevent suicide. Leaders must recognise TZS for older people will usually involve multiple transitions. This requires engagement of key services with clear roles, targeted training, rapid access to specialist older persons mental health support and development of a new TZS element: the navigator.


Subject(s)
Mental Health Services , Suicide , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Medicare , Specialization , Suicide/prevention & control , United States
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