Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 85
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(1): e2143144, 2022 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620075

ABSTRACT

Importance: Self-harm and deaths among adolescents and young adults are notably related to drug poisonings and suicide. With the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic, there are projections about a greater likelihood of such events arising among adolescents and young adults. Objective: To evaluate the risk of self-harm, overdose, and all-cause mortality among adolescents and young adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based cohort study took place in Ontario, Canada, where a universal health care system captures all emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths. The participants included all adolescents and young adults born in Ontario between 1990 and 2006, who were aged 14 to 24 years between March 1, 2018, and June 30, 2021. Exposures: The COVID-19 pandemic era (April 1, 2020 to June 30, 2021), relative to the 2 years preceding the pandemic (March 1, 2018 to February 28, 2020). Main Outcomes and Measures: ED encounters or hospitalizations for self-harm or overdose. A secondary outcome was self-harm, overdose, or all-cause mortality. Cause-specific hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% CIs were used for the primary outcome. Follow-up started at March 1, 2018, or the individual's 14th birthday, whichever was later, and age was used as the time scale. Results: In this study, 1 690 733 adolescents and young adults (823 904 [51.3%] female participants) were included with a median (IQR) age of 17.7 (14.1-21.4) years at start of follow-up. After 4 110 903 person-years of follow-up, 6224 adolescents and young adults experienced the primary outcome of self-harm or overdose during the pandemic (39.7 per 10 000 person-years) vs 12 970 (51.0 per 10 000 person-years) prepandemic, with an HR of 0.78 (95% CI, 0.75-0.80). The risk of self-harm, overdose, or death was also lower during than before the pandemic (HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.76-0.81), but not all-cause mortality (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.86-1.05). Conclusions and Relevance: Among adolescents and young adults, the initial 15-month period of the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a relative decline in hospital care for self-harm or overdose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Drug Overdose , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Pandemics , Self-Injurious Behavior , Suicide , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cause of Death , Cohort Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Drug Overdose/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self-Injurious Behavior/epidemiology , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
3.
Lancet ; 398(10303): 920-930, 2021 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593950

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has heightened interest in how physician mental health can be protected and optimised, but uncertainty and misinformation remain about some key issues. In this Review, we discuss the current literature, which shows that despite what might be inferred during training, physicians are not immune to mental illness, with between a quarter and a third reporting increased symptoms of mental ill health. Physicians, particularly female physicians, are at an increased risk of suicide. An emerging consensus exists that some aspects of physician training, working conditions, and organisational support are unacceptable. Changes in medical training and health systems, and the additional strain of working through a pandemic, might have amplified these problems. A new evidence-informed framework for how individual and organisational interventions can be used in an integrated manner in medical schools, in health-care settings, and by professional colleagues is proposed. New initiatives are required at each of these levels, with an urgent need for organisational-level interventions, to better protect the mental health and wellbeing of physicians.


Subject(s)
Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Physicians/psychology , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Burnout, Professional , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/prevention & control , Pandemics , Physicians, Women/psychology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Suicide/prevention & control , Work Schedule Tolerance
4.
Pediatrics ; 148(1)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1533449

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Depression is common, and suicide rates are increasing. Adolescent depression screening might miss those with unidentified suicide risk. Our primary objective in this study was to compare the magnitude of positive screen results across different approaches. METHODS: From June 2019 to October 2020, 803 mostly Medicaid-enrolled adolescents aged ≥12 years with no recent history of depression or self-harm were screened with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Modified for Adolescents (PHQ-9A) and the Ask Suicide-Screening Questions (ASQ) across 12 primary care practices. Two PHQ-9A screening strategies were evaluated: screening for any type of depression or other mental illness (positive on any item) or screening for major depressive disorder (MDD) (total score ≥10). RESULTS: Overall, 56.4% of patients screened positive for any type of depression, 24.7% screened positive for MDD, and 21.1% screened positive for suicide risk. Regardless of PHQ-9A screening strategy, the ASQ identified additional subjects (eg, 2.2% additional cases compared with screening for any type of depression or other mental illness and 8.3% additional cases compared with screening positive for MDD). Of those with ≥6 month follow-up, 22.9% screened positive for any type of depression (n = 205), 35.6% screened positive for MDD (n = 90), and 42.7% with a positive ASQ result (n = 75) had a depression or self-harm diagnosis or an antidepressant prescription. CONCLUSIONS: Suicide risk screening identifies cases not identified by depression screening. In this study, we underscore opportunities and challenges in primary care related to the high prevalence of depression and suicide risk. Research is needed regarding optimal screening strategies and to help clinicians manage the expected number of screening-identified adolescents.


Subject(s)
Depression/epidemiology , Mass Screening/methods , Primary Health Care/methods , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Depression/diagnosis , Depression/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/diagnosis , Depressive Disorder, Major/drug therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Loneliness , Male , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation , Suicide/prevention & control , Young Adult
6.
Public Health Res Pract ; 31(3)2021 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1471205

ABSTRACT

Emerging evidence, based on the synthesis of reports from past infectious disease-related public health emergencies, supports an association between previous pandemics and a heightened risk of suicide or suicide-related behaviours and outcomes. Anxiety associated with pandemic media reporting appears to be one critical contributing factor. Social isolation, loneliness, and the disconnect that can result from public health strategies during global pandemics also appear to increase suicide risk in vulnerable individuals. Innovative suicide risk assessment and prevention strategies are needed to recognise and adapt to the negative impacts of pandemics on population mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Suicide/prevention & control , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Loneliness/psychology , Mental Health , Public Health , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation/psychology , Suicide/psychology
7.
J R Soc Med ; 114(10): 473-479, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435171

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of federal, public health and social support programs on national suicide rates in Canada. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Canadian National Database (i.e., Statistics Canada) and Statista. PARTICIPANTS: Population-level data, and economic and consumer market data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Suicide mortality data, population data and unemployment data were obtained from available statistical databases (e.g. Statistics Canada). We quantified suicide rate by dividing the total number of suicide deaths by the national population expressed as a rate per 100,000 population. RESULTS: Overall suicide mortality rate decreased in Canada from 10.82 deaths per 100,000 in the March 2019 - February 2020 period to 7.34 per 100,000 (i.e. absolute difference of 1300 deaths) in the March 2020 - February 2021 period. The overall Canadian unemployment rate changed from an average monthly rate of 5.7% in 2019 to 9.5% in 2020. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that for the first post-pandemic interval evaluated (i.e., March 2020 - February 2021), suicide rates in Canada decreased against a background of extraordinary public health measures intended to mitigate community spread of COVID-19. An externality of public health measures was a significant rise in national unemployment rates in population measures of distress. Our results suggest that government interventions that broadly aim to reduce measures of insecurity (i.e., economic, housing, health), and timely psychiatric services, should be prioritised as part of a national suicide reduction strategy, not only during but after termination of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Public Health , Suicide/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Canada/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Government , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Survival Rate/trends
9.
Asia Pac Psychiatry ; 13(3): e12482, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352415

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Suicide prevention during Covid 19 has become a global priority because the current pandemic has led to societal difficulties threatening the fabric of our lifestyle with increased morbidity and mortality. Modelling studies published since the COVID 19 pandemic was declared in March 2020 estimate that suicide rates will increase by anywhere between 1% to 145% globally in response to the pandemic and action needs to be taken. METHODS: A narrative literature review on high quality evidence sources limited to human studies and publications written in English language only has been used to examine the relationship of COVID 19 and existing mental illness or history of mental illness, suicide prevention strategies and changes in overall suicide rates. RESULTS: A total of 39 papers are summarised and grouped using the headings aetiological factors, proposed interventions to increase access and national policies to provide a framework for suicide prevention during pandemics such as COVID 19. This review indicates that 1) investing in active labour market programmes will result in a decreased suicide rate during times of high unemployment 2) People in low paid and casual jobs require specific support because they are most financially vulnerable during a pandemic related crisis 3) Women require specific support during a pandemic because of the type of employment they have and because they often carry a greater proportion of the domestic burden and are at increased risk of domestic violence during lockdown and crisis 4) Mental health and substance misuse services need to be appropriately funded and prioritised during and post pandemic, due to the associated increase in substance misuse during a pandemic causing worsening mental health and increased risk of suicide 5) National Suicide Prevention Strategies should be developed by all countries and should anticipate response to a range of disasters, including a pandemic 6) Suicide prevention is everybody's business and National Suicide Prevention Strategies should adopt a whole-systems approach including mental health services, primary care, social care, NGO's and other community stakeholders 7) Suicide is preventable 8) It is essential to prioritise suicide prevention strategies in the COVID and post-COVID period to ensure that lives are saved. DISCUSSION: Increase in suicide is not inevitable and suicide prevention during pandemics and post COVID 19 pandemics requires a collaborative whole system approach. We require real time data to inform dynamic action planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders , Mental Health , Suicide , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Humans , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Preventive Health Services , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health , Social Isolation/psychology , Suicide/prevention & control , Suicide/psychology , Suicide/statistics & numerical data
11.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255342, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332009

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Suicide is a major social and health issue in India. Yearly statistics show a concerning increasing pattern of suicidal deaths in India which is higher in comparison to the global trend. There is limited evidence regarding historical analysis of suicide or any forecasting for suicide in India towards predicting the possible risks of death due to suicide. METHODS: This paper examines the trend of suicide rate and characteristics of suicide victims in India, based on the longitudinal time series data over the last 50 years-collected from the National Crime Record Bureau Reports (1969 to 2018) of the Government of India. In our analysis, we have used the time series model to forecast the suicide rates in India for the next decade. ARIMA (4,1,0) model is found to be the best fit model for forecasting the data. FINDINGS: There has been an observable and rising trend of suicide rates in India over the last five decades. The forecast indicates a continuance of rising suicide cases for an upcoming couple of years in India with a limited decline in the following years. The prediction model indicates a future relatively consistent pattern of suicide in India which does not seem to be a very encouraging trend. As we have not included the period staring the year 2020 onwards affected by Covid-19 and which has several disruptions in personal and family spaces, the projected suicide trend during the period of next two to three years (2020-22) may rise far high and then it may show a declining path. Along with this, there is a shift in means of suicide in the last couple of decades. Constituting the second-highest number of cases, Illness associated suicide was visibly a serious concern. CONCLUSION: The present analysis finds that there is no visible substantial relief for suicide deaths during the coming years in India. On the other hand, more extensive exploration of sample cases may provide important information for suicide prevention. Availability of detailed and more inclusive data will be highly useful for analysis and suicide preventive policies. Investment in public health care and other welfare activities like education and employment generation will yield visible positive results in suicide control.


Subject(s)
Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/psychology , Educational Status , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Female , Forecasting/methods , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
13.
Child Adolesc Ment Health ; 26(3): 274-275, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288268

ABSTRACT

The consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STBs) in children are still not fully known. However, COVID-19 and the mitigation strategies to limit its transmission have affected children and adolescents through increased parental morbidity and mortality, increased poverty and financial strain, social isolation, and lost connectedness to school, peers, and afterschool activities. These are all associated with increased risk for psychiatric disorders and STBs in children. Mental health professionals and pediatric primary care settings need to monitor psychiatric symptoms and risk for STBs in children and especially among those who were directly affected during the pandemic in order to reduce the burden of the pandemic on children and families.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Suicidal Ideation , Adolescent , Child , Humans , Psychology, Child , Social Isolation , Stress, Psychological , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Suicide, Attempted
14.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(7): 579-588, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284642

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is having profound mental health consequences for many people. Concerns have been expressed that, at their most extreme, these consequences could manifest as increased suicide rates. We aimed to assess the early effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on suicide rates around the world. METHODS: We sourced real-time suicide data from countries or areas within countries through a systematic internet search and recourse to our networks and the published literature. Between Sept 1 and Nov 1, 2020, we searched the official websites of these countries' ministries of health, police agencies, and government-run statistics agencies or equivalents, using the translated search terms "suicide" and "cause of death", before broadening the search in an attempt to identify data through other public sources. Data were included from a given country or area if they came from an official government source and were available at a monthly level from at least Jan 1, 2019, to July 31, 2020. Our internet searches were restricted to countries with more than 3 million residents for pragmatic reasons, but we relaxed this rule for countries identified through the literature and our networks. Areas within countries could also be included with populations of less than 3 million. We used an interrupted time-series analysis to model the trend in monthly suicides before COVID-19 (from at least Jan 1, 2019, to March 31, 2020) in each country or area within a country, comparing the expected number of suicides derived from the model with the observed number of suicides in the early months of the pandemic (from April 1 to July 31, 2020, in the primary analysis). FINDINGS: We sourced data from 21 countries (16 high-income and five upper-middle-income countries), including whole-country data in ten countries and data for various areas in 11 countries). Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs based on the observed versus expected numbers of suicides showed no evidence of a significant increase in risk of suicide since the pandemic began in any country or area. There was statistical evidence of a decrease in suicide compared with the expected number in 12 countries or areas: New South Wales, Australia (RR 0·81 [95% CI 0·72-0·91]); Alberta, Canada (0·80 [0·68-0·93]); British Columbia, Canada (0·76 [0·66-0·87]); Chile (0·85 [0·78-0·94]); Leipzig, Germany (0·49 [0·32-0·74]); Japan (0·94 [0·91-0·96]); New Zealand (0·79 [0·68-0·91]); South Korea (0·94 [0·92-0·97]); California, USA (0·90 [0·85-0·95]); Illinois (Cook County), USA (0·79 [0·67-0·93]); Texas (four counties), USA (0·82 [0·68-0·98]); and Ecuador (0·74 [0·67-0·82]). INTERPRETATION: This is the first study to examine suicides occurring in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic in multiple countries. In high-income and upper-middle-income countries, suicide numbers have remained largely unchanged or declined in the early months of the pandemic compared with the expected levels based on the pre-pandemic period. We need to remain vigilant and be poised to respond if the situation changes as the longer-term mental health and economic effects of the pandemic unfold. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Global Health , Models, Statistical , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Developed Countries/statistics & numerical data , Humans
17.
Asia Pac Psychiatry ; 13(3): e12473, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268103

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Suicide among older adults is a multifactorial problem with several interrelated factors involved that vary with age, gender and culture. The number of suicides is highest in those aged 70 years or older in almost all regions of the world. With the increase in life expectancy, and the decrease in mortality due to other causes of death, we could expect the absolute number of older adults' suicide continue increasing. METHODS: Review of the literature on suicide protective factors of suicide among older adults. RESULTS: Improvements on social determinants of health and the timely detection and early treatment of affective disorders are key interventions. Prevention based on community actions and training of gatekeepers may have positive impact. Community programs that promote a sense of usefulness, belonging and that contribute to preserve social integration should be encouraged. Governments should develop the improvement of retirement programs and the development of support systems. The access to general health and mental health services should be facilitated and Primary Care professionals should receive proper training to detect and manage older persons at risk. Actively promoting a culture of coping to different stages of life and to the changes imposed by the advancing of age should form the essential part of a process bringing to better successful aging avenues. CONCLUSIONS: Suicide prevention in older adults should broaden its focus and pay attention to the many socio-environmental conditions that may be relevant in older age, especially social isolation, financial security and physical health.


Subject(s)
Aging , COVID-19/psychology , Preventive Health Services , Aged , Aging/physiology , Aging/psychology , Health Status Disparities , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health , Social Isolation/psychology , Suicide/prevention & control , Suicide/psychology , Suicide/statistics & numerical data
19.
Psychiatry Res ; 301: 113990, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237855

ABSTRACT

This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the predictive factors of suicidal ideation during the second lockdown in Greece. The respondents presented a 4.32% suicidal ideation in the second lockdown, which did not differ significantly to the initial 4.81%. Anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation during the first lockdown and living with a person with frail health and vulnerable for COVID-19 severe infection emerged as significant risk factors for suicidal ideation during the second lockdown, after controlling for gender, age, and mental health history. Depression was found as the only significant prognostic factor for suicidal ideation incidence of the second lockdown.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/psychology , Stress, Psychological , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide, Attempted/psychology , Suicide/psychology , Adult , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Suicide, Attempted/statistics & numerical data
20.
Recenti Prog Med ; 112(5): 360-370, 2021 05.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the first semester 2020 almost all country implemented rigid measures of social distances, including schools closure, to limit the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Up to now, however, the efficacy of school closure to reduce the spread of the disease in the community still remains unclear and no much is known about the potential negative effects of such measures on physical health and psychological wellbeing of youths, mainly if protracted for long periods. OBJECTIVE: To summarize the data of a systematic review on the impact of the 2020 school closure and social distances measures implemented in response to covid-19 pandemic on youths' physical health and psychological wellbeing. In the present paper we describe the impact on psychological wellbeing. METHODS: We searched 11 international databases up to 1st September 2020 to retrieve cohort studies, cross sectional surveys, uncontrolled pre-post studies and modelling studies. Methodological quality of included studies has been assessed with validated checklists. RESULTS: Sixty-four studies have been included; 27 assessed the impact on psychological wellbeing. All the studies have been conducted during the first wave of pandemic and assessed the short-term effect of social distances measures implemented for relatively short periods. The majority of the studies were conducted in the UK (37,6%) and China (27%). The 42.3% has been judged of high methodological quality. Two studies reported an increase of suicides, while two studies reported a reduction of the access to Psychiatric Emergency Department, Maltreatment allegations decreased substantially, likely due to a reduction in reports rather than actual incidence. Prevalence of anxiety among adolescents ranged between 19% and 64%, depression between 22.3% and 43.7%. Among children 5-12 years old, prevalence of anxiety varied between 19% and 78%, while depression between 6.3% and 22.6%. Among pre-school children, some studies found worsening of behavioural and emotional problems while others did not. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the studies reported relevant worsening of the psychological wellbeing, mainly among adolescents. If school closure and rigid social distances measures will extend for a long time, an even more pronounced negative effect can be expected. Further studies are needed on the long-term effect of prolonged social distances measures, as well as a careful harm-benefit analysis of the impact of such measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Mental Health , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Adolescent , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child Behavior Disorders/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Depression/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Mental Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Physical Abuse/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Psychology, Adolescent , Psychology, Child , Quarantine , Schools , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...