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1.
J Immunol ; 209(4): 723-730, 2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1975028

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, responsible for the severe acute respiratory syndrome known as COVID-19, has rapidly spread in almost every country and devastated the global economy and health care system. Lung injury is an early disease manifestation believed to be a major contributor to short- and long-term pathological consequences of COVID-19, and thus drug discovery aiming to ameliorate lung injury could be a potential strategy to treat COVID-19 patients. By inducing a severe acute respiratory syndrome-like pulmonary disease model through infecting A/J mice with murine hepatitis virus strain 1 (MHV-1), we show that i.v. administration of pazopanib ameliorates acute lung injuries without affecting MHV-1 replication. Pazopanib reduces cell apoptosis in MHV-1-infected lungs. Furthermore, we also identified that pazopanib has to be given no later than 48 h after the virus infection without compromising the therapeutic effect. Our study provides a potential treatment for coronavirus-induced lung injuries and support for further evaluation of pazopanib in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Injury , Murine hepatitis virus , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Indazoles , Lung , Lung Injury/drug therapy , Mice , Pyrimidines , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use
2.
Inflammopharmacology ; 30(5): 1645-1657, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1930472

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is known that severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the viral strain responsible for the recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Current documents have demonstrated that the virus causes a PGE2 storm in a substantial proportion of patients via upregulating cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and downregulating prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-degrading enzymes within the host cell. AIM: Herein, we aimed to study how short-term treatment with celecoxib (Celebrex), a selective COX-2 inhibitor, affects demographic features, early symptoms, O2 saturation, and hematological indices of cases with COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 67 confirmed COVID-19 cases with a mild or moderate disease, who had been referred to an institutional hospital in south-eastern Iran from October 2020 to September 2021, were enrolled. Demographic characteristics, symptoms, and hematological indices of the patients were recorded within different time periods. One-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to determine differences between data sets based on normal data distribution. RESULTS: O2 saturation was statistically different between the control group and patients receiving celecoxib (p = 0.039). There was no marked difference between the groups in terms of the symptoms they experienced (p > 0.05). On the first days following Celebrex therapy, analysis of complete blood counts showed that white blood cell (WBC) counts were markedly lower in patients treated with a high dose of celecoxib (0.4 g/day) than in controls (p = 0.026). However, mean lymphocyte levels in patients receiving a high dose of celecoxib (0.4 g/day) were markedly higher than in patients receiving celecoxib with half of the dose (0.2 g/day) for one week or the untreated subjects (p = 0.004). Changes in platelet count also followed the WBC alteration pattern. CONCLUSION: Celecoxib is a relatively safe, inexpensive, and widely available drug with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory properties. The therapeutic efficacy of celecoxib depends on the administrated dose. Celecoxib might improve disease-free survival in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Celecoxib/therapeutic use , Cyclooxygenase 2 , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Dinoprostone , Humans , Pyrazoles/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use
4.
Clin Immunol ; 238: 109016, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1797060

ABSTRACT

Aiming to reduce mortality in COVID-19 with severe respiratory failure we administered a combined rescue treatment (COMBI) on top of standard-of-care (SOC: dexamethasone/heparin) consisted of inhaled DNase to dissolve thrombogenic neutrophil extracellular traps, plus agents against cytokine-mediated hyperinflammation, namely anti-IL-6-receptor tocilizumab and JAK1/2 inhibitor baricitinib. Patients with PaO2/FiO2 < 100 mmHg were analysed. COMBI group (n = 22) was compared with similar groups that had received SOC alone (n = 26) or SOC plus monotherapy with either IL-1-receptor antagonist anakinra (n = 19) or tocilizumab (n = 11). COMBI was significantly associated with lower in-hospital mortality and intubation rate, shorter duration of hospitalization, and prolonged overall survival after a median follow-up of 110 days. In vitro, COVID-19 plasma induced tissue factor/thrombin pathway in primary lung fibroblasts. This effect was inhibited by the immunomodulatory agents of COMBI providing a mechanistic explanation for the clinical observations. These results support the conduct of randomized trials using combined immunomodulation in COVID-19 to target multiple interconnected pathways of immunothrombosis.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19 , Deoxyribonucleases , Respiratory Insufficiency , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Azetidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Deoxyribonucleases/therapeutic use , Humans , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
6.
Expert Opin Ther Targets ; 26(1): 13-28, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650476

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In COVID-19 pneumonia, there is a massive increase in fatty acid levels and lipid mediators with a predominance of cyclooxygenase metabolites, notably TxB2 ≫ PGE2 > PGD2 in the lungs, and 11-dehydro-TxB2, a TxA2 metabolite, in the systemic circulation. While TxA2 stimulates thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptors, 11-dehydro-TxB2 is a full agonist of DP2 (formerly known as the CRTh2) receptors for PGD2. Anecdotal experience of using ramatroban, a dual receptor antagonist of the TxA2/TP and PGD2/DP2 receptors, demonstrated rapid symptomatic relief from acute respiratory distress and hypoxemia while avoiding hospitalization. AREAS COVERED: Evidence supporting the role of TxA2/TP receptors and PGD2/DP2 receptors in causing rapidly progressive lung injury associated with hypoxemia, a maladaptive immune response and thromboinflammation is discussed. An innovative perspective on the dual antagonism of TxA2/TP and PGD2/DP2 receptor signaling as a therapeutic approach in COVID-19 is presented. This paper examines ramatroban an anti-platelet, immunomodulator, and antifibrotic agent for acute and long-haul COVID-19. EXPERT OPINION: Ramatroban, a dual blocker of TP and DP2 receptors, has demonstrated efficacy in animal models of respiratory dysfunction, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, and sepsis, as well as preliminary evidence for rapid relief from dyspnea and hypoxemia in COVID-19 pneumonia. Ramatroban merits investigation as a promising antithrombotic and immunomodulatory agent for chemoprophylaxis and treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carbazoles/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Thrombosis , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chemoprevention , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/drug therapy
7.
Nat Med ; 28(1): 39-50, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641982

ABSTRACT

Immune dysregulation is an important component of the pathophysiology of COVID-19. A large body of literature has reported the effect of immune-based therapies in patients with COVID-19, with some remarkable successes such as the use of steroids or anti-cytokine therapies. However, challenges in clinical decision-making arise from the complexity of the disease phenotypes and patient heterogeneity, as well as the variable quality of evidence from immunotherapy studies. This Review aims to support clinical decision-making by providing an overview of the evidence generated by major clinical trials of host-directed therapy. We discuss patient stratification and propose an algorithm to guide the use of immunotherapy strategies in the clinic. This will not only help guide treatment decisions, but may also help to design future trials that investigate immunotherapy in other severe infections.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Complement Inactivating Agents/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Immunomodulation , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Bradykinin/analogs & derivatives , Bradykinin/therapeutic use , Bradykinin B2 Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Imatinib Mesylate/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Interferon beta-1a/therapeutic use , Interferon beta-1b/therapeutic use , Interferon-gamma/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Kallikrein-Kinin System , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use
9.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(2): 569-578, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587444

ABSTRACT

Our understanding of risk factors and interventions influencing outcomes from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has continued to evolve, revealing advances emerging from hypotheses formed at the start of the pandemic. Epidemiologic studies have shown that asthma control, rather than a diagnosis of asthma, is a determinant of COVID-19 severity. Clinical outcomes in patients with primary immunodeficiencies, even in those with impaired cellular immunity, are variable. IL-6 has emerged as a reliable biomarker of COVID-19 severity, and large clinical trials have shown the potential for improving outcomes through inhibition of IL-6 signaling in some patients. Studies of genetic risk factors for severe COVID-19 have also revealed the importance of interferon homeostasis in the defense against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Because COVID-19 vaccines constitute the primary tool for ending this pandemic, strategies have been developed to address potential allergic and immune-mediated reactions. Here, we discuss advances in our understanding of COVID-19 risk factors and outcomes within the context of allergic and immunologic mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/therapy , Biological Products/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/mortality , Asthma/virology , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/mortality , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/virology , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/genetics , Interleukin-6/immunology , Prognosis , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
10.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211066945, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574469

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Argatroban is licensed for patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and is conventionally monitored by activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) ratio. The target range is 1.5 to 3.0 times the patients' baseline APTT and not exceeding 100 s, however this baseline is not always known. APTT is known to plateau at higher levels of argatroban, and is influenced by coagulopathies, lupus anticoagulant and raised FVIII levels. It has been used as a treatment for COVID-19 and Vaccine-induced Immune Thrombocytopenia and Thrombosis (VITT). Some recent publications have favored the use of anti-IIa methods to determine the plasma drug concentration of argatroban. METHODS: Plasma of 60 samples from 3 COVID-19 patients and 54 samples from 5 VITT patients were tested by APTT ratio and anti-IIa method (dilute thrombin time dTT). Actin FS APTT ratios were derived from the baseline APTT of the patient and the mean normal APTT. RESULTS: Mean APTT ratio derived from baseline was 1.71 (COVID-19), 1.33 (VITT) compared to APTT ratio by mean normal 1.65 (COVID-19), 1.48 (VITT). dTT mean concentration was 0.64 µg/ml (COVID-19) 0.53 µg/ml (VITT) with poor correlations to COVID-19 baseline APTT ratio r2 = 0.1526 p <0.0001, mean normal r2 = 0.2188 p < 0.0001; VITT baseline APTT ratio r2 = 0.04 p < 0.001, VITT mean normal r2 = 0.0064 p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: We believe that dTT is a superior method to monitor the concentration of argatroban, we have demonstrated significant differences between APTT ratios and dTT levels, which could have clinical impact. This is especially so in COVID-19 and VITT.


Subject(s)
Arginine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Partial Thromboplastin Time/methods , Pipecolic Acids/therapeutic use , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Aged , Arginine/pharmacology , Arginine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pipecolic Acids/pharmacology , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombosis/chemically induced
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(23)2021 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561718

ABSTRACT

S100A9, a pro-inflammatory alarmin, is up-regulated in inflamed tissues. However, the role of S100A9 in regulating neutrophil activation, inflammation and lung damage in sepsis is not known. Herein, we hypothesized that blocking S100A9 function may attenuate neutrophil recruitment in septic lung injury. Male C57BL/6 mice were pretreated with the S100A9 inhibitor ABR-238901 (10 mg/kg), prior to cercal ligation and puncture (CLP). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue were harvested for analysis of neutrophil infiltration as well as edema and CXC chemokine production. Blood was collected for analysis of membrane-activated complex-1 (Mac-1) expression on neutrophils as well as CXC chemokines and IL-6 in plasma. Induction of CLP markedly increased plasma levels of S100A9. ABR-238901 decreased CLP-induced neutrophil infiltration and edema formation in the lung. In addition, inhibition of S100A9 decreased the CLP-induced up-regulation of Mac-1 on neutrophils. Administration of ABR-238901 also inhibited the CLP-induced increase of CXCL-1, CXCL-2 and IL-6 in plasma and lungs. Our results suggest that S100A9 promotes neutrophil activation and pulmonary accumulation in sepsis. Targeting S100A9 function decreased formation of CXC chemokines in circulation and lungs and attenuated sepsis-induced lung damage. These novel findings suggest that S100A9 plays an important pro-inflammatory role in sepsis and could be a useful target to protect against the excessive inflammation and lung damage associated with the disease.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/prevention & control , Calgranulin B/metabolism , Neutrophil Infiltration/drug effects , Sepsis/complications , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Acute Lung Injury/etiology , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Animals , Chemokines, CXC/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Male , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Sepsis/immunology , Sepsis/metabolism , Sulfonamides/pharmacology
12.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(12): 1407-1418, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545515

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Baricitinib is an oral selective Janus kinase 1/2 inhibitor with known anti-inflammatory properties. This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of baricitinib in combination with standard of care for the treatment of hospitalised adults with COVID-19. METHODS: In this phase 3, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, participants were enrolled from 101 centres across 12 countries in Asia, Europe, North America, and South America. Hospitalised adults with COVID-19 receiving standard of care were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive once-daily baricitinib (4 mg) or matched placebo for up to 14 days. Standard of care included systemic corticosteroids, such as dexamethasone, and antivirals, including remdesivir. The composite primary endpoint was the proportion who progressed to high-flow oxygen, non-invasive ventilation, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death by day 28, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. All-cause mortality by day 28 was a key secondary endpoint, and all-cause mortality by day 60 was an exploratory endpoint; both were assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Safety analyses were done in the safety population defined as all randomly allocated participants who received at least one dose of study drug and who were not lost to follow-up before the first post-baseline visit. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04421027. FINDINGS: Between June 11, 2020, and Jan 15, 2021, 1525 participants were randomly assigned to the baricitinib group (n=764) or the placebo group (n=761). 1204 (79·3%) of 1518 participants with available data were receiving systemic corticosteroids at baseline, of whom 1099 (91·3%) were on dexamethasone; 287 (18·9%) participants were receiving remdesivir. Overall, 27·8% of participants receiving baricitinib and 30·5% receiving placebo progressed to meet the primary endpoint (odds ratio 0·85 [95% CI 0·67 to 1·08], p=0·18), with an absolute risk difference of -2·7 percentage points (95% CI -7·3 to 1·9). The 28-day all-cause mortality was 8% (n=62) for baricitinib and 13% (n=100) for placebo (hazard ratio [HR] 0·57 [95% CI 0·41-0·78]; nominal p=0·0018), a 38·2% relative reduction in mortality; one additional death was prevented per 20 baricitinib-treated participants. The 60-day all-cause mortality was 10% (n=79) for baricitinib and 15% (n=116) for placebo (HR 0·62 [95% CI 0·47-0·83]; p=0·0050). The frequencies of serious adverse events (110 [15%] of 750 in the baricitinib group vs 135 [18%] of 752 in the placebo group), serious infections (64 [9%] vs 74 [10%]), and venous thromboembolic events (20 [3%] vs 19 [3%]) were similar between the two groups. INTERPRETATION: Although there was no significant reduction in the frequency of disease progression overall, treatment with baricitinib in addition to standard of care (including dexamethasone) had a similar safety profile to that of standard of care alone, and was associated with reduced mortality in hospitalised adults with COVID-19. FUNDING: Eli Lilly and Company. TRANSLATIONS: For the French, Japanese, Portuguese, Russian and Spanish translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Azetidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Adult , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents , Asia , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone , Double-Blind Method , Europe , Humans , North America , SARS-CoV-2 , South America , Treatment Outcome
13.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 163, 2021 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542116

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Flares of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) have been described in the context of various infections. Flares of rheumatic diseases in adults have been described following infection with SARS-CoV-2 in several cohorts. So far, the effect of infection with SARS-CoV-2 on the course of JIA is unknown. METHODS: The database of the German Center for Pediatric and Adolescent Rheumatology was searched for patients with confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 and subsequent disease flare, admitted from July 2020 until June 2021. cJADAS-27, ESR and C-reactive protein, as well as uveitis activity, medication at the time of flare and treatment of flare was extracted. Patient cases were described individually. RESULTS: Out of 988 patients admitted, five patients with remission off medication (n = 2) or inactive disease on medication (n = 3) were identified, with flare symptoms up to four weeks after infection with SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: Flares can occur after infection with SARS-CoV-2 in patients with JIA in remission or inactive disease on medication. Treating physicians need to be aware of this fact, especially when counseling patients with rheumatic diseases about the respective dangers of COVID-19 and vaccination against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Juvenile/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Symptom Flare Up , Adolescent , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Juvenile/complications , Arthritis, Juvenile/drug therapy , Arthritis, Juvenile/metabolism , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , Child , Etanercept/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Remission Induction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Uveitis/complications , Uveitis/physiopathology
14.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1523-1534, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540137

ABSTRACT

The benefits of baricitinib in coronavirus disease-2019 are inadequately defined. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of baricitinib to determine its clinical efficacy and adverse events in patients with COVID-19. Databases were searched from their inception to September 5, 2021. The primary outcome was the coefficient of mortality. We also compared secondary indicators and adverse events between baricitinib treatment and placebo or other treatments. Twelve studies of 3564 patients were included and assessed qualitatively (modified Jadad and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale scores). Baricitinib effectively improved the mortality rate (relative risk of mortality = 0.56; 95% confidence interval: 0.46-0.69; p < 0.001; I2 = 2%), and this result was unchanged by subgroup analysis. Baricitinib improved intensive care unit admission, the requirement for invasive mechanical ventilation, and improved the oxygenation index. Data from these studies also showed that baricitinib slightly reduced the risk of adverse events. Regarding the choice of the drug dosage of baricitinib, the high-dose group appeared to have additional benefits for clinical efficacy. Our study shows that baricitinib may be a promising, safe, and effective anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 drug candidate, with the advantages of low cost, easy production, and convenient storage.


Subject(s)
Azetidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Azetidines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/mortality , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Humans , Purines/administration & dosage , Pyrazoles/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome
15.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 146(23): 1538-1542, 2021 Nov.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537357

ABSTRACT

The pathophysiological course of COVID-19 can be distinguished in a phase of viral replication and an inflammatory phase. Hyperinflammatory processes promote the development of severe COVID-19. Therefore, immunomodulating agents came into focus. Dexamethasone has already become standard of care for treatment of severe COVID-19. Two large randomized trials and a meta-analysis of collectively nine randomized trials showed a reduced mortality in patients with severe COVID-19 if Tocilizumab - an IL-6-rezeptor antagonist - was added to standard of care. Treatment with Baricitinib - a JAK 1/2 inhibitor - may also be beneficial for patients without or on low oxygen supplementation. National and international guidelines recommend Tocilizumab for treatment of severe COVID-19. Treatment with JAK inhibitors is an option for hospitalized patients with moderate COVID-19. It should be emphasized that comedication of JAK inhibitors and Tocilizumab is not recommended. Further high quality research is required for the widespread use of immunomodulating agents in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , /therapeutic use , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Humans , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use
16.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(1): 827-831, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536338

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global COVID-19 pandemic is currently underway. A massive worldwide vaccination campaign is still underway, representing the most promising weapon available to stop the pandemic. METHODS AND RESULTS: However, research continues to investigate the most effective drug treatments to reduce and avoid the most serious complications caused by COVID-19 infection. Recently, new evidence of good therapeutic efficacy against COVID-19 has emerged for the antiviral Remdesivir and the immunomodulatory Baricitinib, also in combination. The first one showed SARS-CoV-2 antireplicative activity, the second one useful to reduce the hyperinflammatory state caused by cytokine storm in the most severe phases of the infection. CONCLUSIONS: In this short communication we describe the molecular pharmacological mechanisms and the latest evidence for the use of these therapeutic agents in the treatment of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Azetidines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Drug Combinations , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Pandemics
17.
FEBS J ; 288(21): 6087-6094, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526365

ABSTRACT

Anthony Letai is Professor in Medicine at Harvard Medical School and Dana Farber Cancer Institute, and President of The Society for Functional Precision Medicine. Among Tony's scientific achievements, work from his lab contributed toward the FDA approval of Venetoclax combination treatment for adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Moreover, his studies on cancer cell death have led to the development of BH3 profiling, an assay that allows for the definition of how close a cell is to the threshold required to commit to apoptosis, which can be used to improve clinical outcomes for cancer patients. In this interview, Tony relays the story behind some of his scientific breakthroughs, discusses the importance of function when designing targeted cancer therapies, gives an overview of BH3 profiling and its application to cancer therapy, and recalls the key events and collaborations that drove his successful research career.


Subject(s)
Precision Medicine/methods , Bridged Bicyclo Compounds, Heterocyclic/therapeutic use , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use
18.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258292, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480450

ABSTRACT

Chagas disease is a neglected illness caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and its treatment is done only with two drugs, nifurtimox and benznidazole. However, both drugs are ineffective in the chronic phase, in addition to causing serious side effects. This context of therapeutic limitation justifies the continuous research for alternative drugs. Here, we study the in vitro trypanocidal effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug nimesulide, a molecule that has in its chemical structure a toxicophoric nitroaromatic group (NO2). The set of results obtained in this work highlights the potential for repurposing nimesulide in the treatment of this disease that affects millions of people around the world.


Subject(s)
Chagas Disease/drug therapy , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Drug Repositioning , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Animals , Cell Death/drug effects , Cell Survival/drug effects , Life Cycle Stages/drug effects , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Parasites/drug effects , Sulfonamides/chemistry , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Trypanosoma cruzi/drug effects , Trypanosoma cruzi/growth & development , Trypanosoma cruzi/ultrastructure
19.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 81(1): 34-40, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462913

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To update the EULAR points to consider (PtCs) on the use of immunomodulatory therapies in COVID-19. METHODS: According to the EULAR standardised operating procedures, a systematic literature review up to 14 July 2021 was conducted and followed by a consensus meeting of an international multidisciplinary task force. The new statements were consolidated by formal voting. RESULTS: We updated 2 overarching principles and 12 PtC. Evidence was only available in moderate to severe and critical patients. Glucocorticoids alone or in combination with tocilizumab are beneficial in COVID-19 cases requiring oxygen therapy and in critical COVID-19. Use of Janus kinase inhibitors (baricitinib and tofacitinib) is promising in the same populations of severe and critical COVID-19. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies and convalescent plasma may find application in early phases of the disease and in selected subgroups of immunosuppressed patients. There was insufficient robust evidence for the efficacy of other immunomodulators with further work being needed in relation to biomarker-based stratification for IL-1 therapy CONCLUSIONS: Growing evidence supports incremental efficacy of glucocorticoids alone or combined with tocilizumab/Janus kinase inhibitors in moderate to severe and critical COVID-19. Ongoing studies may unmask the potential application of other therapeutic approaches. Involvement of rheumatologists, as systemic inflammatory diseases experts, should be encouraged in clinical trials of immunomodulatory therapy in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Azetidines/therapeutic use , Consensus Development Conferences as Topic , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Immunomodulation , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Purines/therapeutic use , Pyrazoles/therapeutic use , Pyrimidines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use
20.
Crit Care Med ; 49(9): e870-e873, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455369

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the successful recovery from multiple and life-threatening venous thrombosis after ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination. DESIGN: Case report. SETTING: University Hospital. PATIENT: Few days after the first dose of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine, a 21-year-old woman experienced massive thrombosis in the deep and superficial cerebral veins together with seizures, neurologic focal deficit, and thrombocytopenia. In the neurointensive care unit, her condition worsened despite early decompressive craniectomy. She developed bilateral segmental pulmonary embolism, left hepatic, and left external iliac venous thrombosis. INTERVENTION: Argatroban (0.5-2.2 µg/kg/min) and high-dose IV immunoglobulin (1 g/kg/d for 2 consecutive days) were initiated on day 6 after admission. With these therapies, there was a gradual resolution of multiple sites of venous thrombosis, and platelet count returned to normal. The patient left the ICU with full consciousness, expressive aphasia, and right hemiparesis. CONCLUSIONS: This case of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia shows that a good outcome can be obtained even with multiple and life-threatening venous thrombotic lesions. Argatroban and high-dose IV immunoglobulin along with management of severe cerebral venous thrombosis played a major role in this epilogue.


Subject(s)
Antithrombins/therapeutic use , Arginine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Pipecolic Acids/therapeutic use , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Thrombocytopenia/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Arginine/therapeutic use , Cerebral Veins/diagnostic imaging , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Fondaparinux/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Thrombocytopenia/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Venous Thrombosis/etiology , Young Adult
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