Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 85
Filter
1.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 218: 114761, 2022 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2130158

ABSTRACT

Miniaturization of biosensors has become an imperative demand because of its great potential in in vivo biomarker detection and disease diagnostics as well as the point-of-care testing for coping with public health crisis, such as the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Here, we present an ultraminiature optical fiber-tip biosensor based on the plasmonic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) directly printed upon the end face of a standard multimode optical fiber at visible light range. An in-situ precision photoreduction technology is developed to additively print the micropatterns of size-controlled AuNPs. The AuNPs reveal distinct localized surface plasmon resonance, whose peak wavelength provides an ideal spectral signal for label-free biodetection. The fabricated optical fiber-tip plasmonic biosensor can not only detect antibody, but also test SARS-CoV-2 mimetic DNA sequence at the concentration level of 0.8 pM. Such an ultraminiature fiber-tip plasmonic biosensor offers a cost-effective biodetection technology for a myriad of applications ranging from point-of-care testing to in vivo diagnosis of stubborn diseases.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Humans , Optical Fibers , Gold , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Surface Plasmon Resonance
2.
ACS Sens ; 7(11): 3560-3570, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115655

ABSTRACT

Current tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detect either the constituent nucleic acids/proteins of the viral particles or antibodies specific to the virus, but cannot provide information about viral neutralization by an antibody and the efficacy of an antibody. Such information is important about individuals' vulnerability to severe symptoms or their likelihood of showing no symptoms. We immobilized online SARS-CoV-2 spike (S1) protein and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) into separate surface plasmon resonance (SPR) channels of a tris-nitrilotriacetic acid (tris-NTA) chip to simultaneously detect the anti-S1 antibody and viral particles in serum samples. In addition, with a high-molecular-weight-cutoff filter, we separated the neutralized viral particles from the free antibody molecules and used a sensing channel immobilized with Protein G to determine antibody-neutralized viral particles. The optimal density of probe molecules in each fluidic channel can be precisely controlled through the closure and opening of the specific ports. By utilizing the high surface density of ACE2, multiple assays can be carried out without regenerations. These three species can be determined with a short analysis time (<12 min per assay) and excellent sensor-to-sensor/cycle-to-cycle reproducibility (RSD < 5%). When coupled with an autosampler, continuous assays can be performed in an unattended manner at a single chip for up to 6 days. Such a sensor capable of assaying serum samples containing the three species at different levels provides additional insights into the disease status and immunity of persons being tested, which should be helpful for containing the SARS-CoV-2 spread during the era of incessant viral mutations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface Plasmon Resonance , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Virion/isolation & purification
3.
Nano Lett ; 22(22): 8932-8940, 2022 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106310

ABSTRACT

Plasmonic coupling via nanoparticle assembly is a popular signal-generation method in bioanalytical sensors. Here, we customized an all-peptide-based ligand that carries an anchoring group, polyproline spacer, biomolecular recognition, and zwitterionic domains for functionalizing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a colorimetric enzyme sensor. Our results underscore the importance of the polyproline module, which enables the SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) to recognize the peptidic ligand on nanosurfaces for subsequent plasmonic coupling via Coulombic interactions. AuNP aggregation is favored by the lowered surface potential due to enzymatic unveiling of the zwitterionic module. Therefore, this system provides a naked-eye measure for Mpro. No proteolysis occurs on AuNPs modified with a control ligand lacking a spacer domain. Overall, this all-peptide-based ligand does not require complex molecular conjugations and hence offers a simple and promising route for plasmonic sensing other proteases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Humans , Gold , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods , Ligands , SARS-CoV-2 , Peptides
4.
Opt Express ; 30(12): 22233-22246, 2022 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065093

ABSTRACT

We propose a measurement method for sensitive and label-free detections of virus-like particles (VLPs) using color images of nanoplasmonic sensing chips. The nanoplasmonic chip consists of 5×5 gold nanoslit arrays and the gold surface is modified with specific antibodies for spike protein. The resonant wavelength of the 430-nm-period gold nanoslit arrays underwater environment is about 570 nm which falls between the green and red bands of the color CCD. The captured VLPs by the specific antibodies shift the plasmonic resonance of the gold nanoslits. It results in an increased brightness of green pixels and decreased brightness of red pixels. The image contrast signals of (green - red) / (red + green) show good linearity with the surface particle density. The experimental tests show the image contrast method can detect 100-nm polystyrene particles with a surface density smaller than 2 particles/µm2. We demonstrate the application for direct detection of SARS-CoV-2 VLPs using a simple scanner platform. A detection limit smaller than 1 pg/mL with a detection time less than 30 minutes can be achieved.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Nanostructures , Antibodies , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Gold/chemistry , Humans , Nanostructures/chemistry , Polystyrenes , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods
5.
Molecules ; 27(18)2022 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043869

ABSTRACT

The replication of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is mediated by its main protease (Mpro), which is a plausible therapeutic target for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although numerous in silico studies reported the potential inhibitory effects of natural products including cannabis and cannabinoids on SARS-CoV-2 Mpro, their anti-Mpro activities are not well validated by biological experimental data. Herein, a library of minor cannabinoids belonging to several chemotypes including tetrahydrocannabinols, cannabidiols, cannabigerols, cannabichromenes, cannabinodiols, cannabicyclols, cannabinols, and cannabitriols was evaluated for their anti-Mpro activity using a biochemical assay. Additionally, the binding affinities and molecular interactions between the active cannabinoids and the Mpro protein were studied by a biophysical technique (surface plasmon resonance; SPR) and molecular docking, respectively. Cannabinoids tetrahydrocannabutol and cannabigerolic acid were the most active Mpro inhibitors (IC50 = 3.62 and 14.40 µM, respectively) and cannabigerolic acid had a binding affinity KD=2.16×10-4 M). A preliminary structure and activity relationship study revealed that the anti-Mpro effects of cannabinoids were influenced by the decarboxylation of cannabinoids and the length of cannabinoids' alkyl side chain. Findings from the biochemical, biophysical, and computational assays support the growing evidence of cannabinoids' inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 Mpro.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Cannabinoids , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Benzoates , Cannabinoids/pharmacology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface Plasmon Resonance , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2039872

ABSTRACT

Graphene and its derivatives show great potential for biosensing due to their extraordinary optical, electrical and physical properties. In particular, graphene and its derivatives have excellent optical properties such as broadband and tunable absorption, fluorescence bursts, and strong polarization-related effects. Optical biosensors based on graphene and its derivatives make nondestructive detection of biomolecules possible. The focus of this paper is to review the preparation of graphene and its derivatives, as well as recent advances in optical biosensors based on graphene and its derivatives. The working principle of face plasmon resonance (SPR), surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and colorimetric sensors are summarized, and the advantages and disadvantages of graphene and its derivatives applicable to various types of sensors are analyzed, and the methods of surface functionalization of graphene and its derivatives are introduced; these optical biosensors can be used for the detection of a range of biomolecules such as single cells, cellular secretions, proteins, nucleic acids, and antigen-antibodies; these new high-performance optical sensors are capable of detecting changes in surface structure and biomolecular interactions with the advantages of ultra-fast detection, high sensitivity, label-free, specific recognition, and the ability to respond in real-time. Problems in the current stage of application are discussed, as well as future prospects for graphene and its biosensors. Achieving the applicability, reusability and low cost of novel optical biosensors for a variety of complex environments and achieving scale-up production, which still faces serious challenges.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Graphite , Nucleic Acids , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Colorimetry , Graphite/chemistry , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Surface Plasmon Resonance
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1724, 2022 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1663979

ABSTRACT

This study introduces localized surface plasmon resonance (L-SPR) mediated heating filter membrane (HFM) for inactivating universal viral particles by using the photothermal effect of plasmonic metal nanoparticles (NPs). Plasmonic metal NPs were coated onto filter membrane via a conventional spray-coating method. The surface temperature of the HFM could be controlled to approximately 40-60 °C at room temperature, owing to the photothermal effect of the gold (Au) NPs coated on them, under irradiation by visible light-emitting diodes. Due to the photothermal effect of the HFMs, the virus titer of H1Npdm09 was reduced by > 99.9%, the full inactivation time being < 10 min, confirming the 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50) assay. Crystal violet staining showed that the infectious samples with photothermal inactivation lost their infectivity against Mardin-Darby Canine Kidney cells. Moreover, photothermal inactivation could also be applied to reduce the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2, showing reduction rate of 99%. We used quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) techniques to confirm the existence of viral genes on the surface of the HFM. The results of the TCID50 assay, crystal violet staining method, and qRT-PCR showed that the effective and immediate reduction in viral infectivity possibly originated from the denaturation or deformation of membrane proteins and components. This study provides a new, simple, and effective method to inactivate viral infectivity, leading to its potential application in various fields of indoor air quality control and medical science.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Hot Temperature , Light , Metal Nanoparticles , Micropore Filters , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods , Virion , Virus Inactivation , Air Pollution, Indoor , Animals , Cells, Cultured , Dogs , Gold/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
8.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(8)2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023154

ABSTRACT

Currently, several biosensors are reported to confirm the absence/presence of an abnormal level of specific human biomarkers in research laboratories. Unfortunately, public marketing and/or pharmacy accessibility are not yet possible for many bodily fluid biomarkers. The questions are numerous, starting from the preparation of the substrates, the wet/dry form of recognizing the (bio)ligands, the exposure time, and the choice of the running buffers. In this context, for the first time, the present overview summarizes the pre-functionalization of standard and nanostructured solid/flexible supports with cysteamine (Cys) and glutaraldehyde (GA) chemicals for robust protein immobilization and detection of biomarkers in body fluids (serum, saliva, and urine) using three transductions: piezoelectrical, electrochemical, and optical, respectively. Thus, the reader can easily access and compare step-by-step conjugate protocols published over the past 10 years. In conclusion, Cys/GA chemistry seems widely used for electrochemical sensing applications with different types of recorded signals, either current, potential, or impedance. On the other hand, piezoelectric detection via quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and optical detection by surface plasmon resonance (LSPR)/surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) are ultrasensitive platforms and very good candidates for the miniaturization of medical devices in the near future.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Cysteamine , Biomarkers , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Cysteamine/chemistry , Glutaral , Humans , Quartz Crystal Microbalance Techniques , Surface Plasmon Resonance
9.
J Vis Exp ; (184)2022 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911779

ABSTRACT

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is used to measure hemagglutinin (HA) binding to domain-swapped Cyanovirin-N (CV-N) dimer and to monitor interactions between mannosylated peptides and CV-N's high-affinity binding site. Virus envelope spikes gp120, HA, and Ebola glycoprotein (GP) 1,2 have been reported to bind both high- and low-affinity binding sites on dimeric CVN2. Dimannosylated HA peptide is also bound at the two low-affinity binding sites to an engineered molecule of CVN2, which is bearing a high-affinity site for the respective ligand and mutated to replace a stabilizing disulfide bond in the carbohydrate-binding pocket, thus confirming multivalent binding. HA binding is shown to one high-affinity binding site of pseudo-antibody CVN2 at a dissociation constant (KD) of 275 nM that further neutralizes human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) through oligomerization. Correlating the number of disulfide bridges in domain-swapped CVN2, which are decreased from 4 to 2 by substituting cystines into polar residue pairs of glutamic acid and arginine, results in reduced binding affinity to HA. Among the strongest interactions, Ebola GP1,2 is bound by CVN2 with two high-affinity binding sites in the lower nanomolar range using the envelope glycan without a transmembrane domain. In the present study, binding of the multispecific monomeric CV-N to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) glycoprotein is measured at KD = 18.6 µM as compared with nanomolar KD to those other virus spikes, and via its receptor-binding domain in the mid-µ-molar range.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Disulfides , Glycoproteins/metabolism , Hemagglutinins , Humans , Peptides/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface Plasmon Resonance
10.
Analyst ; 147(12): 2809-2818, 2022 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864778

ABSTRACT

The reality that the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still raging around the world and making a comeback with a strong presence has highlighted the need for rapid and sensitive quantitative detection methods of viral RNA, antibody and antigen for widespread tracking and screening applications. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detection technology has achieved rapid development and become a standard measurement method in the fields of biosensing, biomedicine, biochemistry and biopharmaceuticals due to its advantages of high sensitivity, fast response and no need for labelling. Here, we report a sandwiched structure-based SPR biosensor for detecting a specific viral antigen, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike S1 protein. The sensor combines a Ti3C2-MXene nanosheet modified sensing platform and polydopamine (PDA)-Ag nanoparticle (AgNP)/anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 protein nanoconjugate signal enhancers, exhibiting a wide linear range of 0.0001 to 1000 ng mL-1 with a low detection limit of 12 fg mL-1 (S/N = 3). In the analysis of artificial saliva and human serum samples, the proposed SPR biosensor exhibits good reproducibility and high specificity, which indicates its potential for application in complex bodily fluids. The exploitation of the MXene-based SPR biochip for recognizing the SARS-CoV-2 antigen provides an accessible and rapid way for COVID-19 diagnosis, and promotes the application of 2D nanomaterial-based sensing chips in clinical diagnosis and disease screening. Significantly, the proposed method possesses general applicability that can be reprogrammed to detect any protein antigen if a corresponding specific nanobody is available.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Metal Nanoparticles , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Silver , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods
11.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810313

ABSTRACT

Surface plasmon resonance and biolayer interferometry are two common real-time and label-free assays that quantify binding events by providing kinetic parameters. There is increased interest in using these techniques to characterize whole virus-ligand interactions, as the methods allow for more accurate characterization than that of a viral subunit-ligand interaction. This review aims to summarize and evaluate the uses of these technologies specifically in virus-ligand and virus-like particle-ligand binding cases to guide the field towards studies that apply these robust methods for whole virus-based studies.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Surface Plasmon Resonance , Biological Assay , Interferometry/methods , Kinetics , Ligands
12.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1208: 339830, 2022 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783112

ABSTRACT

Current serological antibody tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) require enzyme or fluorescent labels, and the titer well plates cannot be reused. By immobilizing histidine (His)-tagged SARS-CoV-2 spike (S1) protein onto tris‒nitrilotriacetic acid (tris-NTA) sensor and using the early association phase for mass-transfer-controlled concentration determination, we developed a rapid and regenerable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) method for quantifying anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody. On a five-channel SPR instrument and with optimized S1 protein immobilization density, each of the four analytical channels is sequentially used for multiple measurements, and all four channels can be simultaneously regenerated once they have reached a threshold value. Coupled with a programmable autosampler, each sensor can be regenerated at least 20 times, enabling uninterrupted assays of more than 800 serum samples. The accuracy and speed of our method compare well with those of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the detection limit (0.057 µg mL-1) can easily meet the requirement for screening low antibody levels such as those in convalescent patients. In addition, our method exhibits excellent channel-to-channel (RSD = 1.9%) and sensor-to-sensor (RSD = 2.1%) reproducibility. Obviation of an enzyme label drastically reduced the assay cost, rending our method (<60 cents) much more cost effective than those of commercial ELISA kits ($4.4-11.4). Therefore, our method offers a cost-effective and high-throughput alternative to the existing methods for serological measurements of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels, holding great promise for rapid screening of clinical samples without elaborate sample pretreatments and special reagents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Surface Plasmon Resonance
13.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(3)2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760371

ABSTRACT

The advancement of science and technology has led to the recent development of highly sensitive pathogen biosensing techniques. The effective treatment of pathogen infections requires sensing technologies to not only be sensitive but also render results in real-time. This review thus summarises the recent advances in optical surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor technology, which possesses the aforementioned advantages. Specifically, this technology allows for the detection of specific pathogens by applying nano-sized materials. This review focuses on various nanomaterials that are used to ensure the performance and high selectivity of SPR sensors. This review will undoubtedly accelerate the development of optical biosensing technology, thus allowing for real-time diagnosis and the timely delivery of appropriate treatments as well as preventing the spread of highly contagious pathogens.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Nanostructures , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6483, 2021 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747227

ABSTRACT

Surface plasmon resonance is a well-established technology for real-time highly sensitive label-free detection and measurement of binding kinetics between biological samples. A common drawback, however, of surface plasmon resonance detection is the necessity for far field angular resolved measurement of specular reflection, which increases the size as well as requiring precise calibration of the optical apparatus. Here we present an alternative optoelectronic approach in which the plasmonic sensor is integrated within a photovoltaic cell. Incident light generates an electronic signal that is sensitive to the refractive index of a solution via interaction with the plasmon. The photogenerated current is enhanced due to the coupling of the plasmon mode with Fabry-Pérot modes in the absorbing layer of the photovoltaic cell. The near field electrical detection of surface plasmon resonance we demonstrate will enable a next generation of cheap, compact and high throughput biosensors.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods
15.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(3)2022 Mar 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742321

ABSTRACT

The sudden outbreak of COVID-19 rapidly developed into a global pandemic, which caused tens of millions of infections and millions of deaths. Although SARS-CoV-2 is known to cause COVID-19, effective approaches to detect SARS-CoV-2 using a convenient, rapid, accurate, and low-cost method are lacking. To date, most of the diagnostic methods for patients with early infections are limited to the detection of viral nucleic acids via polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or antigens, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or a chemiluminescence immunoassay. This study developed a novel method that uses localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensors, optical imaging, and artificial intelligence methods to directly detect the SARS-CoV-2 virus particles without any sample preparation. The virus concentration can be qualitatively and quantitatively detected in the range of 125.28 to 106 vp/mL through a few steps within 12 min with a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 vp/mL. The accuracy of the SARS-CoV-2 positive or negative assessment was found to be greater than 97%, and this was demonstrated by establishing a regression machine learning model for the virus concentration prediction (R2 > 0.95).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Machine Learning , Surface Plasmon Resonance
16.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 206: 114163, 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719388

ABSTRACT

The ongoing outbreak of the COVID-19 has highlighted the importance of the pandemic prevention and control. A rapid and sensitive antigen assay is crucial in diagnosing and curbing pandemic. Here, we report a novel surface plasmon resonance biosensor based on laser heterodyne feedback interferometry for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 spike antigen, which is achieved by detecting the tiny difference in refractive index between different antigen concentrations. The biosensor converts the refractive index changes at the sensing unit into the intensity changes of light through surface plasmon resonance, achieving label-free and real-time detection of biological samples. Moreover, the gain amplification effect of the laser heterodyne feedback interferometry further improved the sensitivity of this biosensor. The biosensor can rapidly respond to continuous and periodic changes in the refractive index with a high resolution of 3.75 × 10-8 RIU, demonstrating the repeatability of the biosensor. Afterwards, the biosensor is immobilized by the anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike monoclonal antibodies, thus realizing the specific recognition of the antigen. The biosensor exhibited a high sensitivity towards the concentration of the antigen with a linear dynamic range of five orders of magnitude and a resolution of 0.08 pg/mL. These results indicate that this principle can be used as a rapid diagnostic method for COVID-19 antigens without sample labelling.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Feedback , Humans , Lasers , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface Plasmon Resonance/methods
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(4)2022 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715636

ABSTRACT

A graphene-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) prism coupler sensor is proposed for the rapid detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. The feasibility of the proposed sensor is demonstrated by measuring the IgG concentration in phantom mouse and human serum solutions over the range of 0-250 ng/mL. The results show that the circular dichroism and principal fast axis angle of linear birefringence increase in line with increases in IgG concentration over the considered range. Moreover, the proposed device has a resolution of 5-10 ng/mL and a response time of less than three minutes. In general, the sensor provides a promising approach for IgG detection and has significant potential for rapid infectious viral disease testing applications.


Subject(s)
Graphite , Surface Plasmon Resonance , Animals , Birefringence , Gold , Immunoglobulin G , Mice
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(5)2022 Feb 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715407

ABSTRACT

The overall impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on our society is unprecedented. The identification of small natural ligands that could prevent the entry and/or replication of the coronavirus remains a pertinent approach to fight the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Previously, we showed that the phenolic compounds corilagin and 1,3,6-tri-O-galloyl-ß-D-glucose (TGG) inhibit the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV-2 target receptor on the cell membrane of the host organism. Building on these promising results, we now assess the effects of these phenolic ligands on two other crucial targets involved in SARS-CoV-2 cell entry and replication, respectively: transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and 3-chymotrypsin like protease (3CLpro) inhibitors. Since corilagin, TGG, and tannic acid (TA) share many physicochemical and structural properties, we investigate the binding of TA to these targets. In this work, a combination of experimental methods (biochemical inhibition assays, surface plasmon resonance, and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring) confirms the potential role of TA in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity through the inhibition of extracellular RBD/ACE2 interactions and TMPRSS2 and 3CLpro activity. Moreover, molecular docking prediction followed by dynamic simulation and molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MMPBSA) free energy calculation also shows that TA binds to RBD, TMPRSS2, and 3CLpro with higher affinities than TGG and corilagin. Overall, these results suggest that naturally occurring TA is a promising candidate to prevent and inhibit the infectivity of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Tannins/pharmacology , Algorithms , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Glucosides/chemistry , Glucosides/metabolism , Glucosides/pharmacology , Humans , Hydrolyzable Tannins/chemistry , Hydrolyzable Tannins/metabolism , Hydrolyzable Tannins/pharmacology , Kinetics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Protein Binding/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Surface Plasmon Resonance , Tannins/chemistry , Tannins/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
19.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 12(3)2022 Feb 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715109

ABSTRACT

Cost-effective, rapid, and sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2, in high-throughput, is crucial in controlling the COVID-19 epidemic. In this study, we proposed a vertical microcavity and localized surface plasmon resonance hybrid biosensor for SARS-CoV-2 detection in artificial saliva and assessed its efficacy. The proposed biosensor monitors the valley shifts in the reflectance spectrum, as induced by changes in the refractive index within the proximity of the sensor surface. A low-cost and fast method was developed to form nanoporous gold (NPG) with different surface morphologies on the vertical microcavity wafer, followed by immobilization with the SARS-CoV-2 antibody for capturing the virus. Modeling and simulation were conducted to optimize the microcavity structure and the NPG parameters. Simulation results revealed that NPG-deposited sensors performed better in resonance quality and in sensitivity compared to gold-deposited and pure microcavity sensors. The experiment confirmed the effect of NPG surface morphology on the biosensor sensitivity as demonstrated by simulation. Pre-clinical validation revealed that 40% porosity led to the highest sensitivity for SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus at 319 copies/mL in artificial saliva. The proposed automatic biosensing system delivered the results of 100 samples within 30 min, demonstrating its potential for on-site coronavirus detection with sufficient sensitivity.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Gold/chemistry , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface Plasmon Resonance
20.
Cell ; 185(5): 860-871.e13, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650841

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant with increased fitness is spreading rapidly worldwide. Analysis of cryo-EM structures of the spike (S) from Omicron reveals amino acid substitutions forging interactions that stably maintain an active conformation for receptor recognition. The relatively more compact domain organization confers improved stability and enhances attachment but compromises the efficiency of the viral fusion step. Alterations in local conformation, charge, and hydrophobic microenvironments underpin the modulation of the epitopes such that they are not recognized by most NTD- and RBD-antibodies, facilitating viral immune escape. Structure of the Omicron S bound with human ACE2, together with the analysis of sequence conservation in ACE2 binding region of 25 sarbecovirus members, as well as heatmaps of the immunogenic sites and their corresponding mutational frequencies, sheds light on conserved and structurally restrained regions that can be used for the development of broad-spectrum vaccines and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Immune Evasion/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Binding Sites , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Mutagenesis, Site-Directed , Neutralization Tests , Protein Binding , Protein Domains/immunology , Protein Structure, Quaternary , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Surface Plasmon Resonance , Virus Attachment
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL