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1.
Pediatr Neonatol ; 63(4): 341-347, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977713

ABSTRACT

Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is the major cause of respiratory failure in preterm infants due to immature lung development and surfactant deficiency. Although the concepts and methods of managing respiratory problems in neonates have changed continuously, determining appropriate respiratory treatment with minimal ventilation-induced lung injury and complications is crucially important. This review summarizes neonatal respiratory therapy's advances and available strategies (i.e., exogenous surfactant therapy, noninvasive ventilation, and different ventilation modes), focusing on RDS management.


Subject(s)
Interactive Ventilatory Support , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Surface-Active Agents
2.
Inflamm Res ; 71(9): 1003-1009, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966115

ABSTRACT

Among the countless endeavours made at elucidating the pathogenesis of COVID-19, those aimed at the histopathological alterations of type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AT2) are of outstanding relevance to the field of lung physiology, as they are the building blocks of the pulmonary alveoli. A merit of high regenerative and proliferative capacity, exocytotic activity resulting in the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) is particularly high in AT2 cells, especially in those infected with SARS-CoV-2. These AT2 cell-derived EVs, containing the genetic material of the virus, might enter the bloodstream and make their way into the cardiovascular system, where they may infect cardiomyocytes and bring about a series of events leading to heart failure. As surfactant protein C, a marker of AT2 cell activity and a constituent of the lung surfactant complex, occurs abundantly inside the AT2-derived EVs released during the inflammatory stage of COVID-19, it could potentially be used as a biomarker for predicting impending heart failure in those patients with a history of cardiovascular disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Vesicles , Heart Failure , Alveolar Epithelial Cells , Cells, Cultured , Humans , Inflammation , Protein C , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface-Active Agents
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11546, 2022 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921709

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic motivated research on antiviral filtration used in personal protective equipment and HVAC systems. In this research, three coating compositions of NaCl, Tween 20 surfactant, and NaCl-Tween 20 were examined on polypropylene spun-bond filters. The pressure drop, coverage, and crystal size of the coating methods and compositions were measured. Also, in vitro plaque assays of the Phi6 Bacteriophage on Pseudomonas syringae as a simulation of an enveloped respiratory virus was performed to investigate the antiviral properties of the coating. NaCl and NaCl-Tween 20 increased the pressure drop in the range of 40-50 Pa for a loading of 5 mg/cm2. Tween 20 has shown an impact on the pressure drop as low as 10 Pa and made the filter surface more hydrophilic which kept the virus droplets on the surface. The NaCl-Tween 20 coated samples could inactivate 108 plaque forming units (PFU) of virus in two hours of incubation. Tween 20 coated filters with loading as low as 0.2 mg/cm2 reduced the activity of 108 PFU of virus from 109 to 102 PFU/mL after 2 h of incubation. NaCl-coated samples with a salt loading of 15 mg/cm2 could not have antiviral properties higher than reducing the viral activity from 109 to 105 PFU/mL in 4 h of incubation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Polysorbates , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium Chloride , Surface-Active Agents , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Lipoproteins , Polysorbates/chemistry , Polysorbates/pharmacology , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(12)2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911401

ABSTRACT

The virucidal activity of a series of cationic surfactants differing in the length and number of hydrophobic tails (at the same hydrophilic head) and the structure of the hydrophilic head (at the same length of the hydrophobic n-alkyl tail) was compared. It was shown that an increase in the length and number of hydrophobic tails, as well as the presence of a benzene ring in the surfactant molecule, enhance the virucidal activity of the surfactant against SARS-CoV-2. This may be due to the more pronounced ability of such surfactants to penetrate and destroy the phospholipid membrane of the virus. Among the cationic surfactants studied, didodecyldimethylammonium bromide was shown to be the most efficient as a disinfectant, its 50% effective concentration (EC50) being equal to 0.016 mM. Two surfactants (didodecyldimethylammonium bromide and benzalkonium chloride) can deactivate SARS-CoV-2 in as little as 5 s.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disinfectants/chemistry , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology
5.
Acta Med Acad ; 51(1): 21-28, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893242

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this research was to investigate the correlation between serum levels of surfactant protein-D (SPD) with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) severity and mortality in COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHOD: This was a prospective cohort research study that included 76 patients in the period from July to October 2020. SP-D serum levels were taken upon admission to the hospital, the diagnosis of ARDS and its grade were confirmed according to the WHO criteria, and then patients were observed for 28-day mortality. RESULTS: The mean SP-D serum levels from 76 patients were 39.33 ng/ml (SD±31.884 ng/ml). The statistical analysis showed that there was a significant correlation between SP-D serum levels and the severity of ARDS upon admission to the hospital (P=0.04, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs)=0.26), but the correlation between serum levels of SP-D and mortality was not statistically significant (P=0.89; rs=-0.016). CONCLUSION: SP-D serum levels had a significant but weak correlation with ARDS severity, but were not significant for mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Protein D , Surface-Active Agents
6.
Adv Colloid Interface Sci ; 306: 102718, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885690

ABSTRACT

This review discusses the classification, characteristics, and applications of biosurfactants. The biosynthesis pathways for different classes of biosurfactants are reviewed. An in-depth analysis of reported research is carried out emphasizing the synthetic pathways, culture media compositions, and influencing factors on production yield of biosurfactants. The environmental, pharmaceutical, industrial, and other applications of biosurfactants are discussed in detail. A special attention is given to the biosurfactants application in combating the pandemic COVID-19. It is found that biosurfactant production from waste materials can play a significant role in enhancing circular bioeconomy and environmental sustainability. This review also details the life cycle assessment methodologies for the production and applications of biosurfactants. Finally, the current status and limitations of biosurfactant research are discussed and the potential areas are highlighted for future research and development. This review will be helpful in selecting the best available technology for biosynthesis and application of particular biosurfactant under specific conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Surface-Active Agents , Humans , Surface-Active Agents/metabolism
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 842453, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855354

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary surfactant constitutes an important barrier that pathogens must cross to gain access to the rest of the organism via the respiratory surface. The presence of pulmonary surfactant prevents the dissemination of pathogens, modulates immune responses, and optimizes lung biophysical activity. Thus, the application of pulmonary surfactant for the treatment of respiratory diseases provides an effective strategy. Currently, several clinical trials are investigating the use of surfactant preparations to treat patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Some factors have been considered in the application of pulmonary surfactant for the treatment COVID-19, such as mechanical ventilation strategy, timing of treatment, dose delivered, method of delivery, and preparation utilized. This review supplements this list with two additional factors: accurate measurement of surfactants in patients and proper selection of pulmonary surfactant components. This review provides a reference for ongoing exogenous surfactant trials involving patients with COVID-19 and provides insight for the development of surfactant preparations for the treatment of viral respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Surfactants , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Lung , Pulmonary Surfactants/pharmacology , Pulmonary Surfactants/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/therapeutic use
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742489

ABSTRACT

The pandemic emergency determined by the spreading worldwide of the SARS-CoV-2 virus has focused the scientific and economic efforts of the pharmaceutical industry and governments on the possibility to fight the virus by genetic immunization. The genetic material must be delivered inside the cells by means of vectors. Due to the risk of adverse or immunogenic reaction or replication connected with the more efficient viral vectors, non-viral vectors are in many cases considered as a preferred strategy for gene delivery into eukaryotic cells. This paper is devoted to the evaluation of the gene delivery ability of new synthesized gemini bis-pyridinium surfactants with six methylene spacers, both hydrogenated and fluorinated, in comparison with compounds with spacers of different lengths, previously studied. Results from MTT proliferation assay, electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA), transient transfection assay tests and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging confirm that pyridinium gemini surfactants could be a valuable tool for gene delivery purposes, but their performance is highly dependent on the spacer length and strictly related to their structure in solution. All the fluorinated compounds are unable to transfect RD-4 cells, if used alone, but they are all able to deliver a plasmid carrying an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression cassette, when co-formulated with 1,2-dioleyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DOPE) in a 1:2 ratio. The fluorinated compounds with spacers formed by six (FGP6) and eight carbon atoms (FGP8) give rise to a very interesting gene delivery activity, greater to that of the commercial reagent, when formulated with DOPE. The hydrogenated compound GP16_6 is unable to sufficiently compact the DNA, as shown by AFM images.


Subject(s)
DNA/genetics , Gene Transfer Techniques , Methane/chemistry , Pyridinium Compounds/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Transfection/methods , A549 Cells , Cell Survival , DNA/chemistry , DNA/metabolism , Genetic Therapy/methods , Halogenation , Humans , Hydrogenation , Methane/metabolism , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Molecular Structure , Plasmids/chemistry , Plasmids/genetics , Plasmids/metabolism , Pyridinium Compounds/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Surface-Active Agents/metabolism
9.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 23(1): 44, 2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595653

ABSTRACT

Investigating bicelles as an oral drug delivery system and exploiting their structural benefits can pave the way to formulate hydrophobic drugs and potentiate their activity. Herein, the ability of non-ionic surfactants (labrasol®, tween 80, cremophore EL and pluronic F127) to form curcumin loaded bicelles with phosphatidylcholine, utilizing a simple method, was investigated. Molecular docking was used to understand the mechanism of bicelles formation. The % transmittance and TEM exhibited bicelles formation with labrasol® and tween 80, while cremophor EL and pluronic F127 tended to form mixed micelles. The surfactant-based nanostructures significantly improved curcumin dissolution (99.2 ± 2.6% within 10 min in case of tween 80-based bicelles) compared to liposomes and curcumin suspension in non-sink conditions. The prepared formulations improved curcumin ex vivo permeation over liposomes and drug suspension. Further, the therapeutic antiviral activity of the formulated curcumin against SARS-CoV-2 was potentiated over drug suspension. Although both Labrasol® and tween 80 bicelles could form bicelles and enhance the oral delivery of curcumin when compared to liposomes and drug suspension, the mixed micelles formulations depicted superiority than bicelles formulations. Our findings provide promising formulations that can be utilized for further preclinical and clinical studies of curcumin as an antiviral therapy for COVID-19 patients. Graphical Abstract.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Curcumin , Antiviral Agents , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Micelles , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface-Active Agents
10.
J Phys Chem B ; 126(4): 751-765, 2022 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1569202

ABSTRACT

The surface of aqueous solutions of simple salts was not the main focus of scientific attention for a long while. Considerable interest in studying such systems has only emerged in the past two decades, following the pioneering finding that large halide ions, such as I-, exhibit considerable surface affinity. Since then, a number of issues have been clarified; however, there are still several unresolved points (e.g., the effect of various salts on lateral water diffusion at the surface) in this respect. Computer simulation studies of the field have largely benefited from the appearance of intrinsic surface analysis methods, by which the particles staying right at the boundary of the two phases can be unambiguously identified. Considering complex ions instead of simple ones opens a number of interesting questions, both from the theoretical point of view and from that of the applications. Besides reviewing the state-of-the-art of intrinsic surface analysis methods as well as the most important advances and open questions concerning the surface of simple ionic solutions, we focus on two such systems in this Perspective, namely, the surface of aqueous mixtures of room temperature ionic liquids and that of ionic surfactants. In the case of the former systems, for which computer simulation studies have still scarcely been reported, we summarize the theoretical advances that could trigger such investigations, which might well be of importance also from the point of view of industrial applications. Computer simulation methods are, on the other hand, widely used in studies of the surface of surfactant solutions. Here we review the most important theoretical advances and issues to be addressed and discuss two areas of applications, namely, the inclusion of information gathered from such simulations in large scale atmospheric models and the better understanding of the airborne transmission of viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Surface-Active Agents , Computer Simulation , Humans , Ions , SARS-CoV-2 , Solutions , Water
11.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 135(22): 2559-2573, 2021 11 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541262

ABSTRACT

Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a key participant in, and a clinical target for, the treatment of inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Therapeutic inhibition of GM-CSF signalling using monoclonal antibodies to the α-subunit of the GM-CSF receptor (GMCSFRα) has shown clear benefit in patients with RA, giant cell arteritis (GCAs) and some efficacy in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, GM-CSF autoantibodies are associated with the development of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), a rare lung disease characterised by alveolar macrophage (AM) dysfunction and the accumulation of surfactant lipids. We assessed how the anti-GMCSFRα approach might impact surfactant turnover in the airway. Female C57BL/6J mice received a mouse-GMCSFRα blocking antibody (CAM-3003) twice per week for up to 24 weeks. A parallel, comparator cohort of the mouse PAP model, GM-CSF receptor ß subunit (GMCSFRß) knock-out (KO), was maintained up to 16 weeks. We assessed lung tissue histopathology alongside lung phosphatidylcholine (PC) metabolism using stable isotope lipidomics. GMCSFRß KO mice reproduced the histopathological and biochemical features of PAP, accumulating surfactant PC in both broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lavaged lung tissue. The incorporation pattern of methyl-D9-choline showed impaired catabolism and not enhanced synthesis. In contrast, chronic supra-pharmacological CAM-3003 exposure (100 mg/kg) over 24 weeks did not elicit a histopathological PAP phenotype despite some changes in lung PC catabolism. Lack of significant impairment of AM catabolic function supports clinical observations that therapeutic antibodies to this pathway have not been associated with PAP in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis/immunology , Pulmonary Surfactants/metabolism , Receptors, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/therapy , Autoantibodies/chemistry , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/immunology , Choline/analogs & derivatives , Female , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/chemistry , Inflammation , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Phenotype , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Surface-Active Agents
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 808: 151916, 2022 Feb 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531802

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has become a complimentary surveillance tool during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Viral concentration methods from wastewater are still being optimised and compared, whilst viral recovery under different wastewater characteristics and storage temperatures remains poorly understood. Using urban wastewater samples, we tested three viral concentration methods; polyethylene glycol precipitation (PEG), ammonium sulphate precipitation (AS), and CP select™ InnovaPrep® (IP) ultrafiltration. We found no major difference in SARS-CoV-2 and faecal indicator virus (crAssphage) recovery from wastewater samples (n = 46) using these methods, PEG slightly (albeit non-significantly), outperformed AS and IP for SARS-CoV-2 detection, as a higher genome copies per litre (gc/l) was recorded for a larger proportion of samples. Next generation sequencing of 8 paired samples revealed non-significant differences in the quality of data between AS and IP, though IP data quality was slightly better and less variable. A controlled experiment assessed the impact of wastewater suspended solids (turbidity; 0-400 NTU), surfactant load (0-200 mg/l), and storage temperature (5-20 °C) on viral recovery using the AS and IP methods. SARS-CoV-2 recoveries were >20% with AS and <10% with IP in turbid samples, whilst viral recoveries for samples with additional surfactant were between 0-18% for AS and 0-5% for IP. Turbidity and sample storage temperature combined had no significant effect on SARS-CoV-2 recovery (p > 0.05), whilst surfactant and storage temperature combined were significant negative correlates (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). In conclusion, our results show that choice of methodology had small effect on viral recovery of SARS-CoV-2 and crAssphage in wastewater samples within this study. In contrast, sample turbidity, storage temperature, and surfactant load did affect viral recovery, highlighting the need for careful consideration of the viral concentration methodology used when working with wastewater samples.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Waste Water , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface-Active Agents , Temperature
13.
Clin Sci (Lond) ; 135(22): 2559-2573, 2021 11 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517650

ABSTRACT

Granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a key participant in, and a clinical target for, the treatment of inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Therapeutic inhibition of GM-CSF signalling using monoclonal antibodies to the α-subunit of the GM-CSF receptor (GMCSFRα) has shown clear benefit in patients with RA, giant cell arteritis (GCAs) and some efficacy in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, GM-CSF autoantibodies are associated with the development of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), a rare lung disease characterised by alveolar macrophage (AM) dysfunction and the accumulation of surfactant lipids. We assessed how the anti-GMCSFRα approach might impact surfactant turnover in the airway. Female C57BL/6J mice received a mouse-GMCSFRα blocking antibody (CAM-3003) twice per week for up to 24 weeks. A parallel, comparator cohort of the mouse PAP model, GM-CSF receptor ß subunit (GMCSFRß) knock-out (KO), was maintained up to 16 weeks. We assessed lung tissue histopathology alongside lung phosphatidylcholine (PC) metabolism using stable isotope lipidomics. GMCSFRß KO mice reproduced the histopathological and biochemical features of PAP, accumulating surfactant PC in both broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lavaged lung tissue. The incorporation pattern of methyl-D9-choline showed impaired catabolism and not enhanced synthesis. In contrast, chronic supra-pharmacological CAM-3003 exposure (100 mg/kg) over 24 weeks did not elicit a histopathological PAP phenotype despite some changes in lung PC catabolism. Lack of significant impairment of AM catabolic function supports clinical observations that therapeutic antibodies to this pathway have not been associated with PAP in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis/immunology , Pulmonary Surfactants/metabolism , Receptors, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/metabolism , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/pharmacology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/therapy , Autoantibodies/chemistry , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , COVID-19/immunology , Choline/analogs & derivatives , Female , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor/chemistry , Inflammation , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Phenotype , Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Surface-Active Agents
14.
Eur Phys J E Soft Matter ; 44(11): 132, 2021 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1495656

ABSTRACT

Understanding the physical and chemical properties of viral infections at molecular scales is a major challenge for the scientific community more so with the outbreak of global pandemics. There is currently a lot of effort being placed in identifying molecules that could act as putative drugs or blockers of viral molecules. In this work, we computationally explore the importance in antiviral activity of a less studied class of molecules, namely surfactants. We employ all-atoms molecular dynamics simulations to study the interaction between the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and the phospholipid lecithin (POPC), in water. Our microsecond simulations show a preferential binding of lecithin to the receptor-binding motif of SARS-CoV-2 with binding free energies significantly larger than [Formula: see text]. Furthermore, hydrophobic interactions involving lecithin non-polar tails dominate these binding events, which are also accompanied by dewetting of the receptor binding motif. Through an analysis of fluctuations in the radius of gyration of the receptor-binding domain, its contact maps with lecithin molecules, and distributions of water molecules near the binding region, we elucidate molecular interactions that may play an important role in interactions involving surfactant-type molecules and viruses. We discuss our minimal computational model in the context of lecithin-based liposomal nasal sprays as putative mitigating therapies for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Lecithins/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Phosphatidylcholines/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Binding Sites , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Nasal Sprays , Protein Binding , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
15.
Bioengineered ; 12(2): 9550-9560, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488138

ABSTRACT

Biosurfactants are natural surfactants produced by a variety of microorganisms. In recent years, biosurfactants have garnered a lot of interest due to their biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. Sophorolipids are glycolipid types of biosurfactants produced by selected nonpathogenic yeasts. In addition to the detergent activity (reduction in surface and interfacial tension), which is commonly utilized by biomedical applications, sophorolipids have shown some unique properties such as, antiviral activity against enveloped viruses, immunomodulation, and anticancer activity. Considering their antiviral activity, the potential of sophorolipids as an antiviral therapy for the treatment of COVID-19 is discussed in this review. Being a surfactant molecule, sophorolipid could solubilize the lipid envelope of SARS-CoV-2 and inactivate it. As an immunomodulator, sophorolipid could attenuate the cytokine storm caused by the SARS-CoV-2 upon infection, and inhibit the progression of COVID-19 in patients. Sophorolipids could also be used as an effective treatment strategy for COVID-19 patients suffering from cancer. However, there is limited research on the use of sophorolipid as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of cancer and viral diseases, and to modulate the immune response. Nevertheless, the multitasking capabilities of sophorolipids make them potential therapeutic candidates for the bench-to-bedside research for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Oleic Acids/chemistry , Oleic Acids/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Animals , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line, Tumor , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Cytokines/metabolism , Drug Design , Glycolipids , Humans , Immunomodulation , Lipids/chemistry , Rats , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463764

ABSTRACT

Due to their large possibility of the structure modification, alkylammonium gemini surfactants are a rapidly growing class of compounds. They exhibit significant surface, aggregation and antimicrobial properties. Due to the fact that, in order to achieve the desired utility effect, the minimal concentration of compounds are used, they are in line with the principle of greenolution (green evolution) in chemistry. In this study, we present innovative synthesis of the homologous series of gemini surfactants modified at the spacer by the ether group, i.e., 3-oxa-1,5-pentane-bis(N-alkyl-N,N-dimethylammonium bromides). The critical micelle concentrations were determined. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the synthesized compounds were determined against bacteria Escherichia coli ATCC 10536 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538; yeast Candida albicans ATCC 10231; and molds Aspergillus niger ATCC 16401 and Penicillium chrysogenum ATCC 60739. We also investigated the relationship between antimicrobial activity and alkyl chain length or the nature of the spacer. The obtained results indicate that the synthesized compounds are effective microbicides with a broad spectrum of biocidal activity.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Aspergillus niger/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Green Chemistry Technology , Micelles , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Penicillium chrysogenum/drug effects , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20012, 2021 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462029

ABSTRACT

There are currently no cures for coronavirus infections, making the prevention of infections the only course open at the present time. The COVID-19 pandemic has been difficult to prevent, as the infection is spread by respiratory droplets and thus effective, scalable and safe preventive interventions are urgently needed. We hypothesise that preventing viral entry into mammalian nasal epithelial cells may be one way to limit the spread of COVID-19. Here we show that N-palmitoyl-N-monomethyl-N,N-dimethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl-6-O-glycolchitosan (GCPQ), a positively charged polymer that has been through an extensive Good Laboratory Practice toxicology screen, is able to reduce the infectivity of SARS-COV-2 in A549ACE2+ and Vero E6 cells with a log removal value of - 3 to - 4 at a concentration of 10-100 µg/ mL (p < 0.05 compared to untreated controls) and to limit infectivity in human airway epithelial cells at a concentration of 500 µg/ mL (p < 0.05 compared to untreated controls). In vivo studies using transgenic mice expressing the ACE-2 receptor, dosed nasally with SARS-COV-2 (426,000 TCID50/mL) showed a trend for nasal GCPQ (20 mg/kg) to inhibit viral load in the respiratory tract and brain, although the study was not powered to detect statistical significance. GCPQ's electrostatic binding to the virus, preventing viral entry into the host cells, is the most likely mechanism of viral inhibition. Radiolabelled GCPQ studies in mice show that at a dose of 10 mg/kg, GCPQ has a long residence time in mouse nares, with 13.1% of the injected dose identified from SPECT/CT in the nares, 24 h after nasal dosing. With a no observed adverse effect level of 18 mg/kg in rats, following a 28-day repeat dose study, clinical testing of this polymer, as a COVID-19 prophylactic is warranted.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Nasal Sprays , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , A549 Cells , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Male , Methylation , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Surface-Active Agents/administration & dosage , Surface-Active Agents/therapeutic use , Vero Cells , Viral Load/drug effects
19.
Phytomedicine ; 90: 153651, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although numerous medicinal herbal compounds demonstrate promising therapeutic potential, their clinical application is often limited by their poor oral bioavailability. To circumvent this barrier, various lipid-based herbal formulations have been developed and trialled with promising experimental results. PURPOSE: This scoping review aims to describe the effect of lipid-based formulations on the oral bioavailability of herbal compounds. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted across three electronic databases (Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library) between January 2010 and January 2021 to identify relevant studies. The articles were rigorously screened for eligibility. Data from eligible studies were then extracted and collated for synthesis and descriptive analysis using Covidence. RESULTS: A total of 109 studies were included in the present review: 105 animal studies and four clinical trials. Among the formulations investigated, 50% were emulsions, 34% lipid particulate systems, 12% vesicular systems, and 4% were other types of lipid-based formulations. Within the emulsion system classification, self-emulsifying drug delivery systems were observed to produce the best improvements in oral bioavailability, followed by mixed micellar formulations. The introduction of composite lipid-based formulations and the use of uncommon surfactants such as sodium oleate in emulsion preparation was shown to consistently enhance the bioavailability of herbal compounds with poor oral absorption. Interestingly, the lipid-based formulations of magnesium lithospermate B and Pulsatilla chinensis produced an absolute bioavailability greater than 100% indicating the possibility of prolonged systemic circulation. With respect to chemical conjugation, D-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS) was the most frequently used and significantly improved the bioavailability of its phytoconstituents. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that there is no distinct lipid-based formulation superior to the other. Bioavailability improvements were largely dependent on the nature of the phytoconstituents. This scoping review, however, provided a detailed summary of the most up-to-date evidence on phytoconstituents formulated into lipid preparations and their oral bioavailability. We conclude that a systematic review and meta-analysis between bioavailability improvements of individual phytoconstituents (such as kaempferol, morin and myricetin) in various lipid-based formulations will provide a more detailed association. Such a review will be highly beneficial for both researchers and herbal manufacturers.


Subject(s)
Biological Availability , Drug Delivery Systems , Micelles , Plant Preparations/pharmacokinetics , Surface-Active Agents , Administration, Oral , Animals , Emulsions , Humans , Lipids , Plant Preparations/administration & dosage , Solubility
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372662

ABSTRACT

Natural products of microbial origin have inspired most of the commercial pharmaceuticals, especially those from Actinobacteria. However, the redundancy of molecules in the discovery process represents a serious issue. The untargeted approach, One Strain Many Compounds (OSMAC), is one of the most promising strategies to induce the expression of silent genes, especially when combined with genome mining and advanced metabolomics analysis. In this work, the whole genome of the marine isolate Rhodococcus sp. I2R was sequenced and analyzed by antiSMASH for the identification of biosynthetic gene clusters. The strain was cultivated in 22 different growth media and the generated extracts were subjected to metabolomic analysis and functional screening. Notably, only a single growth condition induced the production of unique compounds, which were partially purified and structurally characterized by liquid chromatography high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS/MS). This strategy led to identifying a bioactive fraction containing >30 new glycolipids holding unusual functional groups. The active fraction showed a potent antiviral effect against enveloped viruses, such as herpes simplex virus and human coronaviruses, and high antiproliferative activity in PC3 prostate cancer cell line. The identified compounds belong to the biosurfactants class, amphiphilic molecules, which play a crucial role in the biotech and biomedical industry.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Glycolipids/metabolism , Rhodococcus/metabolism , Animals , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Chlorocebus aethiops , Culture Techniques , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Esters/metabolism , Genome, Bacterial , Glycolipids/chemistry , Humans , Metabolome , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , PC-3 Cells , Rhodococcus/chemistry , Rhodococcus/genetics , Succinates/metabolism , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/metabolism , Vero Cells
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