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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11546, 2022 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921709

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic motivated research on antiviral filtration used in personal protective equipment and HVAC systems. In this research, three coating compositions of NaCl, Tween 20 surfactant, and NaCl-Tween 20 were examined on polypropylene spun-bond filters. The pressure drop, coverage, and crystal size of the coating methods and compositions were measured. Also, in vitro plaque assays of the Phi6 Bacteriophage on Pseudomonas syringae as a simulation of an enveloped respiratory virus was performed to investigate the antiviral properties of the coating. NaCl and NaCl-Tween 20 increased the pressure drop in the range of 40-50 Pa for a loading of 5 mg/cm2. Tween 20 has shown an impact on the pressure drop as low as 10 Pa and made the filter surface more hydrophilic which kept the virus droplets on the surface. The NaCl-Tween 20 coated samples could inactivate 108 plaque forming units (PFU) of virus in two hours of incubation. Tween 20 coated filters with loading as low as 0.2 mg/cm2 reduced the activity of 108 PFU of virus from 109 to 102 PFU/mL after 2 h of incubation. NaCl-coated samples with a salt loading of 15 mg/cm2 could not have antiviral properties higher than reducing the viral activity from 109 to 105 PFU/mL in 4 h of incubation.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Polysorbates , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium Chloride , Surface-Active Agents , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Lipoproteins , Polysorbates/chemistry , Polysorbates/pharmacology , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(12)2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911401

ABSTRACT

The virucidal activity of a series of cationic surfactants differing in the length and number of hydrophobic tails (at the same hydrophilic head) and the structure of the hydrophilic head (at the same length of the hydrophobic n-alkyl tail) was compared. It was shown that an increase in the length and number of hydrophobic tails, as well as the presence of a benzene ring in the surfactant molecule, enhance the virucidal activity of the surfactant against SARS-CoV-2. This may be due to the more pronounced ability of such surfactants to penetrate and destroy the phospholipid membrane of the virus. Among the cationic surfactants studied, didodecyldimethylammonium bromide was shown to be the most efficient as a disinfectant, its 50% effective concentration (EC50) being equal to 0.016 mM. Two surfactants (didodecyldimethylammonium bromide and benzalkonium chloride) can deactivate SARS-CoV-2 in as little as 5 s.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , COVID-19/drug therapy , Disinfectants/chemistry , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Humans , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 842453, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855354

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary surfactant constitutes an important barrier that pathogens must cross to gain access to the rest of the organism via the respiratory surface. The presence of pulmonary surfactant prevents the dissemination of pathogens, modulates immune responses, and optimizes lung biophysical activity. Thus, the application of pulmonary surfactant for the treatment of respiratory diseases provides an effective strategy. Currently, several clinical trials are investigating the use of surfactant preparations to treat patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Some factors have been considered in the application of pulmonary surfactant for the treatment COVID-19, such as mechanical ventilation strategy, timing of treatment, dose delivered, method of delivery, and preparation utilized. This review supplements this list with two additional factors: accurate measurement of surfactants in patients and proper selection of pulmonary surfactant components. This review provides a reference for ongoing exogenous surfactant trials involving patients with COVID-19 and provides insight for the development of surfactant preparations for the treatment of viral respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Surfactants , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Lung , Pulmonary Surfactants/pharmacology , Pulmonary Surfactants/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/therapeutic use
4.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463764

ABSTRACT

Due to their large possibility of the structure modification, alkylammonium gemini surfactants are a rapidly growing class of compounds. They exhibit significant surface, aggregation and antimicrobial properties. Due to the fact that, in order to achieve the desired utility effect, the minimal concentration of compounds are used, they are in line with the principle of greenolution (green evolution) in chemistry. In this study, we present innovative synthesis of the homologous series of gemini surfactants modified at the spacer by the ether group, i.e., 3-oxa-1,5-pentane-bis(N-alkyl-N,N-dimethylammonium bromides). The critical micelle concentrations were determined. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the synthesized compounds were determined against bacteria Escherichia coli ATCC 10536 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538; yeast Candida albicans ATCC 10231; and molds Aspergillus niger ATCC 16401 and Penicillium chrysogenum ATCC 60739. We also investigated the relationship between antimicrobial activity and alkyl chain length or the nature of the spacer. The obtained results indicate that the synthesized compounds are effective microbicides with a broad spectrum of biocidal activity.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Aspergillus niger/drug effects , Candida albicans/drug effects , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Green Chemistry Technology , Micelles , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Penicillium chrysogenum/drug effects , Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry
5.
Science ; 373(6554): 541-547, 2021 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334531

ABSTRACT

Repurposing drugs as treatments for COVID-19, the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has drawn much attention. Beginning with sigma receptor ligands and expanding to other drugs from screening in the field, we became concerned that phospholipidosis was a shared mechanism underlying the antiviral activity of many repurposed drugs. For all of the 23 cationic amphiphilic drugs we tested, including hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, amiodarone, and four others already in clinical trials, phospholipidosis was monotonically correlated with antiviral efficacy. Conversely, drugs active against the same targets that did not induce phospholipidosis were not antiviral. Phospholipidosis depends on the physicochemical properties of drugs and does not reflect specific target-based activities-rather, it may be considered a toxic confound in early drug discovery. Early detection of phospholipidosis could eliminate these artifacts, enabling a focus on molecules with therapeutic potential.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Lipidoses/chemically induced , Phospholipids/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , A549 Cells , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/toxicity , COVID-19/virology , Cations , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Humans , Mice , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/toxicity , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
6.
J Biol Chem ; 297(2): 100940, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293905

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 envelope protein (S2-E) is a conserved membrane protein that is important for coronavirus (CoV) assembly and budding. Here, we describe the recombinant expression and purification of S2-E in amphipol-class amphipathic polymer solutions, which solubilize and stabilize membrane proteins, but do not disrupt membranes. We found that amphipol delivery of S2-E to preformed planar bilayers results in spontaneous membrane integration and formation of viroporin cation channels. Amphipol delivery of the S2-E protein to human cells results in plasma membrane integration, followed by retrograde trafficking to the trans-Golgi network and accumulation in swollen perinuclear lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1-positive vesicles, likely lysosomes. CoV envelope proteins have previously been proposed to manipulate the luminal pH of the trans-Golgi network, which serves as an accumulation station for progeny CoV particles prior to cellular egress via lysosomes. Delivery of S2-E to cells will enable chemical biological approaches for future studies of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pathogenesis and possibly even development of "Trojan horse" antiviral therapies. Finally, this work also establishes a paradigm for amphipol-mediated delivery of membrane proteins to cells.


Subject(s)
Cell Membrane/drug effects , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Polymers/pharmacology , Propylamines/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , trans-Golgi Network/metabolism , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , HeLa Cells , Humans , Lipid Bilayers/chemistry , Lipid Bilayers/metabolism , Lysosomes/metabolism , Polymers/chemistry , Propylamines/chemistry , Protein Transport , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry
7.
Biotechniques ; 71(1): 370-375, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278249

ABSTRACT

Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 virus is necessary to mitigate risk but may interfere with diagnostic assay performance. We examined the effect of heat inactivation on a prototype SARS-CoV-2 antigen immunoassay run on the ARCHITECT automated analyzer. Recombinant full-length SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein and virus lysate detection was reduced by 66 and 31%, respectively. Several nonionic detergents were assessed as inactivation alternatives based on infectivity in cultured Vero CCL81 cells. Incubation of SARS-CoV-2 in 0.1% Tergitol 15-S-9 for 10 min significantly reduced infectivity and increased the immunoassay signal for cultured lysate and patient specimens. Tergitol 15-S-9 can inactivate SARS-CoV-2 while preserving epitopes on the nucleocapsid protein for enhanced detection by immunoassay antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , Poloxalene/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Virus Inactivation/drug effects , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/drug effects , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Testing/standards , Cells, Cultured , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Immunoassay/standards , Nucleocapsid/immunology , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , Vero Cells
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1605-1612, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196486

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic has created an unprecedented healthcare, social, and economic disaster. Wearing of masks and social distancing can significantly decrease transmission and spread, however, due to circumstances such as medical or dental intervention and personal choice these practices have not been universally adopted. Additional strategies are required to lessen transmission. Nasal rinses and mouthwashes, which directly impact the major sites of reception and transmission of human coronaviruses (HCoV), may provide an additional level of protection against the virus. Common over-the-counter nasal rinses and mouthwashes/gargles were tested for their ability to inactivate high concentrations of HCoV using contact times of 30 s, 1 min, and 2 min. Reductions in titers were measured by using the tissue culture infectious dose 50 (TCID50 ) assay. A 1% baby shampoo nasal rinse solution inactivated HCoV greater than 99.9% with a 2-min contact time. Several over-the-counter mouthwash/gargle products including Listerine and Listerine-like products were highly effective at inactivating infectious virus with greater than 99.9% even with a 30-s contact time. In the current manuscript we have demonstrated that several commonly available healthcare products have significant virucidal properties with respect to HCoV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cell Line , Humans , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Physical Distancing , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , Virus Inactivation/drug effects
9.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249796, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183675

ABSTRACT

The Japanese Ministry of Health requires large-scale cooking facilities to use sodium hypochlorite aqueous solution (HYP) on food preparation tools, equipment, and facilities to prevent secondary contamination. This study aimed to compare the disinfecting effect of HYP and surfactant using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) swab testing on large-scale equipment and facilities that could not be disassembled and disinfected in hospital kitchen. From May 2018 to July 2018, ATP swab tests were performed on the following six locations in the Shizuoka Cancer Centre Dietary Department Kitchen: cooking counter, mobile cooking counter, refrigerator handle, conveyor belt, tap handle, and sink. Six relative light unit (RLU) measurements were taken from each location. The log10 values of the RLU measurements were evaluated by dividing the samples into two groups: the control group (surfactant followed by HYP swabbing) and the HYP group (HYP swabbing only). The results showed that the RLUs (log10 values) in both the groups improved after disinfection (p<0.05), except for the RLUs (log10 values) of the mobile cooking counter, tap handle, and sink in the control group after the HYP swab. The changes in the RLU (log10 value) did not differ between the two groups for all locations of the kitchen. Hence, HYP swabbing of large-scale equipment and facilities provides the same level of disinfection as surfactants and can be as beneficial.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/analysis , Disinfection/methods , Food Industry/standards , Luminescent Measurements/methods , Sodium Hypochlorite/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Food Industry/methods , Hospitals , Humans
10.
Drug Discov Today ; 26(8): 1929-1935, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163655

ABSTRACT

The concept of going 'green' and 'cold' has led to utilizing renewable resources for the synthesis of microbial biosurfactants that are both patient and eco-friendly. In this review, we shed light on the potential and regulatory aspects of biosurfactants in pharmaceutical applications and how they can significantly contribute to novel concepts for the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine and future treatment. We emphasize that more specific guidelines should be formulated to regulate the approval of biosurfactants for human use. It is also crucial to implement a risk-based approach from the early research and development (R&D) phase in addition to establishing more robust standardized techniques and assays to evaluate the characteristics of biosurfactants.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Drug Discovery , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Discovery/methods , Drug Discovery/trends , Drug and Narcotic Control/organization & administration , Ecological and Environmental Phenomena , Humans , Nanostructures , Pharmaceutical Preparations/classification , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
11.
J Med Chem ; 64(7): 3885-3896, 2021 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1155689

ABSTRACT

Quinacrine (QC) and chloroquine (CQ) have antimicrobial and antiviral activities as well as antimalarial activity, although the mechanisms remain unknown. QC increased the antimicrobial activity against yeast exponentially with a pH-dependent increase in the cationic amphiphilic drug (CAD) structure. CAD-QC localized in the yeast membranes and induced glucose starvation by noncompetitively inhibiting glucose uptake as antipsychotic chlorpromazine (CPZ) did. An exponential increase in antimicrobial activity with pH-dependent CAD formation was also observed for CQ, indicating that the CAD structure is crucial for its pharmacological activity. A decrease in CAD structure with a slight decrease in pH from 7.4 greatly reduced their effects; namely, these drugs would inefficiently act on falciparum malaria and COVID-19 pneumonia patients with acidosis, resulting in resistance. The decrease in CAD structure at physiological pH was not observed for quinine, primaquine, or mefloquine. Therefore, restoring the normal blood pH or using pH-insensitive quinoline drugs might be effective for these infectious diseases with acidosis.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Quinacrine/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/chemistry , Antifungal Agents/metabolism , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Chloroquine/chemistry , Chloroquine/metabolism , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Structure , Monosaccharide Transport Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Protons , Quinacrine/chemistry , Quinacrine/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/drug effects , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Surface-Active Agents/metabolism
12.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090285

ABSTRACT

In the face of new emerging respiratory viruses, such as SARS-CoV2, vaccines and drug therapies are not immediately available to curb the spread of infection. Non-pharmaceutical interventions, such as mask-wearing and social distance, can slow the transmission. However, both mask and social distance have not prevented the spread of respiratory viruses SARS-CoV2 within the US. There is an urgent need to develop an intervention that could reduce the spread of respiratory viruses. The key to preventing transmission is to eliminate the emission of SARS-CoV2 from an infected person and stop the virus from propagating in the human population. Rhamnolipids are environmentally friendly surfactants that are less toxic than the synthetic surfactants. In this study, rhamnolipid products, 222B, were investigated as disinfectants against enveloped viruses, such as bovine coronavirus and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). The 222B at 0.009% and 0.0045% completely inactivated 6 and 4 log PFU/mL of HSV-1 in 5-10 min, respectively. 222B at or below 0.005% is also biologically safe. Moreover, 50 µL of 222B at 0.005% on ~1 cm2 mask fabrics or plastic surface can inactivate ~103 PFU HSV-1 in 3-5 min. These results suggest that 222B coated on masks or plastic surface can reduce the emission of SARS-CoV2 from an infected person and stop the spread of SARS-CoV2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus, Bovine/drug effects , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Glycolipids/pharmacology , Herpesvirus 1, Human/drug effects , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Humans
13.
Med Hypotheses ; 148: 110508, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046208

ABSTRACT

Several studies have reported that certain psychoactive drugs could have a protective effect against SARS-CoV-2. Herein, we propose that antihistamines (anti-H1) and cationic amphiphilic drugs (CAD), specifically, have the capacity to disrupt virus entry and replication. In addition, several of these molecules have limited side effects and as such could be promising prophylactic candidates against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Histamine H1 Antagonists/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Models, Biological , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
14.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 24(5): 358-364, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-743555

ABSTRACT

When using ventilators in the management of the coronavirus disease 2019 patient, dense and abundant mucous secretions are formed, obstructing the endotracheal tube and making its aspiration difficult. This situation is worsened if in order to minimize the risk of infection of the medical personnel, the humidifier is disconnected. This circumstance forces the tube to be removed, cleaned, or changed, increasing the workload of the intensive care unit staff. Other therapies tested until now, like mesna, acetylcysteine, or hypertonic saline solution, are valid alternatives, although they have not shown great efficacy for this specific procedure in the past. The sanitary emergency forced the collaboration between a pharmacist and an otorhinolaryngologist to develop the cocamidopropyl betaine surfactant formula, after several tests with different concentrations of the surfactant. The objective of this compounding formula was to resolve a mechanical problem and avoid reintubation due to obstruction of the ventilator tube. The cocamidopropyl betaine surfactant solution 0.075% in saline 0.9% (physiological serum) solution demonstrated to be a well-tolerated formula, using inexpensive materials, was simple to prepare, and was easy to use in clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Betaine/analogs & derivatives , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Intubation, Intratracheal , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus , Betaine/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Humans , Hygiene , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilators, Mechanical
15.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 145: 111702, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733854

ABSTRACT

Our surrounding environment, especially often-touched contaminated surfaces, plays an important role in the transmission of pathogens in society. The shortage of effective sanitizing fluids, however, became a global challenge quickly after the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) outbreak in December 2019. In this study, we present the effect of surfactants on coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) virucidal efficiency in sanitizing fluids. Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS), sodium laureth sulfate (SLS), and two commercial dish soap and liquid hand soap were studied with the goal of evaporation rate reduction in sanitizing liquids to maximize surface contact time. Twelve fluids with different recipes composed of ethanol, isopropanol, SDBS, SLS, glycerin, and water of standardized hardness (WSH) were tested for their evaporation time and virucidal efficiency. Evaporation time increased by 17-63% when surfactant agents were added to the liquid. In addition, surfactant incorporation enhanced the virucidal efficiency between 15 and 27% according to the 4-field test in the EN 16615:2015 European Standard method. Most importantly, however, we found that surfactant addition provides a synergistic effect with alcohols to inactivate the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This study provides a simple, yet effective solution to improve the virucidal efficiency of commonly used sanitizers.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Hand Sanitizers/pharmacology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Soaps/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , 2-Propanol/pharmacology , A549 Cells , Benzenesulfonates/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Drug Synergism , Ethanol/pharmacology , Glycerol/pharmacology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/analogs & derivatives , Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/pharmacology , Volatilization/drug effects
16.
Med Hypotheses ; 143: 110081, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-634173

ABSTRACT

Hand hygiene by washing with soap and water is recommended for the prevention of COVID-19 spread. Soaps and detergents are explained to act by damaging viral spike glycoproteins (peplomers) or by washing out the virus through entrapment in the micelles. Technically, soaps come under a functional category of molecules known as surfactants. Surfactants are widely used in pharmaceutical formulations as excipients. We wonder why surfactants are still not tried for prophylaxis or therapy against COVID-19? That too when many of them have proven antiviral properties. Moreover, lung surfactants have already shown benefits in respiratory viral infections. Therefore, we postulate that surfactant-based prophylaxis and therapy would be promising. We believe that our hypothesis would stimulate debate or new research exploring the possibility of surfactant-based prophylaxis and therapy against COVID-19. The success of a surfactant-based technique would save the world from any such pandemic in the future too.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Micelles , Models, Biological , Mouthwashes/administration & dosage , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface-Active Agents/administration & dosage
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