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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 842453, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855354

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary surfactant constitutes an important barrier that pathogens must cross to gain access to the rest of the organism via the respiratory surface. The presence of pulmonary surfactant prevents the dissemination of pathogens, modulates immune responses, and optimizes lung biophysical activity. Thus, the application of pulmonary surfactant for the treatment of respiratory diseases provides an effective strategy. Currently, several clinical trials are investigating the use of surfactant preparations to treat patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Some factors have been considered in the application of pulmonary surfactant for the treatment COVID-19, such as mechanical ventilation strategy, timing of treatment, dose delivered, method of delivery, and preparation utilized. This review supplements this list with two additional factors: accurate measurement of surfactants in patients and proper selection of pulmonary surfactant components. This review provides a reference for ongoing exogenous surfactant trials involving patients with COVID-19 and provides insight for the development of surfactant preparations for the treatment of viral respiratory infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Surfactants , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Lung , Pulmonary Surfactants/pharmacology , Pulmonary Surfactants/therapeutic use , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Surface-Active Agents/pharmacology , Surface-Active Agents/therapeutic use
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20012, 2021 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462029

ABSTRACT

There are currently no cures for coronavirus infections, making the prevention of infections the only course open at the present time. The COVID-19 pandemic has been difficult to prevent, as the infection is spread by respiratory droplets and thus effective, scalable and safe preventive interventions are urgently needed. We hypothesise that preventing viral entry into mammalian nasal epithelial cells may be one way to limit the spread of COVID-19. Here we show that N-palmitoyl-N-monomethyl-N,N-dimethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl-6-O-glycolchitosan (GCPQ), a positively charged polymer that has been through an extensive Good Laboratory Practice toxicology screen, is able to reduce the infectivity of SARS-COV-2 in A549ACE2+ and Vero E6 cells with a log removal value of - 3 to - 4 at a concentration of 10-100 µg/ mL (p < 0.05 compared to untreated controls) and to limit infectivity in human airway epithelial cells at a concentration of 500 µg/ mL (p < 0.05 compared to untreated controls). In vivo studies using transgenic mice expressing the ACE-2 receptor, dosed nasally with SARS-COV-2 (426,000 TCID50/mL) showed a trend for nasal GCPQ (20 mg/kg) to inhibit viral load in the respiratory tract and brain, although the study was not powered to detect statistical significance. GCPQ's electrostatic binding to the virus, preventing viral entry into the host cells, is the most likely mechanism of viral inhibition. Radiolabelled GCPQ studies in mice show that at a dose of 10 mg/kg, GCPQ has a long residence time in mouse nares, with 13.1% of the injected dose identified from SPECT/CT in the nares, 24 h after nasal dosing. With a no observed adverse effect level of 18 mg/kg in rats, following a 28-day repeat dose study, clinical testing of this polymer, as a COVID-19 prophylactic is warranted.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Nasal Sprays , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , A549 Cells , Animals , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Male , Methylation , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Surface-Active Agents/administration & dosage , Surface-Active Agents/therapeutic use , Vero Cells , Viral Load/drug effects
3.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(17): 9467-9473, 2021 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1037522

ABSTRACT

The search for vaccines that protect from severe morbidity and mortality because of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a race against the clock and the virus. Here we describe an amphiphilic imidazoquinoline (IMDQ-PEG-CHOL) TLR7/8 adjuvant, consisting of an imidazoquinoline conjugated to the chain end of a cholesterol-poly(ethylene glycol) macromolecular amphiphile. It is water-soluble and exhibits massive translocation to lymph nodes upon local administration through binding to albumin, affording localized innate immune activation and reduction in systemic inflammation. The adjuvanticity of IMDQ-PEG-CHOL was validated in a licensed vaccine setting (quadrivalent influenza vaccine) and an experimental trimeric recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein vaccine, showing robust IgG2a and IgG1 antibody titers in mice that could neutralize viral infection in vitro and in vivo in a mouse model.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Imidazoles/therapeutic use , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Quinolines/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cholesterol/analogs & derivatives , Cholesterol/immunology , Cholesterol/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Imidazoles/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Membrane Glycoproteins/agonists , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , Polyethylene Glycols/therapeutic use , Quinolines/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Surface-Active Agents/therapeutic use , Toll-Like Receptor 7/agonists , Toll-Like Receptor 8/agonists
4.
Trials ; 21(1): 1014, 2020 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966433

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: SARS-Cov-2 virus preferentially binds to the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) on alveolar epithelial type II cells, initiating an inflammatory response and tissue damage which may impair surfactant synthesis contributing to alveolar collapse, worsening hypoxia and leading to respiratory failure. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, safety and efficacy of nebulised surfactant in COVID-19 adult patients requiring mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure. TRIAL DESIGN: This study is a dose-escalating randomized open-label clinical trial of 20 COVID-19 patients. PARTICIPANTS: This study is conducted in two centres: University Hospital Southampton and University College London Hospitals. Eligible participants are aged ≥18, hospitalised with COVID-19 (confirmed by PCR), who require endotracheal intubation and are enrolled within 24 hours of mechanical ventilation. For patients unable to consent, assent is obtained from a personal legal representative (PerLR) or professional legal representative (ProfLR) prior to enrolment. The following are exclusion criteria: imminent expected death within 24 hours; specific contraindications to surfactant administration (e.g. known allergy, pneumothorax, pulmonary hemorrhage); known or suspected pregnancy; stage 4 chronic kidney disease or requiring dialysis (i.e., eGFR < 30); liver failure (Child-Pugh Class C); anticipated transfer to another hospital, which is not a study site, within 72 hours; current or recent (within 1 month) participation in another study that, in the opinion of the investigator, would prevent enrollment for safety reasons; and declined consent or assent. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Intervention: The study is based on an investigational drug/device combination product. The surfactant product is Bovactant (Alveofact®), a natural animal derived (bovine) lung surfactant formulated as a lyophilized powder in 108 mg vials and reconstituted to 45 mg/mL in buffer supplied in a prefilled syringe. It is isolated by lung lavage and, by weight, is a mixture of: phospholipid (75% phosphatidylcholine, 13% phosphatidylglycerol, 3% phosphatidylethanolamine, 1% phosphatidylinositol and 1% sphingomyelin), 5% cholesterol, 1% lipid-soluble surfactant-associated proteins (SP-B and SP-C), very low levels of free fatty acid, lyso-phosphatidylcholine, water and 0.3% calcium. The Drug Delivery Device is the AeroFact-COVID™ nebulizer, an investigational device based on the Aerogen® Solo vibrating mesh nebulizer. The timing and escalation dosing plans for the surfactant are as follows. Cohort 1: Three patients will receive 10 vials (1080 mg) each of surfactant at dosing times of 0 hours, 8 hours and 24 hours. 2 controls with no placebo intervention. Cohort 2: Three patients will receive 10 vials (1080 mg) of surfactant at dosing times of 0 hours and 8 hours, and 30 vials (3240 mg) at a dosing time of 24 hours. 2 controls with no placebo intervention. Cohort 3: Three patients will receive 10 vials (1080 mg) of surfactant at a dosing time of 0 hours, and 30 vials (3240 mg) at dosing times of 8 hours and 24 hours. 2 controls with no placebo intervention. Cohort 4: Three patients will receive 30 (3240 mg) vials each of surfactant at dosing times of 0 hours, 8 hours and 24 hours. 2 controls. 2 controls with no placebo intervention. The trial steering committee, advised by the data monitoring committee, will review trial progression and dose escalation/maintenance/reduction after each cohort is completed (48-hour primary outcome timepoint reached) based on available feasibility, adverse event, safety and efficacy data. The trial will not be discontinued on the basis of lack of efficacy. The trial may be stopped early on the basis of safety or feasibility concerns. Comparator: No placebo intervention. All participants will receive usual standard of care in accordance with the local policies for mechanically ventilated patients and all other treatments will be left to the discretion of the attending physician. MAIN OUTCOMES: The co-primary outcome is the improvement in oxygenation (PaO2/FiO2 ratio) and pulmonary ventilation (Ventilation Index (VI), where VI = [RR x (PIP - PEEP) × PaCO2]/1000) at 48 hours after study initiation. The secondary outcomes include frequency and severity of adverse events (AEs), Adverse Device Effects (ADEs), Serious Adverse Events (SAEs) and Serious Adverse Device Events (SADEs), change in pulmonary compliance, change in positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) requirement of ventilatory support at 24 and 48 hours after study initiation, clinical improvement defined by time to one improvement point on the ordinal scale described in the WHO master protocol (2020) recorded while hospitalised, days of mechanical ventilation, mechanical ventilator free days (VFD) at day 21, length of intensive care unit stay, number of days hospitalised and mortality at day 28. Exploratory end points will include quantification of SARS-CoV-2 viral load from tracheal aspirates using PCR, surfactant dynamics (synthesis and turnover) and function (surface tension reduction) from deep tracheal aspirate samples (DTAS), surfactant phospholipid concentrations in plasma and DTAS, inflammatory markers (cellular and cytokine) in plasma and DTAS, and blood oxidative stress markers. RANDOMISATION: After informed assent, patients fulfilling inclusion criteria will be randomised to 3:2 for the treatment and control arms using an internet-based block randomization service (ALEA tool for clinical trials, FormsVision BV) in combination with electronic data collection. Randomisation will be done by the recruiting centre with a unique subject identifier specific to that centre. BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open-labelled unblinded study. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The total sample size is 20 COVID-19 mechanically ventilated patients (12 intervention; 8 control). TRIAL STATUS: Current protocol version is V2 dated 5th of June 2020. The recruitment is currently ongoing and started on the 14th of October 2020. The anticipated study completion date is November 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04362059 (Registered 24 April 2020), EUDAMED number: CIV-GB-20-06-033328, EudraCT number: 2020-001886-35 (Registered 11 May 2020) FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Nebulizers and Vaporizers/standards , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Surface-Active Agents/therapeutic use , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Feasibility Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , London/epidemiology , Mortality/trends , Nebulizers and Vaporizers/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/metabolism , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Safety , Surface-Active Agents/administration & dosage , Surface-Active Agents/chemistry , Treatment Outcome , Ventilation/statistics & numerical data
5.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110262, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-753086

ABSTRACT

To date, the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection is increasing worldwide and represents a primary healthcare emergency. Although the infection can be asymptomatic, several cases develop severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) characterized by high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, primarily interleukin (IL)-6. Based on available data, the severity of ARDS and serum levels of IL-6 are key determinants for the prognosis. In this scenario, available in vitro and in vivo data suggested that myo-inositol is able to increase the synthesis and function of the surfactant phosphatidylinositol, acting on the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-regulated signaling, with amelioration of both immune system and oxygenation at the bronchoalveolar level. In addition, myo-inositol has been found able to decrease the levels of IL-6 in several experimental settings, due to an effect on the inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1)-X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) and on the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathways. In this scenario, treatment with myo-inositol may be able to reduce IL-6 dependent inflammatory response and improve oxygenation in patients with severe ARDS by SARS-CoV-2. In addition, the action of myo-inositol on IRE1 endonuclease activity may also inhibit the replication of SARS-CoV-2, as was reported for the respiratory syncytial virus. Since the available data are extremely limited, if this potential therapeutic approach will be considered valid in the clinical practice, the necessary future investigations should aim to identify the best dose, administration route (oral, intravenous and/or aerosol nebulization), and cluster(s) of patients which may get beneficial effects from this treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Inositol/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/blood , Surface-Active Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Cytokines/blood , Disease Progression , Humans , Inflammation , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Phosphatidylcholines/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/metabolism , Phosphatidylinositols/metabolism , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Signal Transduction , X-Box Binding Protein 1/metabolism
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