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1.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 151(6): 1339-1346, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238391

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Scientific leadership among women and underrepresented minorities is lacking in plastic surgery. It is unknown whether the underrepresentation of women and ethnic minorities extends into academic conferences. The authors evaluated the temporal trends of female and ethnic minority representation at plastic surgery conferences in the United States. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all presentations from seven national and regional plastic surgery meetings between 2014 and 2018 was conducted. Gender, ethnicity, and academic rank of the first authors were determined by analyzing pronouns, institutional biographies, and accompanying images identified in online searches. RESULTS: A total of 4180 abstracts were presented by 3452 first authors. The majority of first authors were of European descent (53%), male (65%), and most commonly a resident physician (42%). Women were found to have a greater representation at plastic surgery conferences than in the plastic surgery workforce (34% versus 17%; P < 0.0001). Similarly, relative to American Association of Medical Colleges demographics, individuals of Asian descent were overrepresented as first authors (27% versus 12%; P < 0.0001), whereas first authors of European descent were less prevalent (53% versus 64%; P < 0.0001). When compared with national plastic surgery conferences, regional conferences had a greater proportion of first authors of European descent (51% versus 58%; P < 0.0001) but a lower proportion of first authors of East Asian descent (21% versus 16%; P = 0.0001). Ethnic representation remained persistently low, with first authors of South Asian descent decreasingly represented [from 2014 (10%) to 2018 (6%); P = 0.0062]. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, we present multilevel data that show a promising trend of increased female representation at national meetings. However, there appears to be a decline in ethnic diversity.


Subject(s)
Plastic Surgery Procedures , Surgery, Plastic , Humans , Male , Female , United States , Ethnicity , Retrospective Studies , Minority Groups
3.
Ann Plast Surg ; 90(4): 366-375, 2023 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314858

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2022, the plastic and reconstructive surgery (PRS) match faced unprecedented system-wide transitions that have redefined conventional measures of applicant success. This challenges the equitable assessment of student competitiveness and diversity in the field. METHODS: A survey of demography, application content, and 2022 match outcomes was distributed to applicants to a single PRS residency program. Comparative statistics and regression models were performed to assess the predictive value of factors in match success and quality. RESULTS: A total of 151 respondents (response rate 49.7%) were analyzed. Although step 1 and step 2 CK scores were significantly higher among matched applicants, neither examination predicted match success. Most respondents (52.3%) were women, although gender was also not significantly associated with match success. Underrepresented in medicine applicants made up 19.2% of responses and 16.7% of matches, and the plurality of respondents (22.5%) were raised with a household income ≥$300,000. Both Black race and household income ≤$100,000 were associated with lower odds of scoring above a 240 on either step 1 or step 2 CK (Black: OR, 0.03 and 0.06; P < 0.05 and P < 0.001; income: OR, 0.07-0.47 and 0.1 to 0.8, among income subgroups), receiving interview offers (OR, -9.4; P < 0.05; OR, -11.0 to -5.4), and matching into PRS (OR, 0.2; P < 0.05; OR, 0.2 to 0.5), compared with White and high-income applicants, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic inequities in the match process disadvantage underrepresented in medicine candidates and those from lower household incomes. As the residency match continues to evolve, programs must understand and mitigate the impacts of bias in various application components.


Subject(s)
Internship and Residency , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Surgery, Plastic , Humans , Female , Male , Surgery, Plastic/education , Surveys and Questionnaires , Socioeconomic Factors
4.
Ann Plast Surg ; 90(5): 478-481, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2320947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Integrated plastic surgery applicants complete among the highest number of visiting audition rotations of any specialty. In the 2021 match, we observed that the elimination of audition rotations and in-person interviews drastically increased the number of applicants who matched at their home program. We sought to evaluate the effect of applicants participating in one selective visiting subinternship rotation on home program match rates. METHODS: Top 50 plastic surgery residency programs were identified by 2021 Doximity rankings. Publicly available, online plastic surgery match spreadsheets were used to collect available information including matched applicants' medical school, the institution at which they matched, whether they matched at their home institution, and whether they had previous communication with their matched program including research year or visiting subinternship completed. RESULTS: Fourteen percent of applicants matched at their home institution in 2022, comparable with recent prepandemic rates of 14.1% and 16.7%, versus 24.1% in 2021. The largest effect was observed among the top 25 programs. Separately, approximately 70% of applicants provided self-reported information on whether they completed a subinternship. Among the top 50 programs, 39.0% of applicants completed an audition rotation at the institution at which they eventually matched. CONCLUSIONS: The allowance of medical students to perform only one visiting subinternship in the 2022 match cycle normalized home match rates to the prepandemic baseline, possibly driven by a large proportion of students matching at their visiting rotation institution. Perhaps from both a program and applicant standpoint, 1 away rotation may provide sufficient exposure for eventual match success.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Students, Medical , Surgery, Plastic , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Surgery, Plastic/education , Self Report
5.
Facial Plast Surg ; 39(3): 311-316, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319658

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic affected many aspects of medical practice, particularly surgical fields. The American College of Surgery initially recommended the cancellation of all elective procedures. As a result, virtual consultations (VCs; a form of telemedicine), became widely used in the field of facial plastic and reconstructive surgery. With more facial plastic and reconstructive surgeons (FPRS) conducting both in-person and virtual visits, it is imperative to understand how VCs are utilized in practice. METHODS: An electronic, anonymous survey was distributed to 1,282 electronic mail addresses in the 2018 American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery directory. The survey collected responses on various topics including demographic information and past, current, and future use of VCs. RESULTS: The survey yielded 84 responses. Most surgeons (66.7%) were 11+ years out of fellowship. There was a significant increase in the percentage of VCs scheduled after the pandemic than before (p = 0.03). FPRS most frequently responded that VCs should always be followed by an in-person visit (48.6%). A majority of FPRS (66.2%) believe that VCs have improved the delivery of health care in at least some cases. Almost all FPRS (86.5%) plan on using VCs after the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Since the pandemic, VCs are more frequently used by surgeons and are mostly utilized as an initial patient visit. A majority of FPRS believe that VCs have improved health care in at least some cases, and plan on using VCs after the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Surgery, Plastic , Humans , United States , COVID-19/epidemiology , Surgery, Plastic/methods , Pandemics , Referral and Consultation
7.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 82: 255-263, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309267

ABSTRACT

Continuing problems with fewer training opportunities and a greater awareness of patient safety have led to a constant search for an alternative technique to bridge the existing theory-practice gap in plastic surgery training and education. The current COVID-19 epidemic has aggravated the situation, making it urgent to implement breakthrough technological initiatives currently underway to improve surgical education. The cutting edge of technological development, augmented reality (AR), has already been applied in numerous facets of plastic surgery training, and it is capable of realizing the aims of education and training in this field. In this article, we will take a look at some of the most important ways that AR is now being used in plastic surgery education and training, as well as offer an exciting glimpse into the potential future of this field thanks to technological advancements.


Subject(s)
Augmented Reality , COVID-19 , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Surgery, Plastic , Virtual Reality , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology
8.
J Craniofac Surg ; 34(4): 1238-1241, 2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sooner-than-expected progression to statewide lockdown at the height of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic left minimal time for medical specialty boards, including The American Board of Plastic Surgery, to issue guidance for their respective programs. As a result, programs were tasked with developing creative alternatives to their standard resident curricula and department schedules. OBJECTIVE: To capture attending and resident experience of the coronavirus disease 2019 lockdown in narrative form and to understand what specific changes enacted to maintain adequate education should be considered for continuation after the pandemic's conclusion. METHODS: Qualitative, semistructured interviews of residents, fellows, and faculty of the Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery during 2019 to 2020 academic year were conducted on the following topics: (1) general reflection on lockdown, (2) resident maintenance of daily logs, (3) multi-institutional collaborative lectures, (4) modified didactic curriculum, (5) virtual 3-dimensional craniofacial planning sessions, (6) maintenance of department camaraderie, and (7) effect on preparation to become a surgeon. RESULTS: Twenty interviews (response rate 77%) were conducted between October 2020 and February 2021. Of residents, 100% felt observing the craniofacial planning sessions was beneficial, with many explicitly noting it provided a unique perspective into the surgeon's thought process behind planned manipulations, to which they usually are not privy. Of residents, 100% felt confident at the time of the interview that the lockdown would have no lasting effects on their preparation to become a surgeon. CONCLUSIONS: Rapid changes enacted at Yale enabled resident training to advance, and documentation of the success of these changes can inform future curriculum design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , General Surgery , Internship and Residency , Surgery, Plastic , Humans , United States , COVID-19/epidemiology , Surgery, Plastic/education , Communicable Disease Control , Curriculum , Qualitative Research , General Surgery/education
9.
Ann Plast Surg ; 90(6S Suppl 5): S645-S653, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the second cycle impacted by COVID-19, the 2022 Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (PRS) Match maintained virtual interviews while offering a modest lift of subinternship restrictions. The residency application process continues to evolve, with changes such as pass/fail United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 reporting prompting programs to reconsider metrics of applicant success. It is critical to address the impact of board scores, mentorship, and resource availability on a diverse applicant population in the PRS Match. METHODS: A survey was electronically administered to students applying to a single institutional PRS residency program. The survey inquired about demographics, application statistics, mentorship experience, and match outcomes. Logistic regressions were modeled to assess for odds of matching into plastic surgery. RESULTS: In total, 151 responses were analyzed, a 49.7% response rate. Most participants were female (52.3%), White (68.9%), and not Hispanic/Latino (84.8%). The largest percentage of respondents had a faculty mentor only from their home institution (55.0%) and a resident mentor from only their home institution (32.3%). Participants with a faculty mentor from both a home and outside institution had 7.4 times the odds of matching into PRS ( P = 0.02) than students with no faculty mentorship. Students with dual-institution resident mentorship had 18.5 times higher the odds of matching compared with students with no resident mentorship ( P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Subjective metrics, rather than objective scores, had the most influence on successfully matching into plastic surgery. As the PRS Match continues to become increasingly competitive, it behooves programs to provide equitable access to resources such as mentorship.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Surgery, Plastic , Humans , Female , United States , Male , Mentors , Surgery, Plastic/education , COVID-19/epidemiology
11.
Ann Plast Surg ; 90(6S Suppl 5): S630-S633, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262797

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The global COVID-19 pandemic reshaped many components of modern health care practice. Before the pandemic, research was beginning to demonstrate the impact of self-facing cameras, selfie images, and webcams on patient interest in head and neck (H&N) aesthetic surgery. We sought to determine temporal changes in patient interest in aesthetic surgery of the H&N as compared with the rest of the body because of COVID-19, and the subsequent surge in Web-conferencing and telecommunication. The 2020 Plastic Surgery Trends Report produced by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons was used to identify the 5 most common aesthetic surgical procedures performed on the H&N and the rest of the body for 2019: blepharoplasty, face lift, rhinoplasty, neck lift, cheek implant, and breast lift, liposuction, tummy tuck, breast augmentation, and breast reduction, respectively. Google Trends filters, which provide relative search interest for greater than 85% of Internet searches, were applied to gauge interest from January 2019 to April 2022. Relative search interest and mean interest were plotted as a function of time for each term. Our findings demonstrate a sharp decline in online aesthetic surgery interest in March 2020, coinciding with the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic for both the H&N and the rest of the body. Search interest increased shortly after March 2020 and reached values greater than those of the prepandemic year (2019) in 2021 for rest of the body procedures. After March 2020, there was a brief, sharp increase in search interest for rhinoplasty, neck lift, and facelift, whereas patient interest in blepharoplasty increased more gradually. There was no increase in search interest for H&N procedures as a result of COVID-19 when using the mean values of the included procedures, although current interest has returned to prepandemic levels. The COVID-19 pandemic caused a disruption of normal trends in aesthetic surgery interest, with a sharp decline in search interest in March 2020. Afterward, there was a sharp increase in rhinoplasty, face lift, neck lift, and blepharoplasty interest. Patient interest in blepharoplasty and neck lift has remained elevated compared with 2019. Interest in rest of the body procedures has returned to and even surpassed prepandemic levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Rhytidoplasty , Surgery, Plastic , Humans , United States , Surgery, Plastic/methods , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Rhytidoplasty/methods
13.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 152(1): 166e-187e, 2023 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2236671

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Crowdsourcing uses online platforms to collect large data from laypersons and has been increasingly used over the past 5 years to answer questions about aesthetic and functional outcomes following plastic and reconstructive surgery. This systematic review evaluates crowdsourcing articles in plastic and reconstructive surgery based on study topic, participants, and effect size in the hopes of describing best practices. METHODS: A systematic search strategy was developed with a licensed librarian and attending plastic surgeon to query all articles using crowdsourcing in plastic and reconstructive surgery. Covidence systematic review manager was used by two independent reviewers to import articles, screen abstracts, evaluate full texts, and extract data. RESULTS: A search run on October 8, 2021, yielded 168 studies, of which 45 were ultimately included. Craniofacial surgery and aesthetic surgery collectively constituted over half of studies. Participants in plastic surgery crowdsourcing studies are more commonly from the United States, female, straight, 25 to 35 years old; have completed college; and earn $20,000 to $50,000 per year. Studies typically assessed aesthetic perceptions, cost approximately $350, ran a median of 9 days, included approximately 60 unique survey items, and included approximately 40 unique human images. CONCLUSIONS: Crowdsourcing is a relatively new, low-cost method of garnering high-volume data from laypersons that may further our understanding of public perception in plastic and reconstructive surgery. As with other nascent fields, there is significant variability in number of subjects used, subject compensation, and methodology, indicating an opportunity for quality improvement.


Subject(s)
Crowdsourcing , Plastic Surgery Procedures , Surgery, Plastic , Humans , Female , Adult , Surveys and Questionnaires , Esthetics
15.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 151(6): 1035e-1042e, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2222941

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had far-reaching consequences, occasionally amplifying preexisting disparities. This study examines the impact of COVID-19 on Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (PRS) manuscript submissions by female authors. METHODS: All manuscripts submitted to PRS during the months of March and April of 2018 through 2021 were examined. Gender of the first, corresponding, and senior authors was confirmed using Gender API; the country of the author was abstracted; and appropriate statistical comparisons were made. RESULTS: There were 2512 submissions to PRS during the study period, with a statistically significant increase observed between 2019 and 2020 ( P = 0.008). Despite this significant increase, the proportion of publications by female corresponding and senior authors decreased significantly with the onset of the pandemic ( P < 0.001 for both). This decrease was mirrored by a significant increase in the proportion of male senior and corresponding author publications ( P < 0.001 for both) and female first author publications ( P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Despite a significant increase in overall submissions to PRS during the COVID-19 pandemic, the proportion submitted by senior and corresponding female authors declined. Although causality cannot be determined by the authors' methodology, their findings suggest a disproportionate burden on senior female authors during the pandemic with unclear academic repercussions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Surgery, Plastic , Humans , Male , Female , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Authorship
18.
Ann Plast Surg ; 90(6S Suppl 5): S689-S692, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2191208

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic led to a temporary shutdown of elective procedures. The purpose of this study is to evaluate how the elective surgery shutdown impacted case log numbers for graduating plastic surgery independent residents. METHODS: The Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education graduate self-reported case logs were retrospectively compiled for graduating independent track plastic surgery residents for the year before the pandemic (2019), 4 months into the pandemic (2020) and 16 months into the pandemic (2021). Procedures were grouped into resident review committee area and totals for each area were used for analysis. Average number of cases and standard deviations were compiled. Percent change was calculated comparing each year to the prepandemic baseline. Statistical significance was determined with Student t tests comparing average number of cases. Coefficients of variation were calculated to assess for changes in interprogram variation. Average case numbers were then compared with minimum case requirements necessary for graduation. RESULTS: The Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education graduation case log statistics were available for 238 independent residents. There were no statistically significant differences in average case number for graduating independent residents for total reconstructive breast, trunk, hand and upper extremity, or total reconstructive procedures between graduation years. The average case number of total lower extremity reconstruction increased from 2019 to 2020 (average = 83-97.4, P = 0.02). The average total number of breast aesthetic cases increased between all years (average = 92, 98, 114), with the average increase from 2019 to 2021 being statistically significant ( P = 0.02). Differences in head and neck aesthetic deformities and trunk and extremity deformities between years were not statistically significant. The average case number for all graduating plastic surgery independent residents exceeded the minimum case log requirements. CONCLUSIONS: The temporary hold on elective procedures during the pandemic decreased the opportunity for plastic surgery trainees to meet minimum case log requirements. Case log data for graduating plastic surgery independent residents demonstrate that despite the temporary suspension, the pandemic did not greatly impact the average resident case numbers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , General Surgery , Internship and Residency , Surgery, Plastic , Humans , Surgery, Plastic/education , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Medical, Graduate/methods , Clinical Competence
20.
Ann Plast Surg ; 89(5): 552-559, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152281

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The 2020-2021 interview cycle for integrated plastic surgery applicants was the first to be held virtually because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Here, we detail the largest study on integrated plastic surgery applicant perceptions after the virtual interview cycle. METHODS: A 35-question institutional review board-approved survey was distributed to medical students who had applied to the Johns Hopkins/University of Maryland or University of California San Diego integrated residency programs during the 2020-2021 interview cycle. Survey questions assessed the structure, strengths, and weaknesses of the exclusively virtual interview process. Survey administration and data collection were performed using the Qualtrics platform. RESULTS: Of 318 distributed surveys, 94 were completed. In addition, 91.5% of respondents preferred in-person interviews before the interview season, whereas 54.3% preferred in-person interviews afterward. Applicants who favored virtual interviews did not view being unable to physically meet with program staff as a detriment (P = .001) and felt they could effectively advocate for themselves (P = .002). Overall, the most cited strengths were the ability to complete more interviews (P = .01) and cost benefits (P = .02). Criticisms were directed at the impersonal nature of the exchange (86.2%), lack of physical tour (56.4%), and difficulties at self-advocacy (52.1%). CONCLUSION: Preference for virtual interviews increased from 7.5% to 34.0% after the virtual interview cycle. For several students, the ideal interview structure permits both in-person and virtual interviews to maximize flexibility. Augmenting with virtual city tours and one-on-one interviews may mitigate the impersonal nature of virtual interviews as perceived by some applicants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Students, Medical , Surgery, Plastic , Humans , Surgery, Plastic/education , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
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