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1.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 23(5): 458-464, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901048

ABSTRACT

Background: The impact of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the rate of primary total joint arthroplasty (TJA) peri-prosthetic joint infection (PJI) and superficial surgical site infections (SSI) is currently unknown. The purpose of this multicenter study was to evaluate any changes in the rates of 90-day PJI or 30-day SSI, including trends in microbiology of the infections, during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the three years prior. Patients and Methods: An Institutional Review Board-approved, multicenter, retrospective study was conducted with five participating academic institutions across two healthcare systems in the northeastern United States. Primary TJA patients from the years 2017-2019 were grouped as a pre-COVID-19 pandemic cohort and patients from the year 2020 were grouped as a COVID-19 pandemic cohort. Differences in patient demographics, PJI, SSI, and microbiology between the two cohorts were assessed. Results: A total of 14,844 TJAs in the pre-COVID-19 pandemic cohort and 5,453 TJAs in the COVID-19 pandemic cohort were evaluated. There were no substantial differences of the combined 90-day PJI and 30-day superficial SSI rates between the pre-COVID-19 pandemic cohort (0.35%) compared with the COVID-19 pandemic cohort (0.26%; p = 0.303). Conclusions: This study did not find any change in the rates of 90-day PJI or 30-day superficial SSI in patients undergoing primary TJA between a pre-COVID-19 pandemic and COVID-19 pandemic cohort. Larger national database studies may identify small but substantial differences in 90-day PJI and 30-day superficial SSI rates between these two time periods. Our data may support continued efforts to maintain high compliance with hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment, and limited hospital visitation whenever possible.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Infectious , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Prosthesis-Related Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prosthesis-Related Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(7)2022 03 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841369

ABSTRACT

Surgical site infections (SSIs) are common postoperative complications. Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) can prevent the occurrence of SSIs if administered appropriately. We carried out a retrospective cohort study to determine the incidence of SSIs and assess whether SAP were administered according to WHO guidelines for Caesarean section (CS) and herniorrhaphy patients in Bo regional government hospital from November 2019 to October 2020. The analysis included 681 patients (599 CSs and 82 herniorrhaphies). Overall, the SSI rate was 6.7% among all patients, and 7.5% and 1.2% among CS patients and herniorrhaphy patients, respectively. SAP was administered preoperatively in 85% of CS and 70% of herniorrhaphy patients. Postoperative antibiotics were prescribed to 85% of CS and 100% of herniorrhaphy patients. Ampicillin, metronidazole, and amoxicillin were the most commonly used antibiotics. The relatively low rate of SSIs observed in this study is probably due to improved infection prevention and control (IPC) measures following the Ebola outbreak and the current COVID-19 pandemic. A good compliance rate with WHO guidelines for preoperative SAP was observed. However, there was a high use of postoperative antibiotics, which is not in line with WHO guidelines. Recommendations were made to ensure the appropriate administration of SAP and reduce unnecessary use of antibiotics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Herniorrhaphy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Cesarean Section/adverse effects , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Referral and Consultation , Retrospective Studies , Sierra Leone/epidemiology , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , World Health Organization
3.
J Am Coll Surg ; 234(4): 571-578, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1806770

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic created shortages of operating room (OR) supplies, forcing healthcare systems to make concessions regarding "standard" OR attire. At our institution, we were required to reduce shoe covers, reuse face masks, and allow washable head coverings. We determined if these changes affected surgical site infection (SSI) rates. STUDY DESIGN: A single institutional study was performed to compare the SSI rates reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network in the 2 years preceding COVID-19 (PRE, January 1, 2018, to December 31, 2020) with the first 12 months after the pandemic (POST, April 1, 2020, to March 31, 2021). We confirmed our findings using propensity score matching and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Elimination of traditional shoe covers, disposable head covers, and single-use face masks was associated with a decreased SSI rate from 5.1% PRE to 2.6% POST (p < 0.001). Furthermore, this was despite a 14% increase in surgical volume and an increase in the number of contaminated/dirty cases (2.2% PRE vs 7.4% POST, p < 0.001). Use of disposable face masks decreased by 4.3-fold during this period from 3.5 million/y PRE to 0.8 million/y POST. Of note, inpatient hand hygiene throughout the hospital increased from 71% PRE to 85% POST (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This analysis has practical applications as we emerge from the pandemic and make decisions regarding OR attire. These data suggest that disposable head covers and shoe covers and frequent changes of face masks are unnecessary, and discontinuation of these practices will have significant cost and environmental implications. These data also reinforce the importance of good hand hygiene for infection prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Masks , Operating Rooms , Pandemics/prevention & control , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(2): e047500, 2022 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752848

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is controversy regarding the importance of air-transmitted infections for surgical site infections (SSIs) after orthopaedic surgery. Research has been hindered by both the inability in blinding the exposure, and by the need for recruiting large enough cohorts. The aim of this study is to investigate whether using a new form of air purifier using plasma air purification (PAP) in operating rooms (ORs) lowers the SSI rate or not. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Multicentre, double-blind, cluster-randomised, placebo-controlled trial conducted at seven hospitals in 2017-2022. All patients that undergo orthopaedic surgery for minimum 30 min are included. Intervention group: patients operated in OR with PAP devices turned on. CONTROL GROUP: patients operated in OR with PAP devices turned off. Randomisation: each OR will be randomised in periods of 4 weeks, 6 weeks or 8 weeks to either have the devices on or off. PRIMARY OUTCOME: any SSI postoperatively defined as a composite endpoint of any of the following: use of isoxazolylpenicillin, clindamycin or rifampicin for 2 days or more, International Classification of Diseases codes or Nordic Medico-Statistical Committee codes indicating postoperative infection. In a second step, we will perform a chart review on those patients with positive indicators of SSI to further validate the outcome. Secondary outcomes are described in the Methods section. Power: we assume an SSI rate of 2%, an SSI reduction rate of 25% and we need approximately 45 000 patients to attain a power of 80% at a significance level of 0.05. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study is approved by the Swedish Ethical Review Authority. The interim analysis results from the study will be presented only to the researchers involved unless the study thereafter is interrupted for whatever reason. Publication in a medical journal will be presented after inclusion of the last patient. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02695368.


Subject(s)
Orthopedic Procedures , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Incidence , Orthopedic Procedures/adverse effects , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control
6.
J Surg Oncol ; 125(3): 327-335, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499287

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are reports of outcomes of elective major cancer surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic. We evaluated if reinforcement of hand hygiene, universal masking, and distancing as a part of pandemic precautions led to a decrease in the incidence of surgical site infections (SSIs) in major oncologic resections. METHODS: Propensity score matching using the nearest neighbor algorithm was performed on 3123 patients over seven covariates (age, comorbidities, surgery duration, prior treatment, disease stage, reconstruction, and surgical wound type) yielding 2614 matched (pre-COVID 1612 and COVID 1002) patients. Conditional logistic regression was used to identify if SSI incidence was lower amongst patients operated during the pandemic. RESULTS: There was a 4.2% (p = 0.006) decrease in SSI in patients operated during the pandemic. On multivariate regression, surgery during the COVID-19 period (odds ratio [OR] = 0.77; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.61-0.98; p = 0.03), prior chemoradiation (OR = 2.46; CI = 1.45-4.17; p < 0.001), duration of surgery >4 h (OR = 2.17; 95%CI = 1.55-3.05; p < 0.001) and clean contaminated wounds (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 1.09-2.18; p = 0.012) were significantly associated with SSI. CONCLUSION: Increased compliance with hand hygiene, near-universal mask usage, and social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic possibly led to a 23% decreased odds of SSI in major oncologic resections. Extending these low-cost interventions in the post-pandemic era can decrease morbidity associated with SSI in cancer surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Infection Control , Neoplasms/surgery , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Algorithms , COVID-19/prevention & control , Elective Surgical Procedures , Female , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
7.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 38(2): 325-330, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474001

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: COVID-19 has prompted significant policy change, with critical attention to the conservation of personal protective equipment (PPE). An extended surgical mask use policy was implemented at our institution, allowing use of one disposable mask per each individual, per day, for all the cases. We investigate the clinical impact of this policy change and its effect on the rate of 30-day surgical site infection (SSI). METHODS: A single-institution retrospective review was performed for all the elective pediatric general surgery cases performed pre-COVID from August 2019 to October 2019 and under the extended mask use policy from August 2020 to October 2020. Procedure type, SSI within 30 days, and postoperative interventions were recorded. RESULTS: Four hundred and eighty-eight cases were reviewed: 240 in the pre-COVID-19 cohort and 248 in the extended surgical mask use cohort. Three SSIs were identified in the 2019 cohort, and two in the 2020 cohort. All postoperative infections were superficial and resolved within 1 month of diagnosis with oral antibiotics. There were no deep space infections, readmissions, or infections requiring re-operation. CONCLUSION: Extended surgical mask use was not associated with increased SSI in this series of pediatric general surgery cases and may be considered an effective and safe strategy for resource conservation with minimal clinical impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Child , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control
8.
No Shinkei Geka ; 49(5): 1093-1104, 2021 Sep.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456522

ABSTRACT

Although surgical site infections(SSIs)are usually controllable, their occasional occurrence is unavoidable. SSIs in neurosurgery comprise surgical-wound infections and surgical-organ/space infections. Data from the Japan Nosocomial Infections Surveillance revealed an overall infection rate of 1.1% during the first half of 2020. Responses to two questionnaire-based surveys on SSI prevention and complications related to cranial implant/artificial bone revealed the real world situation in neurosurgery. In 2020, neurosurgical information was added to the practical guidelines concerning the proper use of prophylactic antibacterial drug for SSIs. COVID-19 hygiene control protocols may have reduced the incidence of SSIs. It may be prudent to continue this stringent hygiene control after the COVID-19 pandemic has abated. Information of medical material on SSI is presented in this article, including the Plus suture®, DuraGen®, DuraSeal®, Adherus®, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene(SKULPIO®, CRANIOFIT-PE®), Bioglide® and Bactiseal® shunt systems, and olanexidine. Minimizing SSIs requires proper knowledge on infection control, taking care while performing neurosurgical procedures, and compassion for the patients. In addition, information and material must be updated over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurosurgery , Humans , Neurosurgical Procedures/adverse effects , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control
9.
Rozhl Chir ; 100(5): 218-226, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381562

ABSTRACT

Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been used in clinical practice for 25 years. Worldwide, it has been used to treat more than 10 million wounds. The repertoire of NPWT procedures is still growing. This originally simple procedure entails a number of pitfalls and limits, and full utilisation of the micro-deformation potential of NPWT depends on many key details. We present the pathophysiology, effects and forms of NPWT use including our own experience, tips and a proposal for the use of NPWT during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Wound Healing
10.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg ; 74(11): 3080-3086, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293613

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the ubiquity of hand trauma, there remains insufficient published data to reliably inform these patients of surgical site infection (SSI) risk. We describe the risk of SSI in a single-centre cohort of patients with hand trauma, with an analysis of the impact of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: Retrospective data collection of consecutive patients who underwent surgery for hand and wrist trauma in a single plastic surgery centre over two, three-month periods. Demographic, injury and operative details, alongside prophylactic antibiotic use, were recorded. Burn injuries and wounds infected at presentation were excluded. Presence of SSI at 30 days (90 days if a surgical implant was used) was assessed. RESULTS: Overall, 556 patients - 'Pre-COVID-19' (n = 310) and 'During COVID-19' (n = 246) - were included. Risk of SSI was 3.6% in the aggregated cohort. Female patients were more likely to develop an SSI, even when adjusted for their greater prevalence of bite aetiologies (adj OR 2.5; 95% CI, 1.00-6.37 and p < 0.05). The absolute risk of SSI in the 'Pre-COVID-19' group was 2.3% and 5.3% in the 'During COVID-19' group. The relative risk of developing an SSI in the 'During COVID-19' group was 2.34 (95% CI, 0.95-5.78 and p = 0.06). Baseline characteristics were equivalent between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The risk of SSI in hand trauma is the same as the nationally estimated risk for all surgeries; 3-5%. Changes in presentation and practice associated with the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic did not appear to alter the risk of SSI in patients undergoing surgery for hand trauma.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hand Injuries/surgery , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Wrist Injuries/surgery , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Hand Injuries/epidemiology , Humans , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Wrist Injuries/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 43(5): 374-376, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284746

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To analyze effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the consumption of personal protective equipment and products (PPEP), as well as the frequency of surgical site infection (SSI) among non-COVID-19 patients submitted to cesarean sections. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in a maternity unity of a public teaching hospital which was not part of the reference service for COVID-19 treatment. It compared PPEP consumption and the occurrence of SSI after cesarean sections in monthly periods before and after the occurrence of the first case of COVID-19 in Porto Alegre, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Personal protective equipment and products consumption was measured as units of masks, gloves, gowns, and caps, and use of alcohol-based products or soap for hand sanitation as ml/patient/day. The SSI index was calculated as the proportion of cases of SSI over the number of cesarean sections performed monthly during the study period. RESULTS: There was an increase in all measured items of PPEP, with consumption of disposable masks with a median of 1,450 units in the pre-COVID period, and of 2550 in the post-COVID period (a 75.9% increase). A decrease of 49% in SSI was detected, with a median of 1.74 in the pre-COVID period and of 0.89 in the post-COVID period. CONCLUSION: The increase in consumption of PPEP could be a result of safer practices adopted by healthcare workers with the advent of COVID-19, of which the following reduction in the occurrence of SSI could be a direct consequence. Despite the severity of the crisis, one could state that extreme situations can lead to valuable reflections and opportunities for improvement.


OBJETIVO: Analisar os efeitos da pandemia de COVID-19 sobre o consumo de equipamentos e produtos de proteção individual (EPPI), assim como a frequência de infecção de sítio cirúrgico (ISC) em pacientes não infectadas por COVID-19 submetidas a cesarianas. MéTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo em uma maternidade de um hospital público de ensino que não fazia parte do serviço de referência para o tratamento do COVID-19. Foram comparados o consumo de EPPI e a ocorrência de ISC após cesárea nos períodos mensais antes e após a ocorrência do primeiro caso de COVID-19 em Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil. O consumo de EPPI foi medido em unidades de máscaras, luvas, aventais e gorros, e o uso de produtos à base de álcool ou de sabonete para higienização das mãos em ml/paciente/dia. O índice SSI foi calculado como a proporção de casos de ISC sobre o número de cesarianas realizadas mensalmente durante o período do estudo. RESULTADOS: Houve aumento em todos os itens medidos do EPPI, com o consumo de máscaras descartáveis apresentando uma mediana de 1.450 no período pré-COVID e de 2550 no período pós-COVID (aumento de 75,9%). Detectou-se também diminuição de ISC, com medianas de 1,74 no período pré-COVID e de 0,89 no período pós-COVID, com redução de 49% no valor da mediana. CONCLUSãO: O aumento do consumo de EPPI pode ser resultado de práticas mais seguras adotadas pelos profissionais de saúde com o advento do COVID-19, do qual a redução na ocorrência de ISC pode ser uma consequência direta. Apesar da gravidade da crise, pode-se afirmar que situações extremas podem gerar reflexões valiosas e oportunidades de melhorias.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cesarean Section , Hand Sanitizers , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies
12.
Updates Surg ; 73(5): 1775-1786, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274974

ABSTRACT

Several regimens of oral and intravenous antibiotics (OIVA) have been proposed with contradicting results, and the role of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) is still controversial. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of oral antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing Surgical Site Infections (SSI) in elective colorectal surgery. In a multicentre trial, we randomized patients undergoing elective colorectal resection surgery, comparing the effectiveness of OIVA versus intravenous antibiotics (IVA) regimens to prevent SSI as the primary outcome (NCT04438655). In addition to intravenous Amoxicillin/Clavulanic, patients in the OIVA group received Oral Neomycin and Bacitracin 24 h before surgery. MBP was administered according to local habits which were not changed for the study. The trial was terminated during the COVID-19 pandemic, as many centers failed to participate as well as the pandemic changed the rules for engaging patients. Two-hundred and four patients were enrolled (100 in the OIVA and 104 in the IVA group); 3 SSIs (3.4%) were registered in the OIVA and 14 (14.4%) in the IVA group (p = 0.010). No difference was observed in terms of anastomotic leak. Multivariable analysis indicated that OIVA reduced the rate of SSI (OR 0.21 / 95% CI 0.06-0.78 / p = 0.019), while BMI is a risk factor of SSI (OR 1.15 / 95% CI 1.01-1.30 p = 0.039). Subgroup analysis indicated that 0/22 patients who underwent OIVA/MBP + vs 13/77 IVA/MBP- experienced an SSI (p = 0.037). The early termination of the study prevents any conclusion regarding the interpretation of the data. Nonetheless, Oral Neomycin/Bacitracin and intravenous beta-lactam/beta-lactamases inhibitors seem to reduce SSI after colorectal resections, although not affecting the anastomotic leak in this trial. The role of MBP requires more investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colorectal Surgery , Administration, Oral , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Bacitracin , Cathartics/therapeutic use , Colectomy , Colorectal Surgery/adverse effects , Elective Surgical Procedures , Humans , Neomycin , Pandemics , Preoperative Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control
13.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(6): 759-763, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269206

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Surgical site infections (SSIs) are a serious and costly post-op complication. Generating SSI rates often requires labor-intensive methods, but increasing numbers of publications reported SSI rates using administrative data. METHODS: Index laminectomy and spinal fusion procedures were identified using Canadian Classification of Health Interventions (CCI) procedure codes for inpatients and outpatients in the province of Alberta, Canada between 2008 and 2015. SSIs occurring in the year postsurgery were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Canada (ICD-10-CA) diagnosis and CCI procedure codes indicative of post-op infection. Rates of SSIs and case characteristics were reported. RESULTS: Over the 8-year study period, 21,222 index spinal procedures were identified of which 12,027 (56.7%) were laminectomy procedures, with 322 SSIs identified, an SSI rate of 2.7 per 100 procedures. Of the 9,195 (43.3%) fusion procedures, 298 were identified as an SSI, an SSI rate of 3.2 per 100 procedures. This study found SSI rates increased from 2008 and 2015, and rates were the highest in the 0-18 year age group. CONCLUSIONS: The rates reported in this study were similar to published SSI rates using traditional surveillance methods, suggesting administrative data may be a viable method for reporting SSI rates following spinal procedures. Further work is needed to validate SSIs identified using administrative data by comparing to traditional surveillance.


Subject(s)
Spinal Diseases , Spinal Fusion , Alberta/epidemiology , Humans , Laminectomy/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Spinal Diseases/epidemiology , Spinal Diseases/surgery , Spinal Fusion/adverse effects , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology
14.
Neurosurg Rev ; 44(6): 3421-3425, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118237

ABSTRACT

Hygiene measures were intensified when the COVID-19 pandemic began. Patient contacts were limited to a minimum. Visitors were either not allowed for a certain period or limited for the rest of the time. The hospital staff began to wear masks and gloves continuously. Clinical examinations and routine wound controls were also performed under intensified hygiene standards. These circumstances result in a limitation of direct physical interactions between the nursing staff, the physicians and the patients. We analyzed to what extent the intensification of hygiene measures affects the rate of surgical site infections (SSI) after neurosurgical procedures. The rate of SSI during the 6-month interval after the beginning of COVID-19 measures was compared with the SSI rate before. The numbers of the period before COVID-19 were analyzed as mean values resulting from the analysis of two separate time periods each consisting of 6 months. The spectrum of surgical procedures was compared. Patient-related risk factors for SSIs were noted. Microorganisms were analyzed. We focused on SSIs occurring at a maximum of 60 days after the primary surgery. Overall, in the two respective 6-month periods before COVID-19, a mean of 1379 patients was surgically treated in our institution. After the beginning of COVID-19 (starting from 04/2020) our surgical numbers dropped by 101, resulting in a total number of 1278 patients being operated after 03/2020 until 09/2020. The SSI rate was 3.6% (03/2019-09/2019, 50 SSIs) and 2.2% (09/2019-03/2020, 29 SSIs), resulting in a mean of 2.9% before COVID-19 began. After the beginning of COVID-19 hygiene measures, this rate dropped to 1.4% (16 SSIs) resembling a significant reduction (p=0.003). Risk factors for the development of SSI were present in 81.3% of all patients. Pre- and post-COVID-19 patient groups had similar baseline characteristics. The same holds true when comparing the percentage of cranial and spinal procedures pre- and post-COVID-19 (p=0.91). Comparing the numbers (p=0.28) and the species (p=0.85) of microorganisms (MO) causing SSI, we found a similar distribution. Despite equal demographics and characteristics of SSI, the rate of SSI dropped substantially. This argues for an effective reduction of postoperative SSI resulting from the implementation of strict hygiene measures being established after the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. We therefore advocate continuing with strict and intensive hygiene measures in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurosurgery , Humans , Neurosurgical Procedures/adverse effects , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control
15.
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann ; 29(5): 376-380, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus, now termed SARS-CoV-2, has had a significant impact on cardiac surgical services globally. Although drastically reduced, our institution has maintained a significant level of cardiac surgical activity during the pandemic. Rigorous COVID-19 guidelines have been instituted to mitigate the risk of viral transmission. We observed a reduction in sternal wound infections since the institution of new perioperative surgical guidelines. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent cardiac surgery at our institution since a national lockdown was declared in March 2020. A retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent cardiac surgery in the 12 months preceding the national lockdown, as a baseline cohort group, was also performed. RESULTS: A total of 2600 patients (493 during the COVID-19 pandemic) were included in this study. Urgent/emergency procedures accounted for more than 60% of procedures performed during the lockdown compared to 39% previously. During the COVID-19 pandemic, there were 4 sternal wound infections with an overall incidence of 0.8%. In comparison, the incidence of sternal wound infections was significantly higher at 3.0% in the 12-month period prior to lockdown with 63 sternal wound infections (p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: This report suggests a significant role of iatrogenic causes in sternal wound infections prior to the pandemic. The strict implementation of guidelines in the perioperative period suggests that sternal wound infections can be prevented. We propose that the now widespread COVID-19 guidelines to reduce transmission risk be adapted to help reduce the incidence of sternal wound infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Infection Control , Sternotomy/adverse effects , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , Aged , COVID-19/transmission , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Surgical Wound Infection/diagnosis , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
17.
Auris Nasus Larynx ; 48(3): 511-517, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893446

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 have a high likelihood of needing prolonged intubation and may subsequently require tracheotomy. Usually, the choice of technique (percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy [PDT] versus open surgical tracheotomy [OST]) depends on the preference of surgeons and patient-related factors. In case of COVID-19, airborne spread of viral particles and limited time of apnea must be considered in the choice of the safest technique. The aim of this study is to compare the complication rates and offer an assessment of relative risks and benefits of PDT versus OST in patients with severe COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study considering 47 consecutive patients affected by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome due to SARS-CoV-2 infection, needing invasive mechanical ventilation and subsequent tracheostomy. This study was performed at the Intensive Care Unit of our tertiary referral center. Complication rates were analyzed. RESULTS: Seventeen patients underwent PDT and 30 patients were submitted to OST. Twenty-six patients (55.3%) had post-operative complications (local infection, hemorrhage, subcutaneous emphysema) with no significant difference between PDT and OST. CONCLUSION: PDT and OST are characterized by similar postoperative complication rates in severe COVID-19 patients. These findings suggest that OST might be preferred if expert ENT surgeons are available, as PDT could result in longer apnea and exposure to generated aerosol. However, authors recommend considering either OST or PDT at the discretion of the medical staff involved, according to the personal experience of the operators performing the procedure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Tracheostomy/methods , Tracheotomy/methods , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Subcutaneous Emphysema/epidemiology , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology
18.
Updates Surg ; 72(4): 1263-1271, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-756675

ABSTRACT

Surgical site infections are the most common in-hospital acquired infections. The aim of this study and the primary endpoint is to evaluate how the measures to reduce the SARS-CoV-2 spreading affected the superficial and deep SSI rate. A total of 541 patients were included. Of those, 198 from March to April 2018, 220 from March till April 2019 and 123 in the COVID-19 era from March to April 2020. The primary endpoint occurred in 39 over 541 patients. In COVID-19 era, we reported a lower rate of global SSIs (3.3% vs. 8.4%; p 0.035), few patients developed a superficial SSIs (0.8% vs. 3.4%; p 0.018) and none experienced deep SSIs (0% vs. 3.4%; p 0.025). Comparing the previous two "COVID-19-free" years, no significative differences were reported. At multivariate analysis, the measures to reduce the SARS-CoV-2 spread (OR 0.368; p 0.05) were independently associated with the reduction for total, superficial and deep SSIs. Moreover, the presence of drains (OR 4.99; p 0.009) and a Type III-IV of SWC (OR 1.8; p 0.001) demonstrated a worse effect regarding the primary endpoint. Furthermore, the presence of the drain was not associated with an increased risk of superficial and deep SSIs. In this study, we provided important insights into the superficial and deep SSIs risk assessment for patients who underwent surgery. Simple and easily viable precautions such as wearing surgical masks and the restriction of visitors emerged as promising tools for the reduction of SSIs risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control , Surgery Department, Hospital/organization & administration , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology
19.
Retina ; 40(9): 1651-1656, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-682169

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the safety of face masks worn by patients during intravitreal injections. METHODS: A prospective, qualitative, interventional study performed in a tertiary university hospital. Healthy volunteers were asked to wear three different professional surgical face masks while air leaks around the eyes were monitored. Three types of masks were investigated as follows: 1) surgical face mask with four tying strips, 2) surgical face mask with elastic ear loops and 3) 2200 N95 tuberculosis particulate face mask. For each session the periocular area was inspected for air leak during normal respiration, speech, and deep respiration. Detection of air leak was performed using the following two professional thermal cameras: FLIR A310-thermal camera and EyeCGas 2.0-super sensitive infrared camera used for detection of minute fugitive emissions of industrial gases. RESULTS: Ten healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. The experiment was repeated 45 times for each camera; 3 times for each of 3 mask types, on 5 volunteers, for a total of 90 trials. Air jets were detected originating from the superior edges of the masks radiating toward the eyes in 81% (73/90) of cases in total; 71% (32/45) with the FLIR camera and 91% (41/45) with the OPGAL camera. Air leaks were detected with all investigated mask types. CONCLUSION: Patients wearing face masks during intravitreal injections may be at a higher risk of endophthalmitis. Until further data are available, we recommend verifying proper face mask fitting and either taping the upper edges of the face masks with a medical adhesive tape or using an adhesive surgical drape around the injected eye.


Subject(s)
Endophthalmitis/epidemiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/epidemiology , Intravitreal Injections , Masks/adverse effects , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Endophthalmitis/microbiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Surgical Wound Infection/microbiology , Thermography/methods , Young Adult
20.
Med Glas (Zenica) ; 17(2): 275-278, 2020 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646934

ABSTRACT

Aim The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on the delivery of elective, as well as emergency surgery on a world-wide scale. Up to date few studies have actually assessed the impact of COVID-19 on the postoperative morbidity and mortality following emergency gastrointestinal surgery. Herein, we present our relevant experience over a 3-month period of uninterrupted provision of emergency general surgery services in George Eliot Hospital NHS Trust, the United Kingdom. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of a prospective institutional database, which included the operation types, paraclinical investigations and postoperative complications of all patients undergoing emergency general surgery operations between March - May 2020. Results The occurrence of a 5% overall respiratory complication rate postoperatively, with 3% infection rate for COVID-19 was found; no patient had unplanned return to intensive care for ventilator support and there was no mortality related to COVID-19 infection. Conclusion When indicated, emergency surgery should not be delayed in favour of expectant/conservative management in fear of COVID-19-related morbidity or mortality risks.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Digestive System Surgical Procedures , Emergencies , Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Abscess/surgery , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Acute Coronary Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Appendectomy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Outbreaks , Drainage , Female , Herniorrhaphy , Humans , Laparoscopy , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Wound Infection/drug therapy , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Young Adult
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