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Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 23(9): 841-847, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087722


Background: Surgical site infection (SSI) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is associated with increased morbidity and healthcare expenditures. During the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, our institution intensified hygiene standards, including greater glove, personal protective equipment (PPE), and mask use. We assessed the effect of these changes on SSI rates in primary total knee arthroplasty (pTKA) and revision total knee arthroplasty (rTKA). Patients and Methods: A retrospective review was performed identifying TKA from January 2019 to June 2021 at a single institution. Baseline characteristics and outcomes were compared before (January 2019 to February 2020) and during (May 2020 to June 2021) the COVID-19 pandemic when no restriction on operative services was in place and were further analyzed during the first (May 2020 to November 2020) and second (December 2020 to June 2021) periods after full operative services were restored. Results: A total of 3,398 pTKA (pre-pandemic: 1,943 [57.2%]; pandemic: 1,455 [42.8%]) and 454 rTKA (pre-pandemic: 229 [50.4%]; pandemic: 225 [49.6%]) were included. For primary cases, superficial and deep SSI rates were similar before and during COVID-19; however, for revision TKA, the incidence of all (-0.32%, p = 0.035) and superficial (-0.32%, p = 0.035) SSIs decreased during COVID-19. Primary TKA had longer operative times (p < 0.001) and shorter length of stay (LOS; p < 0.001) during COVID-19. Both pTKA (p < 0.001) and rTKA (p = 0.003) were discharged to skilled nursing facilities less frequently during COVID-19 as well. Conclusions: After our hospital implemented COVID-19-motivated hygienic protocols, superficial SSI rates decreased in rTKA but not in pTKA. During COVID-19, patients were less likely to be discharged to skilled nursing facilities, and pTKA operative times increased. Although these changes occurred during intensified hygiene protocols, further research is needed to determine how these factors contributed to the observed changes.

Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee , COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Humans , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/adverse effects , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , Surgical Wound Infection/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Reoperation
Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 60(8): 1118-1124, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2060469


The aim of this paper was to evaluate the association between 'asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic' severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (AS/MS-COVID) and surgical site infection (SSI) after repair of craniomaxillofacial injury (CMFI). Using a case-control study design with a match ratio of 1:4, we enrolled a cohort of AS/MS-COVID cases with immediately treated CMFI during a one-year period. The main predictor variable was SARS-CoV-2 infection (yes/no), and the outcome of interest was SSI (yes/no). The other variables were demographic, clinical, and operative. Appropriate statistics were computed, and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The study group comprised 257 cases (28.8% female; 13.2% aged ≥ 60 years; 10.5% with fractures; 39.7% with involvement of nasal/oral/orbital tissue [viral reservoir organs, VROs]; 81.3% with blunt trauma; 19.1% developed an SSI [vs 6.8% in the control group]) with a mean (SD) age of 39.8 (16.6) years (range 19-87). There was a significant relation between SARS-CoV-2 infection and SSI events (p<0.0001; odds ratio 3.22; 95% confidence interval 2.17 to 4.78). On subgroup analysis, SSIs significantly increased with age ≥ 60 years, presence and treatment of fracture, contact with VROs, and prolonged antibiotic use (PAU). However, multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed a positive effect only from old age, contact with VROs, and PAU (relative risk = 1.56, 2.52, and 2.03, respectively; r = 0.49; p = 0.0001). There was a significant 2.8-fold increase in SSIs among AS/MS-COVID cases, especially in those aged ≥ 60 years, or those with injuries to VROs, or both, who therefore required PAU.

COVID-19 , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Surgical Wound Infection/etiology
J Bone Joint Surg Am ; 102(13): e66, 2020 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-981469


BACKGROUND: Closed reduction and percutaneous pinning (CRPP) of supracondylar humeral fractures is one of the most common procedures performed in pediatric orthopaedics. The use of full, standard preparation and draping with standard personal protective equipment (PPE) may not be necessary during this procedure. This is of particular interest in the current climate as we face unprecedented PPE shortages due to the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is a retrospective chart review of 1,270 patients treated with CRPP of a supracondylar humeral fracture at 2 metropolitan pediatric centers by 10 fellowship-trained pediatric orthopaedic surgeons. One surgeon in the group did not wear a mask when performing CRPP of supracondylar humeral fractures, and multiple surgeons in the group utilized a semisterile preparation technique (no sterile gown or drapes). Infectious outcomes were compared between 2 groups: full sterile preparation and semisterile preparation. We additionally analyzed a subgroup of patients who had semisterile preparation without surgeon mask use. Hospital cost data were used to estimate annual cost savings with the adoption of the semisterile technique. RESULTS: In this study, 1,270 patients who underwent CRPP of a supracondylar humeral fracture and met inclusion criteria were identified. There were 3 deep infections (0.24%). These infections all occurred in the group using full sterile preparation and surgical masks. No clinically relevant pin-track infections were noted. There were no known surgeon occupational exposures to bodily fluid. It is estimated that national adoption of this technique in the United States could save between 18,612 and 22,162 gowns and masks with costs savings of $3.7 million to $4.4 million annually. CONCLUSIONS: We currently face critical shortages of PPE due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Data from this large series suggest that a semisterile technique during CRPP of supracondylar humeral fractures is a safe practice. We anticipate that this could preserve approximately 20,000 gowns and masks in the United States over the next year. Physicians are encouraged to reevaluate their daily practice to identify safe opportunities for resource preservation. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Coronavirus Infections , Fracture Fixation/standards , Health Care Rationing/organization & administration , Humeral Fractures/surgery , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , Bone Nails , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Closed Fracture Reduction/adverse effects , Closed Fracture Reduction/standards , Female , Fracture Fixation/adverse effects , Health Care Rationing/economics , Health Care Rationing/methods , Humans , Infection Control/economics , Infection Control/standards , Male , Personal Protective Equipment/economics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Wound Infection/etiology , United States/epidemiology