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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(24): 7829-7832, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604716

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: As a result of COVID-19 pandemic, the 2021 US residency MATCH was devoid of the traditional in-person interviews. Herein, we assess the impact of Virtual Interviews (VIs) on resident selection, from the perspectives of Orthopedic Surgery (OS) Program Directors (PDs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 14-item survey was sent to PDs of ACGME-accredited OS residencies. Questions were designed to assess the pros, cons, and robustness of VIs compared to their antecedent in-person format. RESULTS: Forty-seven PDs responded to our survey. VIs antagonized PDs' ability to assess applicants' fit to program (76.6%), commitment to specialty (64%), and interpersonal skills (68.1%). This led to heavier dependence upon applicants' portfolios (64%). Almost all respondents (97.9%) found VIs to be more cost-efficient, saving a median of $3000 in interview-related expenses. Overall, only 8.5% of PDs were willing to conduct exclusive VIs in future cycles, compared to the majority in favor of dual formats (51.5%) or exclusive in-person interviews (40.4%). CONCLUSIONS: VIs have been an overall success, making most PDs opt for dual interview formats in future cycles. How this technology is further implemented in the future remains to be seen.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Internship and Residency/organization & administration , Orthopedic Procedures/education , Physician Executives/statistics & numerical data , Telecommunications/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Internship and Residency/standards , Internship and Residency/statistics & numerical data , Internship and Residency/trends , Orthopedic Procedures/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personnel Selection/methods , Personnel Selection/standards , Personnel Selection/statistics & numerical data , Personnel Selection/trends , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Telecommunications/standards , Telecommunications/trends
2.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(24): 7709-7716, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1603239

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe personal and family-related factors affecting undergraduate students' willingness to volunteer during the pandemic. This cross-sectional study was conducted on undergraduate medical students at Qassim University in Saudi Arabia through an online survey. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A pre-validated online questionnaire on willingness to volunteer during the pandemic was distributed through various messenger groups and social media. The questionnaire comprised two sections to collect demographics and how likely the volunteers work during the pandemic in different circumstances. The distribution of these parameters was reported by frequency and proportion for categorical variables. In addition to descriptive analytics, a chi-square test was used to compare key explanatory parameters between the low and high likelihood of volunteering. Data were analysed using IBM SPSS statistical software (version 25, Armonk, NY, USA). RESULTS: There was a high likelihood of willingness (60.7%) to volunteer among undergraduate medical students. However, there was no statistically significant difference in baseline parameters like gender, academic year, age (in years), marital status, children, and elderly dependents between the high and low likelihood of volunteer (p >0.05). However, a statistically significant difference indicated the best description of one's living arrangement between volunteers' high and low probability (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggested that undergraduate medical students can be motivated to volunteer effectively in this pandemic by ensuring personal and family protection. This is vital to optimally redistribute the work burden and effectively channelize the workforce during a pandemic situation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospital Volunteers/psychology , Motivation , Students, Medical/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Family Relations/psychology , Female , Hospital Volunteers/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Saudi Arabia , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
3.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(6): 2200-2207, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526354

ABSTRACT

Understanding and minimizing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine hesitancy is critical to population health and minimizing health inequities, which continue to be brought into stark relief by the pandemic. We investigate questions regarding vaccine hesitancy in a sample (n = 1205) of Arkansas adults surveyed online in July/August of 2020. We examine relationships among sociodemographics, COVID-19 health literacy, fear of COVID-19 infection, general trust in vaccines, and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy using bivariate analysis and a full information maximum likelihood (FIML) logistic regression model. One in five people (21,21.86%) reported hesitancy to take a COVID-19 vaccine. Prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was highest among Black/African Americans (50.00%), respondents with household income less than $25K (30.68%), some college (32.17%), little to no fear of infection from COVID-19 (62.50%), and low trust in vaccines in general (55.84%). Odds of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy were 2.42 greater for Black/African American respondents compared to White respondents (p < 0.001), 1.67 greater for respondents with some college/technical degree compared to respondents with a 4-year degree (p < 0.05), 5.48 greater for respondents with no fear of COVID-19 infection compared to those who fear infection to a great extent (p < 0.001), and 11.32 greater for respondents with low trust in vaccines (p < 0.001). Sociodemographic differences in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy raise concerns about the potential of vaccine implementation to widen existing health disparities in COVID-19 related infections, particularly among Black/African Americans. Fear of infection and general mistrust in vaccines are significantly associated with vaccine hesitancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mass Vaccination/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans/psychology , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Fear , Female , /statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Trust , /statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
4.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1924-1934, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493393

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has forced healthcare providers to reorganize their activities to protect the population from infection, postponing or suspending many medical procedures. Patients affected by chronic conditions were among the most affected. In the case of catastrophes, women have a higher lifetime prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and those with endometriosis have higher anxiety levels, making them fragile in such circumstances. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, conducted in May 2020, we considered all women aged ≥18 years, followed up at our referral centre for endometriosis. Patients were sent an anonymous 6-section questionnaire via email, containing different validated tools for the evaluation of anxiety levels and the risk of PTSD. A multivariable linear regression was performed to assess the impact of patients' characteristics on the distress caused by the SARS-COV-2 pandemic. RESULTS: Among the 468 women recruited, 68.8% were quite-to-extremely worried about not being able to access gynaecologic care, with almost one-third of them scoring ≥33 on the IES-R. Older age and increased levels of anxiety were associated with higher risks of PTSD (age: b = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.12 - 0.44; GAD-7: b = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.38 - 2.05), with up to 71.8% of patients with severe anxiety (GAD-7 > 15) having an IES-R score ≥33 suggestive for PTSD. Women who could leave home to work showed lower levels of PTSD (b = -4.79, 95% CI = -8.44 to - 1.15, ref. unemployed women). The implementation of telemedicine in routine clinical practice was favourably viewed by 75.6% of women. DISCUSSION: Women with endometriosis are particularly exposed to the risk of PTSD during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, especially if they are older or have higher levels of anxiety. Gynaecologists should resort to additional strategies, and telemedicine could represent a feasible tool to help patients cope with this situation.KEY MESSAGESThe COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted the lives of women with endometriosis, who appeared to have a considerable risk of PTSD.Older age, higher anxiety levels and unemployment were independently associated with the risk of developing PTSD.Clinicians should develop successful alternative strategies to help patients cope with this situation, and telemedicine might represent an applicable and acceptable solution.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Endometriosis/therapy , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Anxiety/diagnosis , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endometriosis/psychology , Female , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Humans , Internet/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prevalence , Risk Management , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/organization & administration , Telemedicine/standards , Young Adult
6.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(10): 855-857, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1434031

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Recurrent acute otitis media is common in children. The preferred treatment measures for recurrent acute otitis media have a mixed evidence base. This study sought to assess baseline practice across ENT departments in England. METHODS: A national telephone survey of healthcare staff was conducted. Every ENT centre in England was contacted. A telephone script was used to ask about antibiotic and grommet use and duration in recurrent acute otitis media cases. RESULTS: Ninety-six centres (74 per cent) provided complete information. Recurrent acute otitis media treatment across England by ENT departments varied. The antibiotic first- and second-line prophylaxis offered varies, with trimethoprim used in 33 centres and 29 centres not offering any antibiotics. The timing or choice about when to use grommets also varies, but 87 centres (91 per cent) offer grommet surgery at one stage. CONCLUSION: The treatments received by children in England for recurrent acute otitis media vary by centre; collaborative research in this area is advised.


Subject(s)
Middle Ear Ventilation/statistics & numerical data , Otitis Media/drug therapy , Otolaryngology/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Acute Disease , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary/therapeutic use , Child , Drug Resistance, Microbial , England/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Ear Ventilation/methods , Otitis Media/surgery , Otolaryngology/organization & administration , Personal Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Recurrence , State Medicine/organization & administration , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Trimethoprim/administration & dosage , Trimethoprim/therapeutic use
7.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257270, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416892

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prominence of telemental health, including providing care by video call and telephone, has greatly increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there are clear variations in uptake and acceptability, and concerns that digital exclusion may exacerbate previous inequalities in access to good quality care. Greater understanding is needed of how service users experience telemental health, and what determines whether they engage and find it acceptable. METHODS: We conducted a collaborative framework analysis of data from semi-structured interviews with a sample of people already experiencing mental health problems prior to the pandemic. Data relevant to participants' experiences and views regarding telemental health during the pandemic were identified and extracted. Data collection and analysis used a participatory, coproduction approach where researchers with relevant lived experience, contributed to all stages of data collection, analysis and interpretation of findings alongside clinical and academic researchers. FINDINGS: The experiences and preferences regarding telemental health care of the forty-four participants were dynamic and varied across time and settings, as well as between individuals. Participants' preferences were shaped by reasons for contacting services, their relationship with care providers, and both parties' access to technology and their individual preferences. While face-to-face care tended to be the preferred option, participants identified benefits of remote care including making care more accessible for some populations and improved efficiency for functional appointments such as prescription reviews. Participants highlighted important challenges related to safety and privacy in online settings, and gave examples of good remote care strategies they had experienced, including services scheduling regular phone calls and developing guidelines about how to access remote care tools. DISCUSSION: Participants in our study have highlighted advantages of telemental health care, as well as significant limitations that risk hindering mental health support and exacerbate inequalities in access to services. Some of these limitations are seen as potentially removable, for example through staff training or better digital access for staff or service users. Others indicate a need to maintain traditional face-to-face contact at least for some appointments. There is a clear need for care to be flexible and individualised to service user circumstances and preferences. Further research is needed on ways of minimising digital exclusion and of supporting staff in making effective and collaborative use of relevant technologies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health Services/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Mental Health/standards , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Quality of Health Care/standards , Quality of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/methods , Young Adult
8.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256687, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416873

ABSTRACT

COVID-19-associated university closures moved classes online and interrupted ongoing research in universities throughout the US. In Vanderbilt University, first year biomedical sciences PhD students were in the middle of their spring semester coursework and in the process of identifying a thesis research lab, while senior students who had already completed the first year were at various stages of their graduate training and were working on their thesis research projects. To learn how the university closure and resulting interruptions impacted our students' learning and well-being, we administered two surveys, one to the first year students and the other to the senior students. Our main findings show that the university closure negatively impacted the overall psychological health of about one-third of the survey respondents, time management was the aspect of remote learning that caused the highest stress for close to 50% of the students, and interaction with their peers and in-person discussions were the aspects of on-campus learning that students missed the most during the remote learning period. Additionally, survey responses also show that students experienced positive outcomes as a result of remote learning that included spending increased time on additional learning interests, with family, on self-care, and for dissertation or manuscript writing. Though a variety of supportive resources are already available to students in our institution, results from our survey suggest enhancing these measures and identifying new ones targeted to addressing the academic and emotional needs of PhD students would be beneficial. Such support measures may be appropriate for students in other institutions as well.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/psychology , Education, Graduate/statistics & numerical data , Students/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Biomedical Research/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Education, Graduate/methods , Epidemics/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health/standards , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Tennessee , Universities
9.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257237, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410661

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine will impart a pivotal role in eradicating the virus. In Pakistan, health care workers (HCWs) are the first group to receive vaccination. This survey aimed at the level of acceptance to the COVID-19 vaccine and predictors of non-acceptance in HCWs. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study design and data were collected through 3rd December 2020 and February 14th, 2021. An English questionnaire was distributed through social media platforms and administration of affiliate hospitals along with snowball sampling for private hospitals. RESULTS: Out of 5,237 responses, 3,679 (70.2%) accepted COVID-19 vaccination and 1,284 (24.5%) wanted to delay until more data was available. Only 5.2% of HCWs rejected being vaccinated. Vaccine acceptance was more in young (76%) and female gender (63.3%) who worked in a tertiary care hospital (51.2%) and were direct patient care providers (61.3%). The reason for rejection in females was doubtful vaccine effectiveness (31.48%) while males rejected due to prior COVID-19 exposure (42.19%) and side effect profile of the vaccine (33.17%). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated age between 51-60 years, female gender, Pashtuns, those working in the specialty of medicine and allied, taking direct care of COVID-19 patients, higher education, and prior COVID-19 infection as the predictors for acceptance or rejection of COVID-19 vaccine. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this survey suggests that early on in a vaccination drive, majority of the HCWs in Pakistan are willing to be vaccinated and only a small number of participants would actually reject being vaccinated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
10.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0255498, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Overcrowded housing, as well as inadequate sanitary conditions, contribute to making homeless people particularly vulnerable to the SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aimed to assess the seroprevalence of the SARS-CoV-2 infection among people experiencing homelessness on a large city-wide scale in Marseille, France, taking into account different types of accommodation. METHODS: A consortium of outreach teams in 48 different locations including streets, slums, squats, emergency or transitional shelters and drop-in centres participated in the inclusion process. All participants consented to have a validated rapid antibody assay for immunoglobulins M (IgM) and G (IgG) and to answer a questionnaire on medical health conditions, comorbidities, and previous COVID-19 symptoms. Information on their housing conditions since the COVID-19 crisis was also collected from the participants. RESULTS: From June 01 to August 05, 2020, 1,156 homeless participants were enrolled in the study and tested. The overall seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM antibodies was 5.6% (95%CI 2.3-7.0), ranging from 2.2% in people living on the streets to 8.1% in people living in emergency shelters (P = 0.009). Around one third of the seropositive participants reported COVID-19 symptoms. Compared to the general population in Marseille (3.6%), the homeless population living in the same urban area experienced a significantly increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (|z| = 3.65 > 1.96). CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the need for regular screening among the homeless to prevent clustering in overcrowded or inadequate accommodations. It is also necessary to provide essential resources to keep homeless people healthy, the vast majority of whom have cumulative risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Homeless Persons/statistics & numerical data , Housing/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Epidemics/prevention & control , Female , France/epidemiology , Geography , Housing/standards , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Population Surveillance/methods , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
11.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256921, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410627

ABSTRACT

Using a nationwide survey of primary grocery shoppers conducted in August 2020, we examine household food spending when the economy had partially reopened and consumers had different spending opportunities in comparison to when the Covid-19 lockdown began. We estimate the impact of Covid-19 on household spending using interval and Order Probit regressions. Income levels, age, access to grocery stores and farmers markets, household demographic information, along with other independent variables are controlled in the model. Findings show that middle-class households (with income below $50,000, or with income between $50,000 and $99,999) are less likely to increase their grocery expenditures during the pandemic. Households with children or elderlies that usually require higher food quality and nutrition intakes had a higher probability of increasing their spending during Covid-19 than before. Furthermore, consumers' spending behaviors were also significantly affected by their safe handing levels and the Covid-19 severity and food accessibility in their residences.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/economics , Family Characteristics , Food/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Consumer Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Costs and Cost Analysis , Epidemics/prevention & control , Housing/standards , Housing/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Income/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Time Factors , United States
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(25): e26433, 2021 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410303

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The subclinical severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection rate in hospitals during the pandemic remains unclear. To evaluate the effectiveness of our hospital's current nosocomial infection control measures, we conducted a serological survey of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (immunoglobulin [Ig] G) among the staff of our hospital, which is treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients.The study design was cross-sectional. We measured anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in the participants using a laboratory-based quantitative test (Abbott immunoassay), which has a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 99.6%, respectively. To investigate the factors associated with seropositivity, we also obtained some information from the participants with an anonymous questionnaire. We invited 1133 staff members in our hospital, and 925 (82%) participated. The mean age of the participants was 40.0 ±â€Š11.8 years, and most were women (80.0%). According to job title, there were 149 medical doctors or dentists (16.0%), 489 nurses (52.9%), 140 medical technologists (14.2%), 49 healthcare providers (5.3%), and 98 administrative staff (10.5%). The overall prevalence of seropositivity for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG was 0.43% (4/925), which was similar to the control seroprevalence of 0.54% (16/2970) in the general population in Osaka during the same period according to a government survey conducted with the same assay. Seropositive rates did not significantly differ according to job title, exposure to suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients, or any other investigated factors.The subclinical SARS-CoV-2 infection rate in our hospital was not higher than that in the general population under our nosocomial infection control measures.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals, Urban/organization & administration , Hospitals, Urban/standards , Hospitals, Urban/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infection Control/standards , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data
14.
CMAJ Open ; 9(3): E848-E854, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1399642

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: When vaccine supplies are anticipated to be limited, necessitating the vaccination of certain groups earlier than others, the assessment of values and preferences of stakeholders is an important component of an ethically sound vaccine prioritization framework. The objective of this study was to conduct a priority-setting exercise to establish an expert stakeholder perspective on the relative importance of COVID-19 vaccination strategies in Canada. METHODS: The priority-setting exercise included a survey of stakeholders that was conducted from July 22 to Aug. 14, 2020. Stakeholders included clinical and public health expert groups, provincial and territorial committees and national Indigenous groups, patient and community advocacy representatives and experts, health professional associations and federal government departments. Survey results were analyzed to identify trends. RESULTS: Of 155 stakeholders contacted, 76 surveys were received for a participation rate of 49%. During a period of anticipated initial vaccine scarcity for all pandemic scenarios, stakeholders generally considered the most important vaccination strategy to be protecting those who are most vulnerable to severe illness and death from COVID-19. This was followed in importance by strategies to protect health care capacity, minimize transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and protect critical infrastructure. INTERPRETATION: This priority-setting exercise established that there is general alignment in the values and preferences across stakeholder groups: the most important vaccination strategy at the time of limited initial vaccine availability is to protect those who are most vulnerable. The findings of this priority-setting exercise provided a timely expert perspective to guide early public health planning for COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Priorities/ethics , Vaccination/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Canada/epidemiology , Capacity Building/organization & administration , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Health Occupations/statistics & numerical data , Health Occupations/trends , Health Priorities/organization & administration , Humans , Public Health/legislation & jurisprudence , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Stakeholder Participation , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vulnerable Populations
15.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257112, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398939

ABSTRACT

Public health and social interventions are critical to mitigate the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Ethiopia has implemented a variety of public health and social measures to control the pandemic. This study aimed to assess social distancing and public health preventive practices of government employees in response to COVID-19. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,573 government employees selected from 46 public institutions located in Addis Ababa. Data were collected from 8th to 19th June 2020 using a paper-based self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 23.0. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with outcome variables (perceived effectiveness of facemask wearing to prevent coronavirus infection, and COVID-19 testing). Majority of the participants reported facemask wearing (96%), avoiding close contact with people including handshaking (94.8%), consistently followed government recommendations (95.6%), frequent handwashing (94.5%), practiced physical distancing (89.5%), avoided mass gatherings and crowded places (88.1%), restricting movement and travelling (71.8%), and stayed home (35.6%). More than 80% of the participants perceived that consistently wearing a facemask is highly effective in preventing coronavirus infection. Respondents from Oromia perceived less about the effectiveness of wearing facemask in preventing coronavirus infection (adjusted OR = 0.27, 95% CI:0.17-0.45). About 19% of the respondents reported that they had ever tested for COVID-19. Respondents between 40-49 years old (adjusted OR = 0.41, 95% CI:0.22-0.76) and 50-66 years (adjusted OR = 0.43, 95% CI:0.19-0.95) were less likely tested for coronavirus than the younger age groups. Similarly, respondents from Oromia were less likely to test for coronavirus (adjusted OR = 0.26, 95% CI:0.12-0.56) than those from national level. Participants who were sure about the availability of COVID-19 testing were more likely to test for coronavirus. About 57% of the respondents perceived that the policy measures in response to the pandemic were inadequate. The findings showed higher social distancing and preventive practices among the government employees in response to COVID-19. Rules and regulations imposed by the government should be enforced and people should properly apply wearing facemasks, frequent handwashing, social and physical distancing measures as a comprehensive package of COVID-19 prevention and control strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Government Employees/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia , Female , Hand Disinfection/methods , Humans , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
16.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257035, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398938

ABSTRACT

In several nations, caries in pre-school children remain a significant oral health issue. In an outbreak period such as the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), remote contact and education aimed at the prevention of oral diseases and the preservation of children's oral health are more relevant than ever. Currently, the amount of published applications is far higher than the published scientific studies while the problems of usability remains vulnerable. The goal of this paper was to comprehensively document the phase of development and usability testing of a mobile application for diet and oral health, namely Gigiku Sihat, which was primarily intended to be used by parents and guardians of pre-school children. The mobile application was developed using the System Development Life Cycle principle. Apart from searching for the available oral health application on Android platform, the initial requirement gathering process consisted of situational analysis, concept generation, content development, and features and functional requirement determination. The mobile application design and implementation evolved at each phase before being finalised. Gigiku Sihat was successfully developed in the Bahasa Malaysia. Finalised Gigiku Sihat was installed on mobile devices to determine the usability using translated and validated System Usability Scale questionnaire namely Skala Kebolehgunaan Aplikasi Mudah Alih (SKAMA). The mean score usability with score of 68 and above was deemed to have good usability. This study found that Gigiku Sihat mean (SD) usability score was 77.0 (14.18). The results were promising as they showed that Gigiku Sihat had a good usability. Thus, the development of this mobile application focusing on diet and oral health served as a new source of oral health education and provided a necessary foundation in developing future improved mobile application development for parents in the prevention of early childhood caries.


Subject(s)
Mobile Applications/statistics & numerical data , Oral Health/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Malaysia , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , User-Centered Design , User-Computer Interface
17.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256643, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398934

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has impacted people around the globe. Countries, including Indonesia, implemented large-scale social restrictions. Since marriage is found to be beneficial to people's quality of life (QoL), the study aimed to examine the QoL of married people in Indonesia during a large-scale social restriction of the COVID-19 pandemic. An online cross-sectional survey using Qualtrics was conducted in June 2020. Respondents' sociodemographic data, spouse data (as reported by the respondents), and pandemic-related data were collected, followed by QoL data, measured by WHQOOL-BREF. WHOQL-BREF consists of 26 questions grouped into four domains: physical, psychological, social relationships, and environmental. Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis H and Spearman correlation analyses were employed to compare QoL between groups of sociodemographic characteristics. In total, 603 respondents were recruited. The respondents' mean age is 35.3 years (SD = 7.61), most are females (82%), bachelor degree graduate (95%), Islam (78%), employed (69%), and assigned to work from home during the pandemic (76%). Married men reported better QoL in almost all domains than women; employed respondents reported higher QoL scores than unemployed; higher educated respondents reported higher QoL than those with lower education; respondents with higher income reported higher QoL than those with lower income. We found significant positive correlations between the QoL scores and age, spouse's age, and marriage length, although they were considered small. Compared to Indonesian population normative scores pre-pandemic, our sample reported no difference in physical and social domains, lower in the psychological domain, but higher in the environmental domain. Indonesian married people, especially women, those with low level of education, currently out of work, and below-average financial condition are the ones who reported worse quality of life during the lockdown. These results can help direct the Indonesian government efforts in dealing with psychosocial problems during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially for married couples.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Marriage/psychology , Quality of Life/psychology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Indonesia , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data
18.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256406, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398932

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic brought about large increases in mental distress. The uptake of COVID-19 vaccines is expected to significantly reduce health risks, improve economic and social outcomes, with potential benefits to mental health. PURPOSE: To examine short-term changes in mental distress following the receipt of the first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. METHODS: Participants included 8,003 adults from the address-based sampled, nationally representative Understanding America Study (UAS), surveyed at regular intervals between March 10, 2020, and March 31, 2021 who completed at least two waves of the survey. Respondents answered questions about COVID-19 vaccine status and self-reported mental distress as measured with the four-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-4). Fixed-effects regression models were used to identify the change in PHQ-4 scores and categorical indicators of mental distress resulting from the application of the first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: People who were vaccinated between December 2020 and March 2021 reported decreased mental distress levels in the surveys conducted after receiving the first dose. The fixed-effects estimates show an average effect of receiving the vaccine equivalent to 4% of the standard deviation of PHQ-4 scores (p-value<0.01), a reduction in 1 percentage point (4% reduction from the baseline level) in the probability of being at least mildly depressed, and of 0.7 percentage points (15% reduction from the baseline level) in the probability of being severely depressed (p-value = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Getting the first dose of COVID-19 resulted in significant improvements in mental health, beyond improvements already achieved since mental distress peaked in the spring of 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/psychology , Mental Disorders/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Health Questionnaire/statistics & numerical data , Psychological Distress , Self Report/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data
20.
Adv Rheumatol ; 61(1): 55, 2021 09 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388847

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anti-rheumatic drugs can increase the predisposition to infection, and patients may be unaware of continuing their treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess whether patients maintain their treatment for rheumatic conditions during the pandemic period and determine the factors responsible for discontinuation. METHODS: Patients were randomly selected from the prospectively collected database of our tertiary referral center. The patients were interviewed by telephone through a standardized closed-ended questionnaire, which is targeting the continuity of the treatment plan and the considerations related to the individual choice. The patients were asked whether they hesitated to visit the hospital for follow-up or intravenous drug administration. RESULTS: A total of 278 patients completed the questionnaire. While 62 of the patients (22.3%) had reduced or interrupted the treatment, only 11 patients (3.9%) stopped the treatment completely. A significant difference was observed between the duration of illness and the discontinuation of treatment. (p = 0.023) There was a significant difference in disease activity between the group that stopped treatment and continued treatment. (p = 0.001) There was no statistically significant difference in other demographic characteristics. One hundred thirty-five patients (48.6%) made the treatment decision by themselves, and 80% continued the treatment. Reasons for stopping the treatment were anxiety (48.4%), not being able to go to the hospital for intravenous treatment (45.1%), and not being able to find the drug (6.5%). CONCLUSION: Since patients with long-term illnesses were found to be significantly more likely to stop their treatment, this group of patients should be monitored.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Attitude to Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Withholding Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Antirheumatic Agents/supply & distribution , Anxiety , Continuity of Patient Care , Databases, Factual , Decision Making , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Rheumatic Diseases/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Tertiary Care Centers , Young Adult
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