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1.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 317, 2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633846

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on the safety and efficacy profile of tocilizumab in patients with severe COVID-19 needs to be enriched. METHODS: In this open label, prospective study, we evaluated clinical outcomes in consecutive patients with COVID-19 and PaO2/FiO2 < 200 receiving tocilizumab plus usual care versus usual care alone. Tocilizumab was administered at the time point that PaO2/FiO2 < 200 was observed. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included time to discharge, change in PaO2/FiO2 at day 5 and change in WHO progression scale at day 10. FINDINGS: Overall, 114 patients were included in the analysis (tocilizumab plus usual care: 56, usual care: 58). Allocation to usual care was associated with significant increase in 28-day mortality compared to tocilizumab plus usual care [Cox proportional-hazards model: HR: 3.34, (95% CI: 1.21-9.30), (p = 0.02)]. There was not a statistically significant difference with regards to hospital discharge over the 28 day period for patients receiving tocilizumab compared to usual care [11.0 days (95% CI: 9.0 to 16.0) vs 14.0 days (95% CI: 10.0-24.0), HR: 1.32 (95% CI: 0.84-2.08), p = 0.21]. ΔPaO2/FiO2 at day 5 was significantly higher in the tocilizumab group compared to the usual care group [42.0 (95% CI: 23.0-84.7) vs 15.8 (95% CI: - 19.4-50.3), p = 0.03]. ΔWHO scale at day 10 was significantly lower in the tocilizumab group compared to the usual care group (-0.5 ± 2.1 vs 0.6 ± 2.6, p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Administration of tocilizumab, at the time point that PaO2/FiO2 < 200 was observed, improved survival and other clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 irrespective of systemic inflammatory markers levels.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/trends , Patient Acuity , Administration, Intravenous , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Survival Rate/trends
2.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 6, 2022 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605048

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mortality in severe COVID-19 pneumonia is associated with thrombo-inflammation. Corticosteroids are given to attenuate the inflammation, but they are associated with thrombosis. The aims of this study were to determine the risk of venous thromboembolism between no methylprednisolone and methylprednisolone (dose versus duration) and to evaluate any synergistic dose-dependent association of heparin and methylprednisolone to 30 days in hospital survival. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a retrospective cohort. Patients included in this study were ≥ 18 years of age and admitted for severe COVID-19 pneumonia between March and June 2020 in 13 hospitals in New Jersey, United States. A propensity score analysis between administration of methylprednisolone and no methylprednisolone was fitted for 11 variables and Youden Index Method was used to determine cut-off between low dose and high dose methylprednisolone. Multivariate cox regression was to assess risk. RESULTS: In 759 patients, the incidence of venous thromboembolism was 9% of patients who received methylprednisolone and 3% of patients who did not receive methylprednisolone with a [RR 2.92 (95% CI 1.54, 5.55 P < 0.0001)]. There was a higher incidence of mechanical ventilation in the methylprednisolone group. The median d-dimer between patients with venous thromboembolism was higher compared to those without (P < 0.0003). However, the d-dimer was not statistically significant between those who had venous thromboembolism between methylprednisolone and no methylprednisolone groups (P = 0.40). There was no higher risk in high dose versus low dose [RR = 0.524 (95% CI 0.26, 1.06 P 0.4)]; however, the risk for venous thromboembolism between methylprednisolone for > 7 days and ≤ 7 days was statistically significant (RR 5.46 95% CI 2.87, 10.34 P < 0.0001). Patients who received low dose methylprednisolone and therapeutic heparin had a trend towards higher risk of mortality compared to prophylactic heparin (HR 1.81 95% CI 0.994 to 3.294) (P = 0.0522). There was no difference in 30 days in hospital survival between high dose methylprednisolone with prophylactic or therapeutic heparin (HR 0.827 95% CI 0.514 to 1.33) (P = 0.4335). CONCLUSION: Methylprednisolone for > 7 days had a higher association of venous thromboembolism. There was no added benefit of therapeutic heparin to methylprednisolone on mechanically ventilated patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Heparin/pharmacology , Methylprednisolone/pharmacology , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/pharmacology , COVID-19/complications , Follow-Up Studies , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Incidence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate/trends , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
3.
Br J Anaesth ; 128(3): 482-490, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536454

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy is performed in patients expected to require prolonged mechanical ventilation, but to date optimal timing of tracheostomy has not been established. The evidence concerning tracheostomy in COVID-19 patients is particularly scarce. We aimed to describe the relationship between early tracheostomy (≤10 days since intubation) and outcomes for patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study performed in 152 centres across 16 European countries from February to December 2020. We included patients aged ≥70 yr with confirmed COVID-19 infection admitted to an intensive care unit, requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. Multivariable analyses were performed to evaluate the association between early tracheostomy and clinical outcomes including 3-month mortality, intensive care length of stay, and duration of mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: The final analysis included 1740 patients with a mean age of 74 yr. Tracheostomy was performed in 461 (26.5%) patients. The tracheostomy rate varied across countries, from 8.3% to 52.9%. Early tracheostomy was performed in 135 (29.3%) patients. There was no difference in 3-month mortality between early and late tracheostomy in either our primary analysis (hazard ratio [HR]=0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70-1.33) or a secondary landmark analysis (HR=0.78; 95% CI, 0.57-1.06). CONCLUSIONS: There is a wide variation across Europe in the timing of tracheostomy for critically ill patients with COVID-19. However, we found no evidence that early tracheostomy is associated with any effect on survival amongst older critically ill patients with COVID-19. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04321265.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Critical Illness/mortality , Tracheostomy/mortality , Tracheostomy/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Correlation of Data , Europe , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay , Male , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Survival Rate/trends , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
4.
Ann Hepatol ; 25: 100350, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525673

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Viral infections have been described to increase the risk of decompensation in patients with cirrhosis. We aimed to determine the effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on outcome of hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and to compare the performance of different prognostic models for predicting mortality. PATIENTS: We performed a prospective cohort study including 2211 hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection from April 15, 2020 through October 1, 2020 in 38 Hospitals from 11 Latin American countries. We registered clinical and laboratory parameters of patients with and without cirrhosis. All patients were followed until discharge or death. We evaluated the prognostic performance of different scoring systems to predict mortality in patients with cirrhosis using ROC curves. RESULTS: Overall, 4.6% (CI 3.7-5.6) subjects had cirrhosis (n = 96). Baseline Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) class was assessed: CTP-A (23%), CTP-B (45%) and CTP-C (32%); median MELD-Na score was 19 (IQR 14-25). Mortality was 47% in patients with cirrhosis and 16% in patients without cirrhosis (P < .0001). Cirrhosis was independently associated with death [OR 3.1 (CI 1.9-4.8); P < .0001], adjusted by age, gender, and body mass index >30. The areas under the ROC curves for performance evaluation in predicting 28-days mortality for Chronic Liver Failure Consortium (CLIF-C), North American Consortium for the Study of End-Stage Liver Disease (NACSELD), CTP score and MELD-Na were 0.85, 0.75, 0.69, 0.67; respectively (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with elevated mortality in patients with cirrhosis. CLIF-C had better performance in predicting mortality than NACSELD, CTP and MELD-Na in patients with cirrhosis and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinicaltrials.gov:NCT04358380.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Liver Cirrhosis/epidemiology , Body Mass Index , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , South America/epidemiology , Survival Rate/trends
5.
Open Heart ; 8(2)2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518151

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of cardiac abnormalities and their relationship to markers of myocardial injury and mortality in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. METHODS: A retrospective and prospective observational study of inpatients referred for transthoracic echocardiography for suspected cardiac pathology due to COVID-19 within a London NHS Trust. Echocardiograms were performed to assess left ventricular (LV), right ventricular (RV) and pulmonary variables along with collection of patient demographics, comorbid conditions, blood biomarkers and outcomes. RESULT: In the predominant non-white (72%) population, RV dysfunction was the primary cardiac abnormality noted in 50% of patients, with RV fractional area change <35% being the most common marker of this RV dysfunction. By comparison, LV systolic dysfunction occurred in 18% of patients. RV dysfunction was associated with LV systolic dysfunction and the presence of a D-shaped LV throughout the cardiac cycle (marker of significant pulmonary artery hypertension). LV systolic dysfunction (p=0.002, HR 3.82, 95% CI 1.624 to 8.982), pulmonary valve acceleration time (p=0.024, HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.964 to 0.997)-marker of increased pulmonary vascular resistance, age (p=0.047, HR 1.027, 95% CI 1.000 to 1.055) and an episode of tachycardia measured from admission to time of echo (p=0.004, HR 6.183, 95% CI 1.772 to 21.575) were independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In this predominantly non-white population hospitalised with COVID-19, the most common cardiac pathology was RV dysfunction which is associated with both LV systolic dysfunction and elevated pulmonary artery pressure. The latter two, not RV dysfunction, were associated with mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/ethnology , Heart Diseases/ethnology , Heart Ventricles/diagnostic imaging , Population Surveillance , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Echocardiography, Doppler , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Pandemics , Prevalence , Quebec/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate/trends
6.
JCI Insight ; 6(18)2021 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467778

ABSTRACT

The importance of the adaptive T cell response in the control and resolution of viral infection has been well established. However, the nature of T cell-mediated viral control mechanisms in life-threatening stages of COVID-19 has yet to be determined. The aim of the present study was to determine the function and phenotype of T cell populations associated with survival or death of patients with COVID-19 in intensive care as a result of phenotypic and functional profiling by mass cytometry. Increased frequencies of circulating, polyfunctional CD4+CXCR5+HLA-DR+ stem cell memory T cells (Tscms) and decreased proportions of granzyme B-expressing and perforin-expressing effector memory T cells were detected in recovered and deceased patients, respectively. The higher abundance of polyfunctional PD-L1+CXCR3+CD8+ effector T cells (Teffs), CXCR5+HLA-DR+ Tscms, and anti-nucleocapsid (anti-NC) cytokine-producing T cells permitted us to differentiate between recovered and deceased patients. The results from a principal component analysis show an imbalance in the T cell compartment that allowed for the separation of recovered and deceased patients. The paucity of circulating PD-L1+CXCR3+CD8+ Teffs and NC-specific CD8+ T cells accurately forecasts fatal disease outcome. This study provides insight into the nature of the T cell populations involved in the control of COVID-19 and therefore might impact T cell-based vaccine designs for this infectious disease.


Subject(s)
B7-H1 Antigen/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8 Antigens/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Receptors, CXCR3/immunology , Adult , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate/trends
7.
Ann Surg ; 274(5): e388-e394, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455430

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Does extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) improve outcomes in ECMO-eligible patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure compared to maximum ventilation alone (MVA)? SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: ECMO is beneficial in severe cases of respiratory failure when mechanical ventilation is inadequate. Outcomes for ECMO-eligible COVID-19 patients on MVA have not been reported. Consequently, a direct comparison between COVID-19 patients on ECMO and those on MVA has not been established. METHODS: A total of 3406 COVID-19 patients treated at two major medical centers in Chicago were studied. One hundred ninety-five required maximum ventilatory support, and met ECMO eligibility criteria. Eighty ECMO patients were propensity matched to an equal number of MVA patients using detailed demographic, physiological, and comorbidity data. Primary outcome was survival and disposition at discharge. RESULTS: Seventy-one percent of patients were decannulated from ECMO. Mechanical ventilation was discontinued in 75% ECMO and 16% MVA patients. Twenty-five percent of patients in the ECMO arm expired, 21% while on ECMO, compared with 74% in the MVA cohort. Mortality was significantly lower across all age and BMI groups in the ECMO arm. Sixty-eight percent ECMO and 26% MVA patients were discharged from the hospital. Fewer ECMO patients required long-term rehabilitation. Major complications such as septic shock, ventilator associated pneumonia, inotropic requirements, acute liver and kidney injuries are less frequent among ECMO patients. CONCLUSIONS: ECMO-eligible patients with severe COVID-19 respiratory failure demonstrate a 3-fold improvement in survival with ECMO. They are also in a better physical state at discharge and have lower overall complication rates. As such, strong consideration should be given for ECMO when mechanical ventilatory support alone becomes insufficient in treating COVID-19 respiratory failure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Propensity Score , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge/trends , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Rate/trends , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
J R Soc Med ; 114(10): 473-479, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435171

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research was to evaluate the impact of federal, public health and social support programs on national suicide rates in Canada. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Canadian National Database (i.e., Statistics Canada) and Statista. PARTICIPANTS: Population-level data, and economic and consumer market data. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Suicide mortality data, population data and unemployment data were obtained from available statistical databases (e.g. Statistics Canada). We quantified suicide rate by dividing the total number of suicide deaths by the national population expressed as a rate per 100,000 population. RESULTS: Overall suicide mortality rate decreased in Canada from 10.82 deaths per 100,000 in the March 2019 - February 2020 period to 7.34 per 100,000 (i.e. absolute difference of 1300 deaths) in the March 2020 - February 2021 period. The overall Canadian unemployment rate changed from an average monthly rate of 5.7% in 2019 to 9.5% in 2020. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that for the first post-pandemic interval evaluated (i.e., March 2020 - February 2021), suicide rates in Canada decreased against a background of extraordinary public health measures intended to mitigate community spread of COVID-19. An externality of public health measures was a significant rise in national unemployment rates in population measures of distress. Our results suggest that government interventions that broadly aim to reduce measures of insecurity (i.e., economic, housing, health), and timely psychiatric services, should be prioritised as part of a national suicide reduction strategy, not only during but after termination of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Public Health , Suicide/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/psychology , Canada/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Government , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Survival Rate/trends
10.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 79, 2021 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320538

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) has affected mortality worldwide. The Cox proportional hazard (CPH) model is becoming more popular in time-to-event data analysis. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics in COVID-19 inpatients including (survivor and non-survivor); thus helping clinicians give the right treatment and assess prognosis and guide the treatment. METHODS: This single-center study was conducted at Hospital for COVID-19 patients in Birjand. Inpatients with confirmed COVID-19 were included. Patients were classified as the discharged or survivor group and the death or non-survivor group based on their outcome (improvement or death). Clinical, epidemiological characteristics, as well as laboratory parameters, were extracted from electronic medical records. Independent sample T test and the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were used to evaluate the association of interested variables. The CPH model was used for survival analysis in the COVID-19 death patients. Significant level was set as 0.05 in all analyses. RESULTS: The results showed that the mortality rate was about (17.4%). So that, 62(17%) patients had died due to COVID-19, and 298 (83.6%) patients had recovered and discharged. Clinical parameters and comorbidities such as oxygen saturation, lymphocyte and platelet counts, hemoglobin levels, C-reactive protein, and liver and kidney function, were statistically significant between both studied groups. The results of the CPH model showed that comorbidities, hypertension, lymphocyte counts, platelet count, and C-reactive protein level, may increase the risk of death due to the COVID-19 as risk factors in inpatients cases. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with, lower lymphocyte counts in hemogram, platelet count and serum albumin, and high C-reactive protein level, and also patients with comorbidities may have more risk for death. So, it should be given more attention to risk management in the progression of COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Inpatients , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate/trends , Young Adult
11.
Shock ; 56(2): 215-228, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The response to glucocorticoids treatment may be different between coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched studies on Medline, Embase, EBSCO, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform from 2002 to October 7, 2020. We used fixed-effects and random-effects models to compute the risk ratio of death in the group receiving glucocorticoids treatment and the control group for COVID-19 and SARS, respectively. RESULTS: Ten trials and 71 observational studies, with a total of 45,935 patients, were identified. Glucocorticoids treatment was associated with decreased all-cause mortality both in COVID-19 (risk ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.94; I2 = 26%) and SARS (0.48; 0.29-0.79; 10%), based on high-quality evidence, as well as decreased all-cause mortality-including composite outcome of COVID-19 (0.89; 0.82-0.98; 0%). In subgroup analyses, all-cause mortality was significantly lower among COVID-19 patients being accompanied by severe ARDS but not mild ARDS, taking low-dose or pulse glucocorticoids, being critically severe but not only severe, being of critical severity and old but not young, being of critical severity and men but not women, non-early taking glucocorticoids, taking dexamethasone or methylprednisolone, and with the increased inflammatory state; but for SARS, lower mortality was observed among those who were taking medium-high dose glucocorticoids, being severe or critically severe, early taking glucocorticoids, and taking methylprednisolone or prednisolone. CONCLUSIONS: Glucocorticoids treatment reduced mortality in COVID-19 and SARS patients of critical severity; however, different curative effects existed between the two diseases among subpopulations, mainly regarding sex- and age-specific effects, optimal doses, and use timing of glucocorticoids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/mortality , Global Health , Humans , Survival Rate/trends
12.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254580, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315888

ABSTRACT

Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection are at a high general risk for in-hospital mortality. A simple and easy-to-use model for predicting mortality based on data readily available to clinicians in the first 24 hours of hospital admission might be useful in directing scarce medical and personnel resources toward those patients at greater risk of dying. With this goal in mind, we evaluated factors predictive of in-hospital mortality in a random sample of 100 patients (derivation cohort) hospitalized for COVID-19 at our institution in April and May, 2020 and created potential models to test in a second random sample of 148 patients (validation cohort) hospitalized for the same disease over the same time period in the same institution. Two models (Model A: two variables, presence of pneumonia and ischemia); (Model B: three variables, age > 65 years, supplemental oxygen ≥ 4 L/min, and C-reactive protein (CRP) > 10 mg/L) were selected and tested in the validation cohort. Model B appeared the better of the two, with an AUC in receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of 0.74 versus 0.65 in Model A, but the AUC differences were not significant (p = 0.24. Model B also appeared to have a more robust separation of mortality between the lowest (none of the three variables present) and highest (all three variables present) scores at 0% and 71%, respectively. These brief scoring systems may prove to be useful to clinicians in assigning mortality risk in hospitalized patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Social Class , Survival Analysis , Survival Rate/trends
13.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254397, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311286

ABSTRACT

Several factors have played a strong role in influencing the dynamics of COVID-19 in the U.S. One being the economy, where a tug of war has existed between lockdown measures to control disease versus loosening of restrictions to address economic hardship. A more recent effect has been availability of vaccines and the mass vaccination efforts of 2021. In order to address the challenges in analyzing this complex process, we developed a competing risk compartmental model framework with and without vaccination compartment. This framework separates instantaneous risk of removal for an infectious case into competing risks of cure and death, and when vaccinations are present, the vaccinated individual can also achieve immunity before infection. Computations are performed using a simple discrete time algorithm that utilizes a data driven contact rate. Using population level pre-vaccination data, we are able to identify and characterize three wave patterns in the U.S. Estimated mortality rates for second and third waves are 1.7%, which is a notable decrease from 8.5% of a first wave observed at onset of disease. This analysis reveals the importance cure time has on infectious duration and disease transmission. Using vaccination data from 2021, we find a fourth wave, however the effect of this wave is suppressed due to vaccine effectiveness. Parameters playing a crucial role in this modeling were a lower cure time and a signficantly lower mortality rate for the vaccinated.


Subject(s)
Basic Reproduction Number/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Models, Statistical , Survival Rate/trends
14.
Tuberk Toraks ; 69(2): 196-206, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310190

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Evaluation of parameters that will predict prognosis in COVID19 disease ensures correct determination of treatment strategy. In this study, it was aimed to determine the clinical, radiological and laboratory parameters affecting mortality and to evaluate the risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients hospitalized with the diagnosis of COVID-19 in September 2020 were included in the study. Clinical features, laboratory parameters, and radiological findings at admission were recorded. The relationship of these parameters with 30-day mortality was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS for Windows 16.0 Package Program. RESULT: Three hundred and sixty patients (female/male, n= 228/132) hospitalized in the specified period were included in the study. 30-day mortality rate was 14.4% in all patients. In multiple logistic regression analysis, age, presence of heart failure, admission oxygen saturation, body temperature higher than 38.2 and high ferritin levels were evaluated as independent risk factors for 30-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship between clinical and laboratory markers and mortality is very important for the correct orientation of healthcare services and the correct determination of treatment strategy during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Inpatients , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate/trends , Turkey/epidemiology
15.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 195, 2021 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296608

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quality of life following extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy is an important health issue. We aimed to describe the characteristics of patients who developed chronic respiratory disease (CRD) following ECMO therapy, and investigate the association between newly diagnosed post-ECMO CRDs and 5-year all-cause mortality among ECMO survivors. METHODS: We analyzed data from the National Health Insurance Service in South Korea. All adult patients who underwent ECMO therapy in the intensive care unit between 2006 and 2014 were included. ECMO survivors were defined as those who survived for 365 days after ECMO therapy. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, interstitial lung disease, lung cancer, lung disease due to external agents, obstructive sleep apnea, and lung tuberculosis were considered as CRDs. RESULTS: A total of 3055 ECMO survivors were included, and 345 (11.3%) were newly diagnosed with CRDs 365 days after ECMO therapy. The prevalence of asthma was the highest at 6.1% (185). In the multivariate logistic regression, ECMO survivors who underwent ECMO therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or respiratory failure had a 2.00-fold increase in post-ECMO CRD (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39 to 2.89; P < 0.001). In the multivariate Cox regression, newly diagnosed post-ECMO CRD was associated with a 1.47-fold (95% CI: 1.17 to 1.86; P = 0.001) higher 5-year all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: At 12 months after ECMO therapy, 11.3% of ECMO survivors were newly diagnosed with CRDs. Patients who underwent ECMO therapy for ARDS or respiratory failure were associated with a higher incidence of newly diagnosed post-ECMO CRD compared to those who underwent ECMO for other causes. Additionally, post-ECMO CRDs were associated with a higher 5-year all-cause mortality. Our results suggest that ECMO survivors with newly diagnosed post-ECMO CRD might be a high-risk group requiring dedicated interventions.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Adult , Aged , Chronic Disease , Cohort Studies , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/trends , Humans , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate/trends
16.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(3): 947-961, 2021 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1289069

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: Hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (HA-AKI) may commonly develop in Covid-19 patients and is expected to have higher mortality. There is little comparative data investigating the effect of HA-AKI on mortality of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and a control group of general population suffering from Covid-19. Materials and methods: HA-AKI development was assessed in a group of stage 3­5 CKD patients and control group without CKD among adult patients hospitalized for Covid-19. The role of AKI development on the outcome (in-hospital mortality and admission to the intensive care unit [ICU]) of patients with and without CKD was compared. Results: Among 621 hospitalized patients (age 60 [IQR: 47­73]), women: 44.1%), AKI developed in 32.5% of the patients, as stage 1 in 84.2%, stage 2 in 8.4%, and stage 3 in 7.4%. AKI developed in 48.0 % of CKD patients, whereas it developed in 17.6% of patients without CKD. CKD patients with HA-AKI had the highest mortality rate of 41.1% compared to 14.3% of patients with HA-AKI but no CKD (p < 0.001). However, patients with AKI+non-CKD had similar rates of ICU admission, mechanical ventilation, and death rate to patients with CKD without AKI. Adjusted mortality risks of the AKI+non-CKD group (HR: 9.0, 95% CI: 1.9­44.2) and AKI+CKD group (HR: 7.9, 95% CI: 1.9­33.3) were significantly higher than that of the non-AKI+non-CKD group. Conclusion: AKI frequently develops in hospitalized patients due to Covid-19 and is associated with high mortality. HA-AKI has worse outcomes whether it develops in patients with or without CKD, but the worst outcome was seen in AKI+CKD patients.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate/trends
17.
Chest ; 160(4): 1471-1480, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275209

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, the disease responsible for the devastating pandemic that began at the end of 2019, has been associated with a significantly increased risk of pulmonary thrombosis, even in patients receiving prophylactic anticoagulation. The predilection for thrombosis in COVID-19 may be driven by at least two distinct, but interrelated, processes: a hypercoagulable state responsible for large-vessel thrombosis and thromboembolism and direct vascular and endothelial injury responsible for in situ microvascular thrombosis. The presence of pulmonary thrombosis may explain why hypoxemia is out of proportion to impairment in lung compliance in some patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Because pulmonary embolism (PE) and COVID-19 pneumonia share many signs and symptoms, diagnosing PE in patients with COVID-19 can be challenging. Given the high mortality and morbidity associated with severe COVID-19 and the concern that aspects of the disease may be driven by thrombosis, many hospital systems have instituted aggressive anticoagulation protocols above standard VTE prophylaxis. In this review, the epidemiologic and pathophysiologic features, diagnosis, and treatment of COVID-19 pulmonary thrombosis and thromboembolism are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Global Health , Humans , Incidence , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Survival Rate/trends , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology
18.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 54(1): 193-199, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270535

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk of death. We aimed to describe the characteristics of a cohort of Brazilian hemodialysis patients with COVID-19 and assess their mortality rate and risk factors for death. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 741 Brazilian hemodialysis patients with confirmed COVID-19 from Feb-Dec/2020, of 52 dialysis centers of the country. We analyzed comorbid conditions, sociodemographic factors, and dialysis-related parameters. To detect risk factors for mortality in hemodialysis patients, we performed multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. Survival was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier. RESULTS: From 9877 hemodialysis patients, 741 were diagnosed with COVID-19. Mean age was 57 ± 16 years, 61% were male, and 51% white. The most frequent symptoms were fever (54.1%), cough (50.9%), and dyspnea (37.2%); 14.2% were asymptomatic. There were 139 deaths (18.8%), with 66% within the disease's first 15 days. 333 patients (44.9%) required hospitalization, and 211 (28.5%) were admitted to an intensive care unit. The cumulative probability of survival at 90 days of diagnosis was 79% (95% CI 76-82%). In the fully adjusted multivariate model, the risk factors significantly associated with death were diabetes mellitus (HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.05-2.19, P = 0.026), use of a central venous catheter (CVC) (HR 1.79, 95% CI 1.22-2.64, P = 0.003), age (HR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.04, P < 0.001), and origin from the North vs. Southeast region (HR 2.60, 95% CI 1.01-6.68, P = 0.047). CONCLUSIONS: Hemodialysis patients using a CVC as the vascular access, aside from diabetic and elderly ones, should be closely monitored due to their high risk of death in the course of the COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/etiology , Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Brazil/epidemiology , Catheter-Related Infections/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate/trends , Time Factors
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