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1.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 20(1): 10, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636480

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence of how social factors affect the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of Ebola virus disease (EVD) survivors is limited. Our study explores the association between socio-demographic, health-related and psycho-social (stigma) factors and EVD survivors' health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Sierra Leone. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cross-sectional study among 358 EVD survivors between January and August 2018. We used a multistage sampling method to recruit EVD survivors, and the RAND 36-Item Health Survey item was used to assess the HRQoL. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple linear regression. RESULTS: When comparing by each dimension in relation to their respective summary scores, role limitation physical [0.00 (50.00)] and role limitation emotional [0.00 (33.33)] were the most affected physical health and mental health domains among EVD survivors respectively. EVD survivors who were older (ß = - 3.90, 95% CI - 6.47 to - 1.32, p = 0.003), had no formal education (ß = - 2.80, 95% CI - 5.16 to - 0.43, p = 0.021), experienced a unit increase in the number of post-Ebola symptoms (ß = - 1.08, 95% CI - 1.74 to - 0.43, p < 0.001) and experienced a unit increase in enacted stigma (ß = - 2.61, 95% CI - 4.02 to - 1.20, p < 0.001) were more likely to report a decreased level of physical health. EVD survivors who experienced a unit increase in the time spent in the Ebola treatment centre (ß = - 0.60, 95% CI - 0.103 to - 0.18, p = 0.006) and those who experienced a unit increase in enacted Stigma were more likely to report decreased levels of mental health (ß = - 1.50, 95% CI - 2.67 to - 0.33, p = 0.012). CONCLUSION: Sociodemographic, health-related, and psycho-social factors were significantly associated with decrease levels of HRQoL. Our findings improve our understanding of the factors that might influence the HRQoL and suggest the need for EVD survivors to be provided with a comprehensive healthcare package that caters for their physical and mental health needs.


Subject(s)
Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Humans , Quality of Life , Sierra Leone/epidemiology , Social Factors , Survivors
2.
Pril (Makedon Akad Nauk Umet Odd Med Nauki) ; 42(3): 57-62, 2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1627773

ABSTRACT

Peritoneal dialysis (PD) related peritonitis is usually caused by bacteria, but viruses and fungi could also affect the peritoneal membrane and cause cloudy effluent with negative bacterial cultures. We present a case of a PD patient who survived fungal peritonitis caused by Geotrichum klebahnii (March 2015) and COVID-19 pneumonia (April 2021) with peritonitis probably caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The fungal peritonitis followed one episode of exit-site infection and two episodes of bacterial peritonitis treated with a wide-spectrum antibiotic. The patient's PD catheter was removed immediately upon the diagnosis of fungal peritonitis, and an antifungal treatment was continued for 3 weeks after catheter removal. The new peritoneal catheter was reinserted 8 weeks after complete resolution of peritonitis, and the patient continued treatment with PD. The patient developed severe Covid-19 pneumonia with a sudden appearance of cloudy peritoneal effluent. There was no bacterial or fungal growth on the effluent culture. A PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 in peritoneal effluent was not performed. The peritoneal effluent became transparent with the resolution of the severe symptoms of Covid-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Peritoneal Dialysis , Peritonitis , Humans , Peritoneal Dialysis/adverse effects , Peritonitis/diagnosis , Peritonitis/drug therapy , Peritonitis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613809

ABSTRACT

Prior qualitative research conducted among stroke survivors to explore the potential benefits and challenges of participating in tai chi exercise during stroke recovery is limited to those without depression. A qualitative descriptive approach was used. Social Cognitive Theory and Complex Systems Biology provided the theoretical framework, with focus group interview data collected from stroke survivors after participation in a tai chi intervention. Due to COVID-19, the focus group interview was conducted via online video conferencing. Content analysis of the de-identified transcript was conducted with a-priori codes based on the theoretical framework and inductive codes that were added during the analysis process. Lincoln and Guba's criteria were followed to ensure trustworthiness of the data. Community-dwelling stroke survivors (n = 7) participating in the focus group interviews were on average 68 years old, mainly retired (71%, n = 5), married women (57%, n = 4) with >13 years education (86%, n = 6). The three major themes were: personal efficacy beliefs, tai chi intervention active ingredients, and outcome expectations. Social Cognitive Theory underscored stroke survivors' personal efficacy beliefs, behavior, and outcome expectations, while Complex Systems Biology highlighted the active ingredients of the tai chi intervention they experienced. Participation in the 8-week tai chi intervention led to perceived physical, mental, and social benefits post stroke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke Rehabilitation , Tai Ji , Aged , Female , Humans , Motivation , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
4.
Chron Respir Dis ; 19: 14799731211069391, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613200

ABSTRACT

Survivors of COVID-19 can present with varied and persisting symptoms, regardless of hospitalisation. We describe the ongoing symptoms, quality of life and return to work status in a cohort of non-hospitalised COVID-19 survivors with persisting respiratory symptoms presenting to clinic, who consented and completed patient-reported outcome measures. We identified fatigue, reduced quality of life and dysregulated breathing alongside the breathlessness. Those with co-existent fatigue had worse mood and quality of life and were less likely to have returned to normal working arrangements compared to those without fatigue. For non-hospitalised people with persisting symptoms following COVID-19 referred to a respiratory assessment clinic, there was a need for a wider holistic assessment, including return to work strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Humans , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
5.
J Head Trauma Rehabil ; 37(1): 43-52, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605181

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) affects up to 1 in 3 women over their lifetime and has intensified during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although most injuries are to the head, face, and neck, the intersection of IPV and brain injury (BI) remains largely unrecognized. This article reports on unexplored COVID-19-related impacts on service providers and women survivors of IPV/BI. OBJECTIVES: To explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on survivors and service providers. PARTICIPANTS: Purposeful sampling through the team's national Knowledge-to-Practice (K2P) network and snowball sampling were used to recruit 24 participants across 4 categories: survivors, executive directors/managers of organizations serving survivors, direct service providers, and employer/union representatives. DESIGN: This project used a qualitative, participatory approach using semistructured individual or group interviews. Interviews were conducted via videoconferencing, audio-recorded, and transcribed. Transcripts were thematically analyzed by the research team to identify themes. FINDINGS: COVID-19 has increased rates and severity of IPV and barriers to services in terms of both provision and uptake. Three main themes emerged: (1) implications for women survivors of IPV/BI; (2) implications for service delivery and service providers supporting women survivors of IPV/BI; and (3) key priorities. Increased risk, complex challenges to mental health, and the impact on employment were discussed. Adaptability and flexibility of service delivery were identified as significant issues, and increased outreach and adaptation of technology-based services were noted as key priorities. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has intensified IPV/BI, increased challenges for women survivors and service providers, and accentuated the continued lack of IPV/BI awareness. Recommendations for service delivery and uptake are discussed.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries , COVID-19 , Intimate Partner Violence , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
6.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(12)2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583127

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of long COVID symptoms in a large cohort of people living with and affected by long COVID and identify any potential associated risk factors. METHODS: A prospective survey was undertaken of an inception cohort of confirmed people living with and affected by long COVID (aged 18-87 years). 14392 participants were recruited from 24 testing facilities across Bangladesh between June and November 2020. All participants had a previously confirmed positive COVID-19 diagnosis, and reported persistent symptoms and difficulties in performing daily activities. Participants who consented were contacted by face-to-face interview, and were interviewed regarding long COVID, and restriction of activities of daily living using post COVID-19 functional status scale. Cardiorespiratory parameters measured at rest (heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, oxygen saturation levels, maximal oxygen consumption, inspiratory and expiratory lung volume) were also measured. RESULTS: Among 2198 participants, the prevalence of long COVID symptoms at 12 weeks was 16.1%. Overall, eight long COVID symptoms were identified and in descending order of prominence are: fatigue, pain, dyspnoea, cough, anosmia, appetite loss, headache and chest pain. People living with and affected by long COVID experienced between 1 and 8 long COVID symptoms with an overall duration period of 21.8±5.2 weeks. Structural equation modelling predicted the length of long COVID to be related to younger age, female gender, rural residence, prior functional limitation and smoking. CONCLUSION: In this cohort, at 31 weeks post diagnosis, the prevalence of long COVID symptoms was 16.1%. The risk factors identified for presence and longer length of long COVID symptoms warrant further research and consideration to support public health initiatives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Activities of Daily Living , Bangladesh/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
7.
Psychiatry Res ; 307: 114337, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562014

ABSTRACT

The study's objective was to study the association of perceived discrimination with depression, insomnia and post-traumatic stress in people recovered from coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Santa Marta, Colombia. COVID-19 survivors were invited to participate. The authors measured perceived discrimination related to COVID-19 (COVID-19 Perceived Stigma Scale), depression (PHQ-9), insomnia (Athens Insomnia Scale), and post-traumatic stress (Brief Davidson Trauma Scale). Three hundred thirty COVID-19 survivors participated in the research; the participants were between 18 and 89 years; 61.52% were females. 32.12% of the participants reported high perceived discrimination; 49.70%, depression; 60.61%, insomnia; and 13.33% post-traumatic stress. After adjusting for age, gender, and income, depression, insomnia, and post-traumatic stress were associated significantly with discrimination perceived by COVID-19. Perceived discrimination is a social stressor that affects the psychological well-being of people recovered from COVID-19. In the follow-up of this group of patients, it is important to consider the impact of perceived discrimination on psychological well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
8.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(11): 1720-1726, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525854

ABSTRACT

Being considered minor vexations, fungal infections hinder the life of about 15% of the world population superficially, with rare threats to life in case of invasive sepsis. A significant rise in the intrusive mycoses due to machiavellian fungal species is observed over the years due to increased pathology and fatality in people battling life-threatening diseases. Individuals undergoing therapy with immune suppressive drugs plus recovering from viral infections have shown to develop fungal sepsis as secondary infections while recovering or after. Currently, the whole world is fighting against the fright of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), and corticosteroids being the primitive therapeutic to combat the COVID-19 inflammation, leads to an immune-compromised state, thereby allowing the not so harmful fungi to violate the immune barrier and flourish in the host. A wide range of fungal co-infection is observed in the survivors and patients of COVID-19. Fungal species of Candida, Aspergillus and Mucorales, are burdening the lives of COVID-19 patients/survivors in the form of Yellow/Green, White and Black fungus. This is the first article of its kind to assemble note on fungal infections seen in the current human health scenario till date and provides a strong message to the clinicians, researchers and physicians around the world "non-pathological fungus should not be dismissed as contaminants, they can quell immunocompromised hosts".


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mycoses , Humans , Mycoses/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
9.
Lancet ; 398(10314): 1872-1873, 2021 11 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521621

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
10.
Lancet ; 398(10314): 1872, 2021 11 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521620

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
11.
Lancet ; 398(10314): 1871-1872, 2021 11 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521619

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
12.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 3611-3623, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526425

ABSTRACT

Since the first outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in December 2019, more than 51 million cases had been reported globally. We aimed to identify the risk factors for in-hospital fatal outcome and severe pneumonia of this disease. This is a retrospective, multicentre study, which included all confirmed cases of COVID-19 with definite outcomes (died or discharged) hospitalized between 1 January and 4 March 2020 in Wuhan. Of all 665 patients included, 70 died and 595 discharged (including 333 mild and 262 severe cases). Underlying comorbidity was more commonly observed among deaths (72.9%) than mild (26.4%) and severe (61.5%) survivors, with hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular as dominant diseases. Fever and cough were the primary clinical magnifications. Older age (≥65 years) (OR = 3.174, 95% CI = 1.356-7.755), diabetes (OR = 2.540, 95% CI = 0.995-6.377), dyspnoea (OR = 7.478, 95% CI = 3.031-19.528), respiratory failure (OR = 10.528, 95% CI = 4.484-25.829), acute cardiac injury (OR = 25.103, 95% CI = 9.057-76.590) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (OR = 7.308, 95% CI = 1.501-46.348) were associated with in-hospital fatal outcome. In addition, older age (OR = 2.149, 95% CI = 1.424-3.248), diabetes (OR = 3.951, 95% CI = 2.077-7.788), cardiovascular disease (OR = 3.414, 95% CI = 1.432-8.799), nervous system disease (OR = 4.125, 95% CI = 1.252-18.681), dyspnoea (OR = 31.944, 95% CI = 18.877-92.741), achieving highest in-hospital temperature of >39.0°C (OR = 37.450, 95% CI = 7.402-683.403) and longer onset of illness to diagnosis (≥9 days) were statistically associated with higher risk of developing severe COVID-19. In conclusion, the potential risk factors forolder age, diabetes, dyspnoea, respiratory failure, acute cardiac injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , China/epidemiology , Humans , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
13.
Intern Med J ; 51(11): 1773-1780, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526371

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present study is to investigate the incidence, characteristics and outcomes of patients who were readmitted to hospital emergency departments or required re-hospitalisation following an index hospitalisation with a diagnosis of COVID-19. A systematic review of PubMed, EMBASE and pre-print websites was conducted between 1 January and 31 December 2020. Studies reporting on the incidence, characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 who represent or require hospital admission were included. Two authors independently performed study selection and data extraction. Study quality was assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Discrepancies were resolved by consensus or through an independent third reviewer. Data were synthesised according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews guidelines. Six studies reporting on 547 readmitted patients were included. The overall incidence was 4.4%, most common in males (57.2%), and due to respiratory distress or prolonged COVID-19. Readmitted patients had a shorter initial hospital length of stay (LOS) compared with those with a single hospitalisation (8.1 ± 10.6 vs 13.9 ± 10.2 days). The mean time to readmission was 7.6 ± 6.0 days; the mean LOS on re-hospitalisation was 6.3 ± 5.6 days. Hypertension (odds ratio (OR) = 2.08; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.69-2.55; P < 0.001; I2 = 0%), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.77; 95% CI 1.38-2.27; P < 0.001; I2 = 0%) and chronic renal failure (OR = 2.37; 95% CI 1.09-5.14; P < 0.001; I2 = 0%) were more common in these patients. Intensive care admission rates were similar between the two groups; 12.8% (22/172) of readmitted patients died. In summary, readmitted patients following an index hospitalisation for COVID-19 were more commonly males with multiple comorbidities. Shorter initial hospital LOS and unresolved primary illness may have contributed to readmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Patient Readmission , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
14.
Eur J Cancer Care (Engl) ; 30(6): e13497, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518028

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The web-based application Oncokompas was developed to support cancer patients to self-manage their symptoms. This qualitative study was conducted to obtain insight in patients' self-management strategies to cope with cancer and their experiences with Oncokompas as a fully automated behavioural intervention technology. METHODS: Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with 22 participants (10 head and neck cancer survivors and 12 incurably ill patients). Interview questions were about self-management strategies and experiences with Oncokompas. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Participants applied several self-management strategies, among which trying to stay in control and make the best of their situation. They described Oncokompas' added value: being able to monitor symptoms and having access to a personal online library. Main reasons for not using Oncokompas were concentration problems, lack of time or having technical issues. Recommendations were made for further development of Oncokompas, relating to its content, technical and functional aspects. CONCLUSIONS: Survivors and incurably ill patients use various self-management strategies to cope with cancer. The objectives of self-management interventions as Oncokompas correspond well with these strategies: taking a certain responsibility for your well-being and being in charge of your life as long as possible by obtaining automated information (24/7) on symptoms and tailored supportive care options.


Subject(s)
Head and Neck Neoplasms , Self-Management , Telemedicine , Humans , Qualitative Research , Quality of Life , Survivors
16.
Qual Life Res ; 30(8): 2123-2135, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509285

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) has been used successfully for the past decade in adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) refractory to conventional ventilatory support. However, knowledge of the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in VV-ECMO patients is still limited. Thus, this study aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of the HRQoL following VV-ECMO support in ARDS patients. METHODS: A systematic search was performed on PubMed and Web of Science databases from January 1st, 2009 to October 19th, 2020. Studies reporting on HRQoL following VV-ECMO for ARDS in adults were included. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed methodological quality. RESULTS: Eight studies were eligible for inclusion, consisting of seven observational studies and one randomized controlled trial (total N = 441). All eight studies had a quantitative design and reported 265 VV-ECMO survivors to have a reduced HRQoL compared to a generally healthy population. Follow-up time varied between six months to three years. Additionally, only four studies (total N = 335) compared the HRQoL of VV-ECMO (N = 159) to conventionally treated survivors (N = 176), with one study showing a significantly better HRQoL in VV-ECMO survivors, while three studies were stating comparable HRQoL across groups. Notably, most survivors in these studies appeared to experience varying degrees of anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). CONCLUSIONS: ARDS survivors supported by VV-ECMO have a decline in HRQoL and suffered from physical and psychological impairments. This HRQoL reduction is comparable or even better to the HRQoL in conventionally treated ARDS survivors.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/psychology , Quality of Life/psychology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Health Status , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/psychology , Survivors , Treatment Outcome
17.
Cancer Nurs ; 44(6): E636-E651, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A cancer diagnosis as an adolescent and young adult (AYA) poses exceptional challenges, including potential greater financial toxicity than older survivors experience who have had more time for career establishment and to build financial assets. Costs to patients have increased more than the past decade; prospects for AYA long-term survival have also increased. A better understanding of what financial toxicity is, how it presents, and the immediate and longer-term implications for AYAs is needed. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the concept financial toxicity in AYAs diagnosed with cancer. METHODS: We used Rodgers' evolutionary method and articles published between January 2013 and December 2020. RESULTS: We identified key antecedents, attributes, and consequences of financial toxicity in AYAs and review its related terms that have often been used as surrogate terms. Attributes were financial burden, financial distress, and competing financial pressures. Consequences were mostly adverse and persistent and included engaging in various financial problem-solving behaviors, material hardship and poor financial well-being, and deteriorated quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this analysis clarify financial toxicity and provide guidance for a conceptual framework in the context of AYA cancer survivorship. Its consequences in AYAs with cancer are profound and will continue to evolve over time with changes in health systems and the economy. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Oncology nurses should understand the attributes and consequences of financial toxicity for AYAs throughout the cancer trajectory. Future research on financial toxicity should extend across AYAs living with other chronic illnesses and cancer survivors in other age groups.


Subject(s)
Cancer Survivors , Neoplasms , Adolescent , Humans , Quality of Life , Survivors , Young Adult
18.
J Emerg Manag ; 18(7): 157-160, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497637

ABSTRACT

Evidences related to neuropsychological impact of COVID-19 and its long-term side effects are beginning to emerge that may take years to catalogue the number of diseases and their treatments. Nonetheless, as neuropsychologists are evaluating COVID-19 survivors, a debate related to the psychiatric and neurocognitive sequels of past outbreaks, along with the recurrent co-occurrence of PTSD and acquired brain injuries, may be enlightening. This paper is highlighting the emergence of mental health issues that can be addressed and treatments can be provided according to the need of time. Technology has also been increasing day by day according to the current needs of public. COVID-19 crisis has now shifted the focus towards the role of digital health care. For ensuring the best and right use of tele-health and app tools in such crises, it is suggested that there is a need for training of mental health professionals to ensure proper protocols for improved efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
19.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21039, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493204

ABSTRACT

This study investigated pre-COVID-19 admission dependency, discharge assistive equipment, discharge medical follow-up recommendation, and functional status at hospital discharge of non-critically ill COVID-19 survivors, stratified by those with (N = 155) and without (N = 162) in-hospital rehabilitation. "Mental Status", intensive-care-unit (ICU) Mobility, and modified Barthel Index scores were assessed at hospital discharge. Relative to the non-rehabilitation patients, rehabilitation patients were older, had more comorbidities, worse pre-admission dependency, were discharged with more assistive equipment and supplemental oxygen, spent more days in the hospital, and had more hospital-acquired acute kidney injury, acute respiratory failure, and more follow-up referrals (p < 0.05 for all). Cardiology, vascular medicine, urology, and endocrinology were amongst the top referrals. Functional scores of many non-critically ill COVID-19 survivors were abnormal at discharge (p < 0.05) and were associated with pre-admission dependency (p < 0.05). Some functional scores were negatively correlated with age, hypertension, coronary artery disease, chronic kidney disease, psychiatric disease, anemia, and neurological disorders (p < 0.05). In-hospital rehabilitation providing restorative therapies and assisting discharge planning were challenging in COVID-19 circumstances. Knowledge of the functional status, discharge assistive equipment, and follow-up medical recommendations at discharge could enable appropriate and timely post-discharge care. Follow-up studies of COVID-19 survivors are warranted as many will likely have significant post-acute COVID-19 sequela.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Rehabilitation/methods , Aftercare , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Critical Care , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge , Quality of Life , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
20.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e055435, 2021 10 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480255

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The steroid hormone vitamin D has roles in immunomodulation and bone health. Insufficiency is associated with susceptibility to respiratory infections. We report 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) measurements in hospitalised people with COVID-19 and influenza A and in survivors of critical illness to test the hypotheses that vitamin D insufficiency scales with illness severity and persists in survivors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Plasma was obtained from 295 hospitalised people with COVID-19 (International Severe Acute Respiratory and emerging Infections Consortium (ISARIC)/WHO Clinical Characterization Protocol for Severe Emerging Infections UK study), 93 with influenza A (Mechanisms of Severe Acute Influenza Consortium (MOSAIC) study, during the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic) and 139 survivors of non-selected critical illness (prior to the COVID-19 pandemic). Total 25(OH)D was measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Free 25(OH)D was measured by ELISA in COVID-19 samples. OUTCOME MEASURES: Receipt of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Vitamin D insufficiency (total 25(OH)D 25-50 nmol/L) and deficiency (<25 nmol/L) were prevalent in COVID-19 (29.3% and 44.4%, respectively), influenza A (47.3% and 37.6%) and critical illness survivors (30.2% and 56.8%). In COVID-19 and influenza A, total 25(OH)D measured early in illness was lower in patients who received IMV (19.6 vs 31.9 nmol/L (p<0.0001) and 22.9 vs 31.1 nmol/L (p=0.0009), respectively). In COVID-19, biologically active free 25(OH)D correlated with total 25(OH)D and was lower in patients who received IMV, but was not associated with selected circulating inflammatory mediators. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency was present in majority of hospitalised patients with COVID-19 or influenza A and correlated with severity and persisted in critical illness survivors at concentrations expected to disrupt bone metabolism. These findings support early supplementation trials to determine if insufficiency is causal in progression to severe disease, and investigation of longer-term bone health outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , Vitamin D Deficiency , Critical Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors , Vitamin D , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications , Vitamin D Deficiency/epidemiology
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