Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 242
Front Public Health ; 11: 1105537, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239536


This article is part of the Research Topic 'Health Systems Recovery in the Context of COVID-19 and Protracted Conflict' Health systems resilience has become a ubiquitous concept as countries respond to and recover from crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic, war and conflict, natural disasters, and economic stressors inter alia. However, the operational scope and definition of health systems resilience to inform health systems recovery and the building back better agenda have not been elaborated in the literature and discourse to date. When widely used terms and their operational definitions appear nebulous or are not consistently used, it can perpetuate misalignment between stakeholders and investments. This can hinder progress in integrated approaches such as strengthening primary health care (PHC) and the essential public health functions (EPHFs) in health and allied sectors as well as hinder progress toward key global objectives such as recovering and sustaining progress toward universal health coverage (UHC), health security, healthier populations, and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This paper represents a conceptual synthesis based on 45 documents drawn from peer-reviewed papers and gray literature sources and supplemented by unpublished data drawn from the extensive operational experience of the co-authors in the application of health systems resilience at country level. The results present a synthesis of global understanding of the concept of resilience in the context of health systems. We report on different aspects of health systems resilience and conclude by proposing a clear operational definition of health systems resilience that can be readily applied by different stakeholders to inform current global recovery and beyond.

COVID-19 , Public Health , Humans , Pandemics , Sustainable Development
Front Public Health ; 11: 1104669, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236694


This article is part of the Research Topic 'Health Systems Recovery in the Context of COVID-19 and Protracted Conflict'. As the world faces global health crises such as pandemics, epidemics, climate change and evolving disease burdens and population demographics, building strong and resilient public health systems is of critical importance. The need for an integrated approach to building health system resilience; the widening of inequalities; and fears of vulnerable populations being left behind are critical issues that require Supreme Audit Institutions (SAIs) enquiry as independent public oversight bodies. Each country has a Supreme Audit Institution with a remit to audit public funds as an effective, accountable, and inclusive institution. Government audits are key components of effective public financial management and Good Governance. SAIs contribute to the quality of government engagement and better state-society relations through their work. As SAIs provide independent external oversight and contribute to follow up and review of national targets linked to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in their respective countries, they can play an important role in national recovery efforts. WHO and INTOSAI Development Initiative (IDI) have been collaborating in facilitating SAIs' audits of strong and resilient national public health systems linked to the national target of SDG 3.d in 40 countries across Africa, Americas, Asia and Oceania between 2021 and 2022. This paper aims to convey key lessons learned from the joint multisectoral collaboration for facilitating the 3.d audits that can contribute to building health systems resilience in ongoing recovery efforts. The collaboration included facilitation of the audits through professional education and audit support using a health systems resilience framework. The 3.d audits are performance audits and follow IDI's SDG Audit Model (ISAM). Following the ISAM implies that the SAI should focus on a whole-of-government approach, policy coherence and integration, and assess both government efforts at 'leaving no one behind' and multi-stakeholder engagement in implementing the chosen national SDG target linked to 3.d. WHO's Health Systems Resilience team has supported IDI and SAIs by delivering training sessions and reviewing working papers and draft reports of the SAIs from a health systems resilience perspective. IDI has provided the technical expertise on performance audits through its technical team and through in-kind contributions from mentors from many SAIs in the regions participating in the audit. In the 3.d audit, SAIs can ask how governments are acting to enhance capacity in some or all of the following, depending on their own national context and risk: forecasting, preventing and preparing for public health emergencies (PHEs) and threatsadapting, absorbing and responding to PHEs and threatsmaintaining essential health services in all contexts (including during emergencies/crises). The audits are expected to highlight current capacities of health systems resilience; the extent to which a whole-of-government approach and policy coherence have been utilised; and government efforts related to multistakeholder engagement and leaving no one behind in building health systems resilience related to progressing towards achieving the national target linked to 3.d by 2030. An overall positive achievement noted was that undertaking a complex health audit in the middle of a pandemic is possible and can contribute to building health systems resilience and recovery efforts. In their review of audit plans, draft summaries, and other work by the SAIs, both WHO and IDI have observed that SAIs have used the training and supplementary materials and applied various parts of it in their audits. This collaboration also demonstrates key considerations needed for successful partnership across multisectoral partners at global, regional and national levels. Such considerations can be applied in different contexts, including socioeconomic and health system recovery, to ensure whole-of-society and whole-of-government action in building health systems resilience and monitoring and evaluation to maintain and accelerate progress towards the national target linked to SDG3.d, health security and universal health coverage (UHC), as well as broader socioeconomic development.

COVID-19 , Sustainable Development , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergencies , World Health Organization , Global Health
Cad Saude Publica ; 39(4): e00119022, 2023.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327772


This study aimed to develop a prioritization index to speed up the achievement of national health targets proposed in the 2030 Agenda. This is an ecological study that addressed the Health Regions in Brazil. The index incorporated 25 indicators with analytical proximity to the official indicators of the 2030 Agenda whose data are available from public municipal sources for the period of 2015-2019. According to our study, the index was a powerful method to support health management decisions. The results showed the most vulnerable territories are located in the North Region of the country, and therefore, these are priority areas for resource allocation. The analysis of subindices highlighted local health bottlenecks, reinforcing the need for municipalities in each region to set their own priorities while making decisions for health resource allocation. By indicating Health Regions and priority themes for more investments, this investigation shows paths to support the implementation of the 2030 Agenda, from the local to the national level, in addition to providing elements that can be used by policy makers to minimize the effects of social inequalities on health, prioritizing territories with worse indices.

O objetivo deste artigo é desenvolver um índice de priorização para aceleração do cumprimento das metas nacionais de saúde propostas pela Agenda 2030. Trata-se de estudo ecológico que abordou as Regiões de Saúde do Brasil. O índice incorporou 25 indicadores com proximidade analítica aos indicadores oficiais da Agenda 2030, para os quais existem dados de fontes públicas no nível municipal para o período de 2015 a 2019. O índice apresentou-se como potente método para apoiar a decisão da gestão em saúde. Os resultados permitiram identificar que a Região Norte do país apresenta os territórios mais vulneráveis e, portanto, prioritários para a alocação de recursos. Além disso, a análise dos subíndices permitiu destacar os gargalos locais de saúde, reforçando a necessidade de os municípios de cada região estabelecerem suas próprias prioridades na decisão de alocação dos recursos da saúde. Ao indicar as Regiões de Saúde e os temas prioritários para maiores investimentos, esta investigação aponta caminhos que podem apoiar a implementação da Agenda 2030 do nível local ao nacional, além de fornecer elementos por meio dos quais os formuladores de políticas podem minimizar os efeitos das iniquidades sociais sobre a saúde, priorizando os territórios com piores índices.

El objetivo fue desarrollar un índice de priorización para acelerar el cumplimiento de las metas nacionales de salud propuestas por la Agenda 2030. Se trata de un estudio ecológico que abordó las Regiones de Salud de Brasil. El índice incorporó 25 indicadores con proximidad analítica a los indicadores oficiales de la Agenda 2030 para los cuales existen datos de fuentes públicas a nivel municipal para el período 2015-2019. El índice se presentó como potente método para apoyar la decisión de la gestión en salud. Los resultados permitieron identificar que la Región Norte del país cuenta con los territorios más vulnerables y, por tanto, áreas prioritarias para la asignación de recursos. Además, el análisis de los subíndices permitió resaltar cuellos de botella locales en salud, reforzando la necesidad de que los municipios de cada región establezcan sus propias prioridades en la decisión de asignación de recursos en salud. Al indicar las Regiones de Salud y los temas prioritarios para mayores inversiones, esta investigación apunta caminos que pueden apoyar la implementación de la Agenda 2030 desde el nivel local al nacional, además de proporcionar elementos a través de los cuales los formuladores de políticas pueden minimizar los efectos de las inequidades sociales sobre la salud, priorizando los territorios con peores índices.

Sustainable Development , Humans , Brazil , Cities , Socioeconomic Factors
Nurs Crit Care ; 28(3): 341-343, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2312812
Nutr Diet ; 80(1): 4-7, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284559
Global Health ; 19(1): 17, 2023 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262125


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and the climate emergency threaten progress in reaching many of the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets by 2030. The under-5 mortality and maternal mortality rates are well below the targets, and if we progress at the current pace, there is a high risk of not meeting the 2030 goals. Furthermore, the initial progress in the decline in child and maternal mortality since 1990 is likely to be eroded. Much of this progress has resulted from increased sanitation, drinking water, education, and health service coverage. The adequate provision of public services is possible if there is sufficient government funding. When governments have more income, they spend more on public services, which increases access to fundamental economic and social rights and, thus, contributes to the SDGs. One of the key drivers of government financing, taxation, constitutes 70% of government revenue in low- and lower-middle-income countries. Corporate income tax constitutes 18.8% of tax revenue in African countries compared to 10% of tax revenue in OECD countries. Therefore, it plays a critical role in SDG progress. This paper aims to quantify the contribution of one large taxpayer, that publishes their tax payments, (Vodafone Group Plc) on progress towards SDGs in six African countries. We use econometric modelling to estimate the impact of an increase in government revenue equivalent to Vodafone's average tax paid between 2007-2017. RESULTS: We find that government revenue equivalent to Vodafone's taxes made a significant contribution to progress in attaining selected SDGs. We found that the revenue equivalent to Vodafone's taxes allowed 966,188 people to access clean water and 1,371,972 people to access basic sanitation each year. Over the time period studied, 858,054 children spent an extra year in school and 54,275 children under five years and 3,655 mothers survived. In just one of these countries, Tanzania, the revenue equivalent to Vodafone's tax contribution allowed 174,121 people to access clean water and 223,586 to access sanitation each year. Over the time studied 187,023 children spent an additional year at school, 6,569 additional children under five and 625 additional mothers survived. CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that the reported contributions from a single multinational corporation drive SDG progress. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of transparent taxes and explores the responsibilities of global institutions, governments, investors, and multinational corporations.

COVID-19 , Sustainable Development , Child , Humans , Child, Preschool , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Taxes , Tanzania
Int J Equity Health ; 22(1): 55, 2023 03 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259770


BACKGROUND: Addressing persistent and pervasive health inequities is a global moral imperative, which has been highlighted and magnified by the societal and health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Observational studies can aid our understanding of the impact of health and structural oppression based on the intersection of gender, race, ethnicity, age and other factors, as they frequently collect this data. However, the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) guideline, does not provide guidance related to reporting of health equity. The goal of this project is to develop a STROBE-Equity reporting guideline extension. METHODS: We assembled a diverse team across multiple domains, including gender, age, ethnicity, Indigenous background, disciplines, geographies, lived experience of health inequity and decision-making organizations. Using an inclusive, integrated knowledge translation approach, we will implement a five-phase plan which will include: (1) assessing the reporting of health equity in published observational studies, (2) seeking wide international feedback on items to improve reporting of health equity, (3) establishing consensus amongst knowledge users and researchers, (4) evaluating in partnership with Indigenous contributors the relevance to Indigenous peoples who have globally experienced the oppressive legacy of colonization, and (5) widely disseminating and seeking endorsement from relevant knowledge users. We will seek input from external collaborators using social media, mailing lists and other communication channels. DISCUSSION: Achieving global imperatives such as the Sustainable Development Goals (e.g., SDG 10 Reduced inequalities, SDG 3 Good health and wellbeing) requires advancing health equity in research. The implementation of the STROBE-Equity guidelines will enable a better awareness and understanding of health inequities through better reporting. We will broadly disseminate the reporting guideline with tools to enable adoption and use by journal editors, authors, and funding agencies, using diverse strategies tailored to specific audiences.

Health Inequities , Observational Studies as Topic , Social Justice , Humans , COVID-19 , Pandemics , Research Design , Sustainable Development , Indigenous Peoples
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0282319, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253071


Previous studies examining the impact of heritage tourism have focused on specific ecological, economic, political, or cultural impacts. Research focused on the extent to which heritage tourism fosters host communities' participation and enhances their capacity to flourish and support long-term health and wellbeing is lacking. This systematic review assessed the impact of heritage tourism on sustainable community development, as well as the health and wellbeing of local communities. Studies were included if they: (i) were conducted in English; (ii) were published between January 2000 and March 2021; (iii) used qualitative and/or quantitative methods; (iv) analysed the impact of heritage tourism on sustainable community development and/or the health and wellbeing of local host communities; and (v) had a full-text copy available. The search identified 5292 articles, of which 102 articles met the inclusion criteria. The included studies covering six WHO regions (Western Pacific, African, Americas, South-East Asia, European, Eastern Mediterranean, and multiple regions). These studies show that heritage tourism had positive and negative impacts on social determinants of health. Positive impacts included economic gains, rejuvenation of culture, infrastructure development, and improved social services. However, heritage tourism also had deleterious effects on health, such as restrictions placed on local community participation and access to land, loss of livelihood, relocation and/or fragmentation of communities, increased outmigration, increases in crime, and erosion of culture. Thus, while heritage tourism may be a poverty-reducing strategy, its success depends on the inclusion of host communities in heritage tourism governance, decision-making processes, and access to resources and programs. Future policymakers are encouraged to adopt a holistic view of benefits along with detriments to sustainable heritage tourism development. Additional research should consider the health and wellbeing of local community groups engaged in heritage tourism. Protocol PROSPERO registration number: CRD42018114681.

Sustainable Development , Tourism , Poverty , Public Health
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 34(6): 941-943, 2023 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270012
Hum Resour Health ; 21(1): 17, 2023 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265552


BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has reinforced the importance of having a sufficient, well-distributed and competent health workforce. In addition to improving health outcomes, increased investment in health has the potential to generate employment, increase labour productivity and foster economic growth. We estimate the required investment for increasing the production of the health workforce in India for achieving the UHC/SDGs. METHODS: We used data from National Health Workforce Account 2018, Periodic Labour Force Survey 2018-19, population projection of Census of India, and government documents and reports. We distinguish between total stock of health professionals and active health workforce. We estimated current shortages in the health workforce using WHO and ILO recommended health worker:population ratio thresholds and extrapolated the supply of health workforce till 2030, using a range of scenarios of production of doctors and nurses/midwives. Using unit costs of opening a new medical college/nursing institute, we estimated the required levels of investment to bridge the potential gap in the health workforce. RESULTS: To meet the threshold of 34.5 skilled health workers per 10 000 population, there will be a shortfall of 0.16 million doctors and 0.65 million nurses/midwives in the total stock and 0.57 million doctors and 1.98 million nurses/midwives in active health workforce by the year 2030. The shortages are higher when compared with a higher threshold of 44.5 health workers per 10 000 population. The estimated investment for the required increase in the production of health workforce ranges from INR 523 billion to 2 580 billion for doctors and INR 1 096 billion for nurses/midwives. Such investment during 2021-2025 has the potential of an additional employment generation within the health sector to the tune of 5.4 million and to contribute to national income to the extent of INR 3 429 billion annually. CONCLUSION: India needs to significantly increase the production of doctors and nurses/midwives through investing in opening up new medical colleges. Nursing sector should be prioritized to encourage talents to join nursing profession and provide quality education. India needs to set up a benchmark for skill-mix ratio and provide attractive employment opportunities in the health sector to increase the demand and absorb the new graduates.

COVID-19 , Sustainable Development , Humans , Universal Health Insurance , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , India
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(3)2023 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264062


The UN member states adopted three international agreements for the post-2015 agenda: the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, the Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, and the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development [...].

Climate Change , Disasters , Acclimatization , Sustainable Development , Risk Reduction Behavior , United Nations