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1.
Small ; 18(14): e2107636, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699477

ABSTRACT

Donning of personal protective equipment (PPE) in the healthcare sector has been intensified by the on-going COVID-19 pandemic around the globe. While extensive PPE provides protection, it typically limits moisture permeability and severely hinders the sweat evaporation process, resulting in greater heat stress on the personnel. Herein, a zinc-poly(vinyl alcohol) (Zn-PVA) composite film is fabricated by embedding a super-hygroscopic zinc-ethanolamine complex (Zn-complex) in the PVA matrix. By attaching the Zn-PVA composite film, the relative humidity (RH) inside the protective suit decreases from 91.0% to 48.2%. The reduced RH level, in turn, enhances evaporative cooling, hence bringing down the heat index from 64.6 to 40.0 °C at an air temperature of 35 °C, remarkably lowering the likelihood of heat stroke. The American Society for Testing and Materials tests conducted on a sweating manikin have also proven that the Zn-PVA composite films can significantly reduce the evaporative resistance of the protective suit by 90%. The low material cost, facile fabrication process, and reusability allow the Zn-PVA composition films to be readily available for healthcare workers worldwide. This application can be further extended to other occupations that are facing severe thermal discomfort and heat stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sweating , COVID-19/prevention & control , Heat-Shock Response , Hot Temperature , Humans , Pandemics , Sweat , Zinc
2.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 35(12): e865-e866, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367335

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Sweat , Sweating
3.
Adv Skin Wound Care ; 34(7): 356-363, 2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191097

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between wearing protective masks and goggles and skin injuries in medical staff during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Researchers conducted a cross-sectional, multicenter online survey. Respondents voluntarily completed the questionnaire on their smartphones. Ordinal and multinomial logistic regressions were used to identify factors related to skin injuries. RESULTS: In total, 1,611 respondents wore protective masks combined with goggles in 145 hospitals in China; 1,281 skin injuries were reported (overall prevalence, 79.5%). Multiple concomitant skin injuries (68.5%) and injuries in four anatomic locations (24.0%) were the most common, followed by injuries in three (22.8%), two (21.7%), and one location (11.0%). Multinomial logistic regression indicated that sweating increased the risk of injuries in one to four anatomic locations (95% confidence interval for odds ratio 16.23-60.02 for one location and 38.22-239.04 for four locations), and wearing an N95 mask combined with goggles and a daily use longer than 4 hours increased the risk of injuries in four locations (95% confidence interval for odds ratio 1.18-5.31 and 1.14-3.93, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of skin injuries among medical staff wearing protective masks combined with goggles was very high. These were mainly device-related pressure injuries, moisture-associated skin damage, and skin tears. The combination of various factors resulted in skin injuries at multiple sites. Preventing and managing sweating should be a focus for medical staff who wear protective masks combined with goggles for more than 4 hours.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Eye Protective Devices/adverse effects , Masks/adverse effects , Medical Staff, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Staff, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Occupational Injuries/etiology , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Facial Injuries/etiology , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Pressure Ulcer/etiology , Sweating
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e041880, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090935

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To explore the association between N95 respirator wearing and device-related pressure injury (DRPI) and to provide a basis for protecting medical staff from skin injuries. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, multicentre study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Medical staff of 60 hospitals were selected from 145 designated medical institutions located in the epidemic area where the patients with COVID-19 were treated in China. RESULTS: In total, 1761 respondents wore N95 respirators (use alone 20.8%; combination use 79.2%), and the prevalence of DRPI was 59.2% (95% CI 56.93 to 61.53). A daily wearing time of >4 hours (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.35), wearing a N95 respirator in combination with goggles both with the presence of sweating (OR 13.40, 95% CI 7.34 to 23.16) and without the presence of sweating (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.14) and wearing only a N95 respirator with the presence of sweating (OR 9.60, 95% CI 7.00 to 13.16) were associated with DRPI. A correspondence analysis indicated that if there was no sweating, regardless of whether the N95 respirator was worn by itself or in combination with goggles, single-site DRPI mainly occurred on the nose bridge, cheek and auricle. If there was sweating present, regardless of whether the N95 was worn by itself or in combination with goggles, multiple DRPI sites occurred more often on the face. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of DRPI among medical staff caused by N95 respirators was very high, which was mainly associated with a longer daily wearing time and interaction with sweating. The nasal bridge, cheeks and auricles were the primary protection locations found.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , N95 Respirators/adverse effects , Occupational Exposure/prevention & control , Occupational Injuries/epidemiology , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Pressure , Sweating
5.
Ir J Med Sci ; 191(1): 27-29, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1080578

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the SARS-CoV-2 virus made a pandemic all over the world, its transmission routes became significant. Transmission from human to human is known, but other possible routes are not determined well. AIMS: This study aimed to reveal the presence of SARS-CoV-2 virus in sweat. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary care education and training hospital. Fifty patients were included in this study. Skin disinfection was done with an alcohol-based solution. Swabs for RT-PCR (real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction) were taken from forehead and axilla skin after sweating patients for 30 min. After collection of sweat, swabs were placed into 2 ml of sterile viral transport medium, then transported quickly to the microbiology laboratory. RESULTS: No SARS-CoV-2 virus was detected in RT-PCR of forehead and axilla swabs. CONCLUSION: This study showed that there is no transmission of SARS-CoV-2 virus via sweat. However, general precautions must be taken while doing interventional procedures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , Sweat , Sweating
7.
Neurophysiol Clin ; 51(2): 193-196, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1046195

ABSTRACT

Dysautonomia has been reported in COVID-19. Sweat function testing has been proposed to assess autonomic neuropathy. Fifty Indian patients consulting for neurological symptoms participated in this observational study. The NHS questionnaire for neurological symptoms was completed and electrochemical skin conductance was measured using Sudoscan. The 26% of patients with sweat dysfunction i) were older (p = 0.001), ii) were more frequently treated at home (p = 0.008), iii) were more likely to have received antiviral treatment (p = 0.0006), and iv) more frequently reported at least one motor, sensory or autonomic symptom (p = 0.04). This preliminary study suggests that patients with COVID-19 should be screened for dysautonomia.


Subject(s)
Autonomic Nervous System Diseases/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Sweating , Adult , Aged , Aging , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Galvanic Skin Response , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
9.
J Therm Biol ; 93: 102705, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-739933

ABSTRACT

Heat adaption through acclimatisation or acclimation improves cardiovascular stability by maintaining cardiac output due to compensatory increases in stroke volume. The main aim of this study was to assess whether 2D transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) could be used to confirm differences in resting echocardiographic parameters, before and after active heat acclimation (HA). Thirteen male endurance trained cyclists underwent a resting blinded TTE before and after randomisation to either 5 consecutive daily exertional heat exposures of controlled hyperthermia at 32°C with 70% relative humidity (RH) (HOT) or 5-days of exercise in temperate (21°C with 36% RH) environmental conditions (TEMP). Measures of HA included heart rate, gastrointestinal temperature, skin temperature, sweat loss, total non-urinary fluid loss (TNUFL), plasma volume and participant's ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). Following HA, the HOT group demonstrated increased sweat loss (p = 0.01) and TNUFL (p = 0.01) in comparison to the TEMP group with a significantly decreased RPE (p = 0.01). On TTE, post exposure, there was a significant comparative increase in the HOT group in left ventricular end diastolic volume (p = 0.029), SV (p = 0.009), left atrial volume (p = 0.005), inferior vena cava diameter (p = 0.041), and a significant difference in mean peak diastolic mitral annular velocity (e') (p = 0.044). Cardiovascular adaptations to HA appear to be predominantly mediated by improvements in increased preload and ventricular compliance. TTE is a useful tool to demonstrate and quantify cardiac HA.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Heart/physiology , Sweating , Thermotolerance , Adult , Echocardiography , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Heart Rate , Humans , Male , Plasma Volume , Random Allocation , Vasodilation
10.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 245(12): 997-998, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607763

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic, in part due to the highly infectious nature of the disease. Because SARS-CoV-2 is new, much is unknown regarding mechanisms of transmission, and such information is urgently needed. Here, based on previous findings from related human betacoronaviruses, it is suggested that one possible route of transmission may be via infectious sweat. It is suggested that research be conducted in order to determine whether sweat in SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals harbors virus in quantities that can infect others. Findings could be used for formulations of mitigation strategies and empirically based public health messaging.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Sweat/virology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Mucous Membrane/virology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/transmission , Sweating/physiology
11.
Int Wound J ; 17(5): 1300-1309, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245059

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the medical staff fighting against COVID-19 frequently reported the device-related pressure injury (DRPI) caused by personal protective equipment (PPE). We conducted a cross-sectional survey online to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of DRPI among medical staff. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to explore the risk factors associated with DRPI. A total of 4308 participants were collected and 4306 participants were valid from 161 hospitals in China. The overall prevalence of DRPI caused by PPE among medical staff was 30.03% (95% CI 28.69%-31.41%). The prevalence of male was more than that of female (42.25%, 95% CI 37.99-46.51% vs 26.36%, 95% CI 26.93-29.80%, P < .001).The categories were mainly stages 1 and 2, and the common anatomical locations were nose bridge, cheeks, ears, and forehead. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk factors were sweating (OR = 43.99, 95% CI 34.46-56.17), male (OR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.12-1.99), level 3 PPE (OR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.14-1.83), and longer wearing time (OR = 1.28, 95% CI 0.97-1.68). The prevalence of DRPI was high among medical staff wearing PPE against COVID-19, and the risk factors were sweating, male, wearing level 3 PPE, and longer wearing time. Comprehensive preventive interventions should be taken.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Medical Staff, Hospital , Nursing Staff, Hospital , Occupational Injuries/etiology , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Pressure Ulcer/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Facial Injuries/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Sweating , Time Factors
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