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1.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(6): 3349-3359, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526423

ABSTRACT

The influenza D virus (IDV) was first identified and characterized in 2011. Considering the virus' zoonotic potential, its genome nature (segmented RNA virus), its worldwide circulation in livestock and its role in bovine respiratory disease, an increased interest is given to IDV. However, few data are available on drivers of emergence of IDV. We first listed fifty possible drivers of emergence of IDV in ruminants and swine. As recently carried out for COVID-19 in pets (Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 2020), a scoring system was developed per driver and scientific experts (N = 28) were elicited to (a) allocate a score to each driver, (b) weight the drivers' scores within each domain and (c) weight the different domains among themselves. An overall weighted score was calculated per driver, and drivers were ranked in decreasing order. Drivers with comparable likelihoods to play a role in the emergence of IDV in ruminants and swine in Europe were grouped using a regression tree analysis. Finally, the robustness of the expert elicitation was verified. Eight drivers were ranked with the highest probability to play a key role in the emergence of IDV: current species specificity of the causing agent of the disease; influence of (il)legal movements of live animals (ruminants, swine) from neighbouring/European Union member states and from third countries for the disease to (re-)emerge in a given country; detection of emergence; current knowledge of the pathogen; vaccine availability; animal density; and transport vehicles of live animals. As there is still limited scientific knowledge on the topic, expert elicitation of knowledge and multi-criteria decision analysis, in addition to clustering and sensitivity analyses, are very important to prioritize future studies, starting from the top eight drivers. The present methodology could be applied to other emerging animal diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Swine Diseases , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Cattle , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/prevention & control , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2 , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Swine Diseases/prevention & control
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 282, 2021 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1523322

ABSTRACT

Trichinellosis is a foodborne disease caused by several Trichinella species around the world. In Chile, the domestic cycle was fairly well-studied in previous decades, but has been neglected in recent years. The aims of this study were to analyze, geographically, the incidence of trichinellosis in Chile to assess the relative risk and to analyze the incidence rate fluctuation in the last decades. Using temporal data spanning 1964-2019, as well as geographical data from 2010 to 2019, the time series of cases was analyzed with ARIMA models to explore trends and periodicity. The Dickey-Fuller test was used to study trends, and the Portmanteau test was used to study white noise in the model residuals. The Besag-York-Mollie (BYM) model was used to create Bayesian maps of the level of risk relative to that expected by the overall population. The association of the relative risk with the number of farmed swine was assessed with Spearman's correlation. The number of annual cases varied between 5 and 220 (mean: 65.13); the annual rate of reported cases varied between 0.03 and 1.9 cases per 105 inhabitants (mean: 0.53). The cases of trichinellosis in Chile showed a downward trend that has become more evident since the 1980s. No periodicities were detected via the autocorrelation function. Communes (the smallest geographical administrative subdivision) with high incidence rates and high relative risk were mostly observed in the Araucanía region. The relative risk of the commune was significantly associated with the number of farmed pigs and boar (Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758). The results allowed us to state that trichinellosis is not a (re)emerging disease in Chile, but the severe economic poverty rate of the Mapuche Indigenous peoples and the high number of backyard and free-ranging pigs seem to be associated with the high risk of trichinellosis in the Araucanía region.


Subject(s)
Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Trichinellosis/epidemiology , Animals , Bayes Theorem , Chile/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Geographic Mapping , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Incidence , Risk Assessment , Swine , Trichinella , Trichinellosis/history
3.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 248, 2021 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506030

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Swine coccidiosis, a protozoan disease caused by coccidia, can result in diarrhoea and weight loss in piglets and even economic losses in the pig industry. Here, we report the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of coccidia (including Eimeria spp. and Cystoisospora suis) in pigs in China. METHODS: Five databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Chinese Web of Knowledge, Wanfang, and Chongqing VIP) were searched and 50 studies (46,926 domestic pigs, 22 provinces) ultimately identified pertaining to the prevalence of coccidia infection from 1980 to 2019. We incorporated the effect size using the random-effects model in the "meta" package in R software and conducted univariate and multivariate meta-regression analyses using a mixed-effects model. RESULTS: The pooled prevalence rate of coccidia in pigs was 21.9%, including the C. suis infection rate of 9.1%. The highest prevalence of coccidia (39.6%) was found in northwest China, and this region also presented the lowest prevalence of C. suis (4.7%). In the subgroup analysis based on sampling year, the highest prevalence of coccidia was detected in 2001 or earlier (32.6%), whereas the lowest rate was found in 2012 or later (14.3%). An opposite trend was observed for C. suis (5.5% in 2000 or earlier vs 14.4% in 2000 or later). The prevalence of coccidia in extensive farming systems (29.5%) was higher than that in intensive farming systems (17.3%). In contrast, the point estimate of C. suis prevalence was lower in the extensive farming systems (5.1%) than in the intensive farming systems (10.0%), but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Among the four age categories, the highest total coccidia prevalence (26.2%) was found in finishing pigs, followed by suckling piglets (19.9%), whereas the highest prevalence of C. suis (14.9%) was observed in suckling piglets. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that coccidia infection in Chinese pigs is common, although the prevalence of C. suis in pigs does not receive sufficient attention. We recommend the rational use of anticoccidial drugs to avoid drug resistance and the development of preventive and control measures for C. suis to reduce the incidence of swine coccidiosis.


Subject(s)
Coccidiosis/epidemiology , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Animals , China/epidemiology , Coccidia/classification , Coccidia/genetics , Coccidia/isolation & purification , Coccidia/physiology , Coccidiosis/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Prevalence , Swine , Swine Diseases/parasitology
4.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(5): 2722-2732, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411004

ABSTRACT

African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) is a highly contagious pathogen that causes disease in pigs, commonly characterized by acute haemorrhagic fever. Prior to August 2018, African Swine Fever (ASF) had not been reported in Asia, but has since spread throughout China, Mongolia, Korea, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Timor-Leste and Papua New Guinea. Using data collated from reports of confirmed cases, we applied spatio-temporal analysis to describe ASFV spread throughout Asia during its early phase-from 1 August 2018 (reported start date) to 31 December 2019-to provide an overview and comparative analysis. Analysis revealed a propagating epidemic of ASFV throughout Asia, with peaks corresponding to increased reports from China, Vietnam and Laos. Two clusters of reported outbreaks were found. During the epidemic, ASFV primarily spread from the North-East to the South-East: A larger, secondary cluster in the North-East represented earlier reports, while the smaller, primary cluster in the South-East was characterized by later reports. Significant differences in country-specific epidemics, morbidity, mortality and unit types were discovered. The initial number of outbreaks and enterprise size are likely predictors of the speed of spread and the effectiveness of ASFV stamping out procedures. Biosecurity methods, wild boar populations and the transportation of pigs and movement of infected fomites are discussed as likely risk factors for facilitating ASFV spread across Asia.


Subject(s)
African Swine Fever Virus , African Swine Fever , Swine Diseases , African Swine Fever/epidemiology , Animals , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Hong Kong , Sus scrofa , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology
5.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(5): 2676-2686, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411003

ABSTRACT

As of 21 April 2020, 176 ASF outbreaks have occurred in China. For each outbreak, an investigation was conducted, including historical data retrieval and traceability of potential contacts. The purpose of this study is to conduct a preliminary analysis of the data obtained from the outbreak investigations, including an investigation of the possible contributing factors of the spread of ASF in China. Based on the epidemic situation and the policies issued, the entire epidemic can be divided into three phases. 71 outbreaks were reported between 3 August 2018 and 17 November 2018; 44 outbreaks between 19 November 2018 and 30 March 2019; and 61 outbreaks between 4 April 2019 and 12 April 2020. Based on the reported outbreaks, the proportional rate of outbreaks in small farms (livestock ≤ 500, 127/168) is significantly higher than that of medium (501 ≤ livestock < 2,000, 14/168; 2001 ≤ livestock ≤ 5,000, 9/168) and large farms (livestock ≥ 5,001, 18/168). The odds of infection related to swill feeding (OR = 2.5, 95% CI, 1.5-4.3) and the mechanical dissemination of vehicles and personnel (OR = 2.7, 95% CI, 1.6-4.5) are significantly higher than those of pigs and pig production transportation. Swill feeding is the major contributing factor for small farms while mechanical dissemination of vehicles and personnel is the major contributing factor for large farms. The average duration from the beginning of the infection to the official outbreak report is gradually decreasing, which means that response speed of industry entities and the animal husbandry and veterinary departments from the beginning of the infection to the outbreak report is gradually increasing. Based on the analysis for ASF outbreaks, some policies and suggestions were put forward, such as improving the biosecurity level of the farms, as well as strengthening the supervision of breeding, transportation and slaughter.


Subject(s)
African Swine Fever Virus , African Swine Fever , Epidemics , Swine Diseases , African Swine Fever/epidemiology , African Swine Fever/prevention & control , Animal Husbandry , Animals , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Risk Factors , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Swine Diseases/prevention & control
6.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(4): 2334-2344, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331775

ABSTRACT

To obtain more information of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) transmission via faeces in/between farms, 360 swine faecal samples were randomly collected from different farms in China from 2017 to 2019. Sixty-two ORF5 genes were amplified by PCR from 120 positive samples identified by real-time RT-PCR and further characterized by sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis based on the ORF5 gene revealed that these strains can be divided into four lineages: lineage 1 (NADC30-like), lineage 3 (QYYZ-like), lineage 5.1 (VR2332-like) and lineage 8.7 (JXA1-like), with 62.9% (39/62) NADC30-like virus, 21% (13/62) QYYZ-like virus, 1.6% (1/62) VR2332-like virus and 14.5% (9/62) for JAX1-like virus. In particular, 14 PRRSVs including lineage 1, 5.1 and 8.7 can be isolated from 120 positive faecal samples, which further suggests that faecal transmission may be an important factor in the spread of PRRSV in farms. Full-length genome sequencing analysis showed that 14 isolates share 83.1%-97.7% homology with each other and 82.3%-96.1% identity with NADC30, 83.2%-99.7% with VR2332, 79.6%-87.2% with QYYZ and 82.6%-98.9% with JXA1 and CH-1a, and only 60.1%-60.7% with LV. Recombination events were observed in the six out of 14 strains. Collectively, the data of this study are useful for understanding the spread of PRRSV via faeces. Additionally, the virus was isolated from positive faecal samples, suggesting that faecal transmission may be an important factor in the spread of PRRSV in farms.


Subject(s)
Feces/virology , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , China/epidemiology , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral , Patient Discharge , Phylogeny , Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus/genetics , Recombination, Genetic , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology
7.
EMBO Mol Med ; 13(7): e13810, 2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299729

ABSTRACT

Streptococcus suis, a ubiquitous bacterial colonizer in pigs, has recently extended host range to humans, leading to a global surge of deadly human infections and three large outbreaks since 1998. To better understand the mechanisms for the emergence of cross-species transmission and virulence in human, we have sequenced 366 S. suis human and pig isolates from 2005 to 2016 and performed a large-scale phylogenomic analysis on 1,634 isolates from 14 countries over 36 years. We show the formation of a novel human-associated clade (HAC) diversified from swine S. suis isolates. Phylogeographic analysis identified Europe as the origin of HAC, coinciding with the exportation of European swine breeds between 1960s and 1970s. HAC is composed of three sub-lineages and contains several healthy-pig isolates that display high virulence in experimental infections, suggesting healthy-pig carriers as a potential source for human infection. New HAC-specific genes are identified as promising markers for pathogen detection and surveillance. Our discovery of a human-associated S. suis clade provides insights into the evolution of this emerging human pathogen and extend our understanding of S. suis epidemics worldwide.


Subject(s)
Streptococcal Infections , Streptococcus suis , Swine Diseases , Animals , Europe , Humans , Streptococcal Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcal Infections/veterinary , Streptococcus suis/genetics , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Virulence
8.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253622, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286870

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a leading cause of piglet diarrhea outbreaks, poses a significant danger to the swine industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemic characteristics of PEDV that was circulating in Guangdong province, one of China's major pig producing provinces. Clinical samples were collected from eight pig farms in Guangdong province between 2018 and 2019 and tested for the major porcine enteric pathogens, including PEDV, transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), Swine enteric coronavirus (SeCoV), Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV), porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), and porcine rotavirus (RV). As a result, only PEDV and RV were detected at a rate of 47.0% (16/34) and 18.6% (8/34), respectively. Coinfectoin with PEDV and RV occurred at a rate of PEDV 12.5% (2/16). Subsequently, the full-length S gene sequences of 13 PEDV strains were obtained, and phylogenetic analysis suggested the presence of GII-c group PEDV strains in this region (non-S-INDEL). Two novel common amino acid insertions (55T/IG56 and 551L) and one novel glycosylation site (1199G+) were detected when the CV777 and ZJ08 vaccine strains were compared. Furthermore, intragroup recombination events in the S gene regions 51-548 and 2478-4208 were observed in the PEDV strains studied. In summary, the observations provide current information on the incidence of viral agents causing swine diarrhea in southern China and detailed the genetic characteristics and evolutionary history of the dominant PEDV field strains. Our findings will aid in the development of an updated vaccine for the prevention and control of PEDV variant strains.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Disease Outbreaks , Phylogeny , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Swine Diseases/genetics , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Animals , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/genetics
9.
Viruses ; 13(1)2020 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1025055

ABSTRACT

Bats are often claimed to be a major source for future viral epidemics, as they are associated with several viruses with zoonotic potential. Here we describe the presence and biodiversity of bats associated with intensive pig farms devoted to the production of heavy pigs in northern Italy. Since chiropters or signs of their presence were not found within animal shelters in our study area, we suggest that fecal viruses with high environmental resistance have the highest likelihood for spillover through indirect transmission. In turn, we investigated the circulation of mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs), coronaviruses (CoVs) and astroviruses (AstVs) in pigs and bats sharing the same environment. Results of our preliminary study did not show any bat virus in pigs suggesting that spillover from these animals is rare. However, several AstVs, CoVs and MRVs circulated undetected in pigs. Among those, one MRV was a reassortant strain carrying viral genes likely acquired from bats. On the other hand, we found a swine AstV and a MRV strain carrying swine genes in bat guano, indicating that viral exchange at the bat-pig interface might occur more frequently from pigs to bats rather than the other way around. Considering the indoor farming system as the most common system in the European Union (EU), preventive measures should focus on biosecurity rather than displacement of bats, which are protected throughout the EU and provide critical ecosystem services for rural settings.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera , Swine , Animals , Biodiversity , Chiroptera/virology , DNA Viruses/classification , DNA Viruses/genetics , Ecosystem , Phylogeny , RNA Viruses/classification , RNA Viruses/genetics , Reassortant Viruses/genetics , Swine/virology , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Swine Diseases/transmission , Swine Diseases/virology , Virus Diseases/veterinary
10.
mSphere ; 5(3)2020 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153652

ABSTRACT

Members of family Coronaviridae cause a variety of diseases in birds and mammals. Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV), a lesser-researched coronavirus, can infect naive pigs of any age, but clinical disease is observed in pigs ≤4 weeks of age. No commercial PHEV vaccines are available, and neonatal protection from PHEV-associated disease is presumably dependent on lactogenic immunity. Although subclinical PHEV infections are thought to be common, PHEV ecology in commercial swine herds is unknown. To begin to address this gap in knowledge, a serum IgG antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the S1 protein was developed and evaluated on known-status samples and then used to estimate PHEV seroprevalence in U.S. sow herds. Assessment of the diagnostic performance of the PHEV S1 ELISA using serum samples (n = 924) collected from 7-week-old pigs (n = 84; 12 pigs per group) inoculated with PHEV, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus, transmissible gastroenteritis virus, porcine respiratory coronavirus, or porcine deltacoronavirus showed that a sample-to-positive cutoff value of ≥0.6 was both sensitive and specific, i.e., all PHEV-inoculated pigs were seropositive from days postinoculation 10 to 42, and no cross-reactivity was observed in samples from other groups. The PHEV S1 ELISA was then used to estimate PHEV seroprevalence in U.S. sow herds (19 states) using 2,756 serum samples from breeding females (>28 weeks old) on commercial farms (n = 104) with no history of PHEV-associated disease. The overall seroprevalence was 53.35% (confidence interval [CI], ±1.86%) and herd seroprevalence was 96.15% (CI, ±3.70%).IMPORTANCE There is a paucity of information concerning the ecology of porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (PHEV) in commercial swine herds. This study provided evidence that PHEV infection is endemic and highly prevalent in U.S. swine herds. These results raised questions for future studies regarding the impact of endemic PHEV on swine health and the mechanisms by which this virus circulates in endemically infected populations. Regardless, the availability of the validated PHEV S1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) provides the means for swine producers to detect and monitor PHEV infections, confirm prior exposure to the virus, and to evaluate the immune status of breeding herds.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus 1/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus 1/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cross Reactions/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus/immunology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Swine , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Transmissible gastroenteritis virus/immunology , United States/epidemiology
11.
Prev Vet Med ; 188: 105281, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051106

ABSTRACT

Pigs (Sus scrofa) may be important surveillance targets for risk assessment and risk-based control planning against emerging zoonoses. Pigs have high contact rates with humans and other animals, transmit similar pathogens as humans including CoVs, and serve as reservoirs and intermediate hosts for notable human pandemics. Wild and domestic pigs both interface with humans and each other but have unique ecologies that demand different surveillance strategies. Three fundamental questions shape any surveillance program: where, when, and how can surveillance be conducted to optimize the surveillance objective? Using theory of mechanisms of zoonotic spillover and data on risk factors, we propose a framework for determining where surveillance might begin initially to maximize a detection in each host species at their interface. We illustrate the utility of the framework using data from the United States. We then discuss variables to consider in refining when and how to conduct surveillance. Recent advances in accounting for opportunistic sampling designs and in translating serology samples into infection times provide promising directions for extracting spatio-temporal estimates of disease risk from typical surveillance data. Such robust estimates of population-level disease risk allow surveillance plans to be updated in space and time based on new information (adaptive surveillance) thus optimizing allocation of surveillance resources to maximize the quality of risk assessment insight.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Swine Diseases/virology , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Animals , Animals, Wild/virology , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Humans , Sus scrofa/virology , Swine/virology , Zoonoses/transmission
12.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(2): 255-265, 2020 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1008951

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses cause respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases in diverse host species. Deltacoronaviruses (DCoVs) have been identified in various songbird species and in leopard cats in China. In 2009, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was detected in fecal samples from pigs in Asia, but its etiologic role was not identified until 2014, when it caused major diarrhea outbreaks in swine in the United States. Studies have shown that PDCoV uses a conserved region of the aminopeptidase N protein to infect cell lines derived from multiple species, including humans, pigs, and chickens. Because PDCoV is a potential zoonotic pathogen, investigations of its prevalence in humans and its contribution to human disease continue. We report experimental PDCoV infection and subsequent transmission among poultry. In PDCoV-inoculated chicks and turkey poults, we observed diarrhea, persistent viral RNA titers from cloacal and tracheal samples, PDCoV-specific serum IgY antibody responses, and antigen-positive cells from intestines.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/virology , Deltacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Animals , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Swine , Swine Diseases/transmission , Swine Diseases/virology , Turkeys , United States/epidemiology
13.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(4): 2465-2476, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-913651

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a significant global, enteric coronavirus in pigs and was first reported in Colombia in 2014. However, the epidemiology, genetic and antigenic characteristics of the virus have yet to be investigated. In this study, we investigated the dissemination of PEDV by testing 536 samples by RT-PCR over a 33-month period. The 35.8% of positive samples (n = 192) was significantly different (p < .01) between months over time, with a higher number of positives samples occurring at the beginning of the epidemic and during the second epidemic wave within the main pork producing region. The complete PEDV genomes were generated for 21 strains, which shared a high nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity, except for the spike (S) gene. Recombinant regions were identified within the Colombian strains and between Colombian and Asian PEDV strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the 21 Colombian strains demonstrated the presence of 7 lineages that shared common ancestors with PEDV strains from the United States. Moreover, the antigenic analysis demonstrated residue differences in the neutralizing epitopes in the spike and nucleocapsid proteins. Our results illustrated the simultaneous introduction of the two PEDV genotypes (GIIa American pandemic and S-INDEL) into the Colombian swine industry during the 2014 PEDV epidemic and enhanced our understanding of the epidemiology and molecular diversity of PEDV in Colombia.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus , Swine Diseases , Animals , Colombia/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Epidemics/veterinary , Phylogeny , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , United States
14.
Vet Med Sci ; 6(4): 854-859, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-826351

ABSTRACT

Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) has been detected sporadically in China since its first description in 2012. In our study, 62 faecal and intestinal samples from pigs with diarrhoea were collected in Guangxi Province, China, during 2017 and 2018. Twelve samples (19.4%, 12/62) were positive for PDCoV. Five complete genomes of PDCoV were then determined, and sequence alignment revealed that the five strains had discontinuous deletions at 400-401 aa in non-structural protein 2 (NSP2) and 758-760 aa in non-structural protein 3 (NSP3) compared with the respective proteins in the HKU15-44 strain. Notably, the CHN-GX81-2018 strain contained two insertions in the S gene and 3'-UTR. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that four strains shared 98.2%-98.4% nucleotide identity with CHN-AH-2004 and were classified into a new cluster of China lineage strains, whereas the CHN-GX81-2018 strain shared 98.7% nucleotide identity with Vietnam/Binh21/2015 and belonged to the Vietnam/Laos/Thailand lineage. Recombination analyses revealed that four strains were the result of recombination between CHN-HB-2014 and Vietnam/Binh21/2015 strains. This study demonstrated the co-existence of multiple lineages of PDCoV in China, and our findings will aid the reorganization and evolution of the virus.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Deltacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Animals , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Phylogeny , Prevalence , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Analysis, DNA/veterinary , Sus scrofa , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology
15.
Infect Genet Evol ; 82: 104286, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-826349

ABSTRACT

Bufavirus (BuV) can infect a variety of hosts, including human, bats, rats, dog, swine and shrew species and are suggested related to diarrhea disease. Porcine bufaviruses (PoBuV) were first detected in Hungarian pig farms in 2016. To determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of PoBuV in China, we developed SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assays to detect PoBuV in Guangxi pigs. Real-time PCR detected PoBuV in 30 (29.13%, 30/103) of the samples with diarrhoeal intestinal tissues and rectal swabs. PoBuV-positive intestinal tissues and rectal swabs samples, co-infection with PEDV (15/30, 50.0%), followed by PDCoV (8/30, 26.67%), PoRV (6/30, 20.0%), PRRSV (5/30, 16.67%), and PCV2 (3/30, 10.0%) were observed. Fourteen complete genomes were cloned and sequenced. The results showed that they were 4189 bp in length and combined three open reading frames (ORFs) in the order 5'-NS1-VP1/VP2-3'. Fourteen strains shared 96.5%-99.8% identity among themselves and 92.7%-97.9% with the PoBuV reference sequences. Phylogenetic analysis based on the deduced amino acid sequence of the VP2 gene showed fourteen strains belonging to PoBuV and were grouped into the three branches. These results help to provide new insight into the molecular epidemiology of PoBuV in the world.


Subject(s)
Parvovirinae/genetics , Phylogeny , Swine Diseases/virology , Animals , China/epidemiology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea/virology , Genome, Viral , Genomics , Molecular Epidemiology , Parvovirinae/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology
16.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(1): 417-430, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-826322

ABSTRACT

New variants of porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) causing a highly contagious intestinal disease, porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PED), have resulted in high mortality in suckling pigs across several countries since 2013. After 2015, the prevalence of the genogroup 2b (G2b) PEDVs decreased in a cyclical pattern with endemic seasonal outbreaks occasionally seen. To better understand the genetic diversity of PEDVs recently circulating in Taiwan, full-length spike (S) genes of 31 PEDV strains from 28 pig farms collected during 2016-2018 were sequenced. While the majority of S gene sequences (from 27/28 farms) were closely related to the previous G2b PEDV strains, increased genetic diversities leading to several nonsynonymous mutations scattering in the neutralizing epitopes of the S gene were detected in PEDVs recently circulating in Taiwan. Furthermore, novel recombinant variants, the PEDV TW/Yunlin550/2018 strains exhibiting recombinant events between a previously isolated Taiwan PEDV G2b strain and a wild-type PEDV G1a strain, were identified and further classified into a new genogroup, G1c. These results provide updated information about the genetic diversity of currently circulating PEDVs in the field and could help to develop more suitable strategies for controlling this disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Genetic Variation , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Swine Diseases/virology , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Farms , Female , Genotype , Phylogeny , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/isolation & purification , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Taiwan/epidemiology
17.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(3): 1284-1294, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-832791

ABSTRACT

In recent years, reports indicated that PCV3 may be involved in porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS)-like disease similar to that linked to PCV2. A total of 2,125 porcine samples from 910 cases were collected during 2016-2018 and tested for presence of PCV3 and PCV2 by real-time PCR assays. Results showed high prevalence of PCV3 and PCV2: 28.4% samples from 41.2% cases were PCV3 positive and 16.4% samples from 16.7% cases were PCV2 positive. The overall coinfection rate was 5.4% and 8.4% at the sample and case level, respectively. Temporal analysis indicated that PCV3 positive case rate increased from 31.6% in 2016, 40.9% in 2017, to 55.6% in 2018. Although its prevalence was lower, PCV2-positive case rate in 2018 (28.8%) doubled that in 2017 (14.4%). The coinfection case rate also increased from 3.4% in 2016, 8.0% in 2017 to 16.1% in 2018. The high positive rate of PCV3 (56.9%) and PCV2 (33.8%) in oral fluids, PCV3 in foetuses (57.1%) and PCV2 in tonsils (54.8%) implied viral transmission route and tissue tropism. In phylogenetic analysis, two small PCV3 clusters (1 and 2) were separated but others were clustered with low bootstrapping values indicating overall low genetic diversity. Genotypes, PCV2a-h, were confirmed by analysing 2,944 strains, with a new genotype proposed as PCV2i. In this study, 61 PCV3 unique whole genomes were sequenced; 12 belonged to a separate cluster that were characterized by five consistent amino acid changes in the capsid protein (24V, 27K, 56D, 98R and 168K) and may be associated with potential differences in immunogenicity. Among the 43 unique PCV2 whole genomes sequenced, 31 belonged to PCV2d, 7 to PCV2a and 5 to PCV2b. Thus, our study demonstrates that PCV2d is the predominant genotype and PCV3 is widely circulating in the Midwest of the USA.


Subject(s)
Circoviridae Infections/virology , Circovirus/genetics , Genetic Variation , Swine Diseases/virology , Animals , Capsid Proteins/genetics , Circovirus/classification , Coinfection , Genotype , Midwestern United States/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Prevalence , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology
18.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 67(1): 18-28, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-832750

ABSTRACT

Porcine sapoviruses (SaVs) are genetically diverse and widely distributed in pig-producing countries. Eight genogroups of porcine SaV have been identified, and genogroup III is the predominant type. Most of the eight genogroups of porcine SaV are circulating in the United States. In the present study, we report detection of porcine SaVs in pigs at different ages with clinical diarrhoea using next-generation sequencing and genetic characterization. All seven cases have porcine SaV GIII strains detected and one pooled case was found to have a porcine SaV GVI strain IA27912-B-2018. Sequence analysis showed that seven GIII isolates were genetically divergent and formed four different lineages on the trees of complete genome, RdRP, VP1 and VP2. In addition, these seven GIII isolates had three different deletion/insertion patterns in an identified variable region close to the 3' end of VP2. The GVI strain IA27912-B-2018 was closely related to strains previously detected in the United States and Japan. A 3-nt deletion in VP1 region of GVI IA27912-B-2018 was identified. Our study showed that genetically divergent SaVs of different genogroups are co-circulating in pigs in the United States. Future studies comparing the virulence of these different genogroups in pigs are needed to better understand this virus and to determine if surveillance and vaccine development are needed to monitor and control porcine SaVs.


Subject(s)
Caliciviridae Infections/veterinary , Diarrhea/veterinary , Genetic Variation , Sapovirus/genetics , Swine Diseases/virology , Animals , Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology , Caliciviridae Infections/virology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/virology , Feces/virology , Female , Genotype , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/veterinary , Phylogeny , Sapovirus/isolation & purification , Swine , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
19.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 35, 2020 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-799111

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory diseases are major health concerns in the pig production sector worldwide, contributing adversely to morbidity and mortality. Over the past years there was a rise in reported incidents of respiratory disease in pigs in Norway, despite population wide freedom from Aujeszky´s disease, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, porcine respiratory corona virus and enzootic pneumonia. The main objective of this study was to investigate acute outbreaks of respiratory disease in conventional Norwegian fattening pig herds. The study included 14 herds. In seven herds with reported outbreaks of acute respiratory disease, data on clinical signs was recorded and samples for laboratory examination were collected. Diagnostic protocols were compared by parallel analysis of clinically healthy pigs from seven non-outbreak herds. RESULTS: The most commonly reported clinical signs were sudden deaths and dyspnea. An average compartment morbidity of 60%, mortality of 4% and case fatality of 9% was recorded in the outbreak herds. Post-mortem examinations revealed acute lesions resembling porcine pleuropneumonia in all 28 pigs investigated from the outbreak herds and in 2 of the 24 (8%) pigs from the non-outbreak herds. Chronic lesions were recorded in another 2 pigs (8%) from the non-outbreak herds. Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serovar 8 was isolated from lungs and/or pleura from all tested pigs (n = 28) in the outbreak herds, and from 2 out of 24 pigs (8%) in the non-outbreak herds, one pig with an acute and another pig with a chronic infection. No other significant bacterial findings were made. Seroconversion to A. pleuropneumoniae antibodies was detectable in all outbreak herds analyzed and in six out of seven non-outbreak herds, but the risk ratio for seroconversion of individual pigs was higher (risk ratio 2.3 [1.50- 3.43 95% CI; P < 0.001]) in the outbreak herds. All herds tested positive for porcine circovirus type 2 and negative for influenza A viruses on oral fluid RT-qPCR. CONCLUSION: The main etiological pathogen found during acute outbreaks of respiratory disease was A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 8. All pigs from outbreak herds had typical lesions of acute porcine pleuropneumonia, and only A. pleuropneumoniae serovar 8 was identified. Co-infections were not found to impact disease development.


Subject(s)
Acute Disease/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/veterinary , Respiratory Tract Diseases/veterinary , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Animals , Norway/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/virology , Sus scrofa , Swine , Swine Diseases/microbiology , Swine Diseases/virology
20.
Virus Res ; 285: 198024, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-276152

ABSTRACT

Discovered in 2017, swine enteric alphacoronavirus (SeACoV), also known as swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) or porcine enteric alphacoronavirus (PEAV), is the fifth porcine CoV identified in diarrheal piglets. The presumed name "SADS-CoV" may not be appropriate since current studies have not provided strong evidence for high pathogenicity of the virus. SeACoV was the most recently recognized CoV of potential bat origin prior to the novel human severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV 2 (SARS-CoV-2), associated with the pandemic CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although SeACoV is recognized as a regional epizootic virus currently, it possesses the most extensive cell species tropism in vitro among known CoVs. This review summarizes the emergence of SeACoV and updates the research progress made from 2017 to early 2020, mainly focusing on the etiology, epidemiology, evolutionary perspective, potential for interspecies transmission, pathogenesis and diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Alphacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Swine Diseases/virology , Alphacoronavirus/genetics , Alphacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Alphacoronavirus/ultrastructure , Animals , Cell Line , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genome, Viral , Humans , Molecular Epidemiology , Species Specificity , Swine , Swine Diseases/diagnosis , Swine Diseases/epidemiology , Swine Diseases/transmission , Viral Tropism
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