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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(5): e24332, 2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087854

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) becomes a global pandemic in 2020. Early identification of severe ill patients is a top priority for clinicians. We aimed to describe clinical features and risk factors of severe-critically ill patients with COVID-19 in Jiangsu Province.This multi-centered retrospective study collected the information of 631 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients hospitalized at 28 authorized hospitals in Jiangsu province from January 23, 2019 to March 13, 2020.A total of 583 adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled for final analysis, including 84 severe-critically ill patients and 499 mild-moderate patients. Median age of the severe-critically ill patients was 57.0 years old (interquartile range, 49.0-65.8), and 50 (59.5%) were males. Multisystemic laboratory abnormalities were observed on admission for severe-critically ill patients. These patients showed more noticeable radiologic abnormalities and more coexisting health issues as compared to the mild-moderate patients. Most of the severe-critically ill COVID-19 patients became deteriorated in 2 weeks after diagnosis. Age, D-dimer, and lymphocytes were independently associated with the progression of severe-critically illness.Older age, higher D-dimer levels and less lymphocyte counts on admission are potential risk factors for COVID-19 patients to develop into severe and critically illness.


Subject(s)
Critical Illness/therapy , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Lymphocyte Count , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Age Factors , /physiopathology , China/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Lymphocyte Count/methods , Lymphocyte Count/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , /pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(5): e23991, 2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087853

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Since the first infected case of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) was reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019, the virus has spread swiftly, inflicting upon millions of people around the globe. The objective of the study is to investigate and analyze the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients infected with COVID-19 in Wuxi, China.Cross-sectional study.The Fifth People's Hospital of Wuxi, China.A total of 48 COVID-19 patients were enrolled in the study from 23 January 2020 to 8 March 2020, and the clinical data of these subjects were collected.Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiologic characteristics, as well as treatment and outcome data, were collected and analyzed.Of these 48 patients with confirmed COVID-19, 3 were mild cases (6.3%), 44 were moderate cases (91.7%), 1 was severe case (2.1%). The median age of the subjects was 45 years (interquartile range [IQR], 24-59; range, 5-75 years). Twenty-five of the patients (52.1%) were male and 23 (47.9%) were female. Twenty-eight cases (58.3%) returned to Wuxi, Jiangsu Province. Thirty-four (70.8%) cases were infected due to clustering epidemic and 29 cases (85.3%) were attributable to family-clustering epidemic. No obvious clinical symptoms were observed in the cohort of patients, except for 3 mild cases. The most common symptoms include fever (41 [85.4%]), cough (28 [58.3%]), asthenia (13 [27.1%]), expectoration (11 [22.9%]), diarrhea (10 [20.8%]), and dyspnea (5 [10.4%]). Seventeen (35.4%) patients had lower lymphocyte values than baseline, 31 patients (64.6%) had higher d-dimers to exceed the normal range. The distribution of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT)-positive lesions were as follows: left lung in 5 cases (10.4%), right lung in 9 cases (18.8%), and bilateral lungs in 31 cases (64.6%). In terms of density of lesions: 28 cases (58.3%) showed ground glass shadows in the lung, 7 cases (14.6%) showed solid density shadows, and 10 cases (20.8%) showed mixed density shadows. Extrapulmonary manifestations found that mediastinal lymph nodes were enlarged in 2 cases (4.2%) and that pleural effusion was present in 1 case (2.1%). All patients underwent treatment in quarantine. Forty-five (93.8%) patients received antiviral treatments, 22 (45.8%) patients received antibacterial treatments, 6 (12.5%) patients received glucocorticoid treatments, 2 (4.2%) patients received high flow oxygen inhalation treatments, and 6 (12.5%) patients received noninvasive ventilation treatments. As of 8 March 2020, all 48 patients included in this study were cured. The average time of hospitalization of the 48 patients was 18 ±â€Š6 (mean ±â€ŠSD) days, the average time of the lesion resorption was 11 ±â€Š4 days, and the average time taken to achieve negativity in the result of nucleic acid examination was (10 ±â€Š4) days.The epidemiological characteristics of 48 COVID-19 patients in Wuxi were mainly imported cases and clustered cases. The clinical manifestations of these patients were mainly fever and cough. Laboratory results showed that the lymphocytopenia and increased d-dimer are positively correlated with disease severity. Pulmonary imaging showed unilateral or bilateral ground glass infiltration. Most of the patients entered clinical recovery stage within 15 days after hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Cough , Fever , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Patient Care , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , /blood , /physiopathology , China/epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/etiology , Family Health/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Lymphopenia/diagnosis , Lymphopenia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Care/methods , Patient Care/statistics & numerical data , Radiography, Thoracic/statistics & numerical data , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(5): e23781, 2021 Feb 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087849

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Our study aims to summarize the clinical characteristics of patients with severe or critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).Five databases were electronically searched to collect studies describing clinical characteristics of severe or critically ill COVID-19 patients and published between January 1, 2020 and April 12, 2020. Three reviewers independently collected the literature, extracted the required data, and assessed the risk of publication bias of the included studies before including the studies in the meta-analysis.A total of 40 studies involving 2459 patients with severe or critically ill COVID-19 patients were included. Meta-analysis showed that a greater proportion of severe or critically COVID-19 patients were male (62.3%), and the 2 main clinical symptoms were fever (87.4%) and cough (66.3%). Other common clinical symptoms included dyspnea (45.3%), chest tightness (37.4%), fatigue (36.6%), and expectoration (31.9%). Minor symptoms included myalgia (19.5%), dizziness (11.5%), headache (11.4%), diarrhea (11.2%), pharyngalgia (11.0%), nausea, and vomiting (5.9%). Most patients showed elevated levels of C-reactive protein (83.5%) and D-dimer (73.3%), lymphopenia (70.3%), and normal leukocyte counts (56.9%). Other findings included abnormal levels of liver function (39.8%), elevated procalcitonin (36.6%), leukocytosis (21.7%), thrombocytopenia (19.0%), and leucopenia (18.2%). Most patients showed acute respiratory distress syndrome (60.8%). Other complications included acute cardiac injury (37.1%), shock (32.0%), and acute kidney injury (22.0%).The most common symptoms of severe or critically ill COVID-19 patients were fever and cough. Most patients showed lymphopenia, elevated levels of C-reactive protein and D-dimer. A large percentage of patients progress to ARDS, acute cardiac injury, acute kidney injury and shock were also common.


Subject(s)
Cough , Critical Illness/therapy , Fever , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , /blood , Cough/diagnosis , Cough/etiology , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Humans , /pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(2): 385-395, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076427

ABSTRACT

To improve recognition of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and inform clinical and public health guidance, we randomly selected 600 COVID-19 case-patients in Colorado. A telephone questionnaire captured symptoms experienced, when symptoms occurred, and how long each lasted. Among 128 hospitalized patients, commonly reported symptoms included fever (84%), fatigue (83%), cough (73%), and dyspnea (72%). Among 236 nonhospitalized patients, commonly reported symptoms included fatigue (90%), fever (83%), cough (83%), and myalgia (74%). The most commonly reported initial symptoms were cough (21%-25%) and fever (20%-25%). In multivariable analysis, vomiting, dyspnea, altered mental status, dehydration, and wheezing were significantly associated with hospitalization, whereas rhinorrhea, headache, sore throat, and anosmia or ageusia were significantly associated with nonhospitalization. General symptoms and upper respiratory symptoms occurred earlier in disease, and anosmia, ageusia, lower respiratory symptoms, and gastrointestinal symptoms occurred later. Symptoms should be considered alongside other epidemiologic factors in clinical and public health decisions regarding potential COVID-19 cases.


Subject(s)
/complications , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Colorado/epidemiology , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Disease Progression , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/virology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Myalgia/epidemiology , Myalgia/virology , Symptom Assessment , Young Adult
5.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 42(spe): e20200225, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076313

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To reflect about the work context of nursing professionals in the COVID-19 pandemic and the repercussions for these professionals' mental health. METHOD: This is a theoretical reflective study with two thematic axes: i) Pandemic by COVID-19: epidemiological condition, manifestations, and preventive measures; ii) Precariousness of work in times of pandemic and impacts on the worker's mental health. RESULTS: The COVID-19 pandemic made explicit the reflects of precariousness in the health sector. For example, the psychological suffering of nursing workers was evidenced due to the scarcity of personal protective equipment, the weakness in the description of the protocols and the flows for the effective control of infections, the long working hours, the inadequate professional training for crisis scenario and uncertainty in relation to therapeutic measures. CONCLUSION: The present article brings to light the aggravation of a scenario that raises the potential for negative impact on the mental health of nursing workers.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Health , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Pandemics , Brazil/epidemiology , /prevention & control , Humans , Symptom Assessment/psychology , Workplace
6.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 2): 216-225, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068142

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to explore clinical and epidemiological characteristics associated with an imaging feature of COVID-19 pneumonia at disease onset, in order to identify factors that may be evaluable by general practitioners at patient's home, and which may lead to identify a more severe disease, needing hospitalization. DESIGN: this is a retrospective/prospective observational hospital cohort. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: the study population includes all patients consecutively admitted to the emergency department of Città della salute e della scienza University Hospital from 01.03 to 31.05.2020 with a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: patients were classified in two groups according to the findings of X-ray imaging, lung ultrasound and chest computer tomography, as pneumonia or not pneumonia patients. RESULTS: in multivariable analysis, factors most strongly associated with emergency department admission with pneumonia were age, oxygen saturation <90% (adj OR 4.16 ;95%CI 1.44-12.07), respiratory rate >24 breaths/min (adj OR 6.50; 95%CI 2.36-17.87), fever ≥38° (adj OR 3.05; 95%CI 1.53-6.08) and the presence of gastroenteric symptoms (vomiting and diarrhea). A delay (> 7 days) between the appearance of the initial lung symptoms (cough and dyspnea) and the admission to the emergency department was also related to a higher probability of receiving a positive imaging report (OR 4.99; 95%CI 2,02-12,34). CONCLUSIONS: in order to reorganize the management of COVID-19 patients in Italy, in view of the risk of a second wave of epidemic or of local outbreaks, it would be desirable to relocate the triage, and possibly the patient's care, from hospital to home. In this scenario it is important to identify all symptoms and signs associated with COVID-19 pneumonia that would facilitate the decision-making process of GPs leading to patients hospitalization.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Oxygen/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Rate , Retrospective Studies , Symptom Assessment , Time Factors , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/etiology
7.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 2): 208-215, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: the emergency due to SARS-CoV-2 pandemic struck the national and regional health system that needed an effort to reorganise and increase resources to cope with a sudden, uncertain, and previously unknown situation. This study was conducted in the immediate aftermath of this difficult period. OBJECTIVES: to describe clinical characteristics, short-term outcomes, and management of SARS-CoV-2 positive patients that accessed the emergency department (ED) of the San Luigi Gonzaga hospital of Orbassano (Turin district, Piedmont Region, Northern Italy) in March and April 2020. Furthermore, this study aimed at investigating if a difference in patients characteristics, clinical management, and outcomes was present during time. DESIGN: comparison of different periods in a clinical cohort. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: for each patient who accessed the ED and tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 swab, the ED medical record was collected and a descriptive analysis was performed on demographical characteristics, pre-existing comorbidities, parameters measured at triage, imaging exams results, lab tests results, separately for patients admitted at the ED in four different periods. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: discharge from ED, admission to hospital wards (low and high intensity of care), short term in-hospital mortality, hospital length of stay. The association between patients' characteristics and the main outcomes was measured using multivariable logistic models. RESULTS: age of patients increased significantly from March to April, together with female prevalence and associated comorbid conditions. A significant difference in symptoms at presentation was not observed nor it was in laboratory test results. Severity at triage and need of intensive care resources were higher in the first weeks, together with the typical clinical presentation with respiratory failure and imaging with signs of bilateral interstitial pneumonia. Accordingly, in-hospital mortality was higher in the first period. Nevertheless, nearly half of patients in the first period were discharged directly from ED showing mild COVID-19 cases. On the contrary, in April an increasing need of hospitalisation in low intensity of care beds was observed, whereas mild cases stopped to access the ED. CONCLUSIONS: the results of this study suggest that in few weeks of COVID-19 epidemic both management of the patients at the hospital level - and probably at territorial level resulting in a different population who accessed to the ED - and the clinical characteristics of the COVID-19 patients changed.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , /drug therapy , Comorbidity , Disease Management , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, Urban/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Patient Discharge , Retrospective Studies , /isolation & purification , Sex Distribution , Symptom Assessment , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Triage
8.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 2): 42-50, 2020.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068123

ABSTRACT

The article compares two of the most followed indices in the monitoring of COVID-19 epidemic cases: the Rt and the RDt indices. The first was disseminated by the Italian National Institute of Health (ISS) and the second, which is more usable due to the lower difficulty of calculation and the availability of data, was adopted by various regional and local institutions.The rationale for the Rt index refers to that for the R0 index, the basic reproduction number, which is used by infectivologists as a measure of contagiousness of a given infectious agent in a completely susceptible population. The RDt index, on the other hand, is borrowed from the techniques of time series analysis for the trend of an event measurement that develops as a function of time. The RDt index does not take into account the time of infection, but the date of the diagnosis of positivity and for this reason it is defined as diagnostic replication index, as it aims to describe the intensity of the development of frequency for cases recognized as positive in the population.The comparison between different possible applications of the methods and the use of different types of monitoring data was limited to four areas for which complete individual data were available in March and April 2020. The main problems in the use of Rt, which is based on the date of symptoms onset, arise from the lack of completeness of this information due both to the difficulty in the recording and to the absence in asymptomatic subjects.The general trend of RDt, at least at an intermediate lag of 6 or 7 days, is very similar to that of Rt, as confirmed by the very high value of the correlation index between the two indices. The maximum correlation between Rt and RDt is reached at lag 7 with a value of R exceeding 0.97 (R2=0.944).The two indices, albeit formally distinct, are both valid; they show specific aspects of the phenomenon, but provide basically similar information to the public health decision-maker. Their distinction lies not so much in the method of calculation, rather in the use of different information, i.e., the beginning of symptoms and the swabs outcome.Therefore, it is not appropriate to make a judgment of preference for one of the two indices, but only to invite people to understand their different potentials so that they can choose the one they consider the most appropriate for the purpose they want to use it for.


Subject(s)
Basic Reproduction Number , Epidemiological Monitoring , Pandemics , /pathogenicity , Decision Making , Health Policy , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Risk , Symptom Assessment , Time Factors
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(1): e0008958, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067383

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 virus has spread rapidly around the globe. Nevertheless, there is limited information describing the characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients in Latin America. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 9,468 confirmed COVID-19 cases reported in Ecuador. We calculated overall incidence, mortality, case fatality rates, disability adjusted life years, attack and crude mortality rates, as well as relative risk and relative odds of death, adjusted for age, sex and presence of comorbidities. A total of 9,468 positive COVID-19 cases and 474 deaths were included in the analysis. Men accounted for 55.4% (n = 5, 247) of cases and women for 44.6% (n = 4, 221). We found the presence of comorbidities, being male and older than 65 years were important determinants of mortality. Coastal regions were most affected by COVID-19, with higher mortality rates than the highlands. Fatigue was reported in 53.2% of the patients, followed by headache (43%), dry cough (41.7%), ageusia (37.1%) and anosmia (36.1%). We present an analysis of the burden of COVID-19 in Ecuador. Our findings show that men are at higher risk of dying from COVID-19 than women, and risk increases with age and the presence of comorbidities. We also found that blue-collar workers and the unemployed are at greater risk of dying. These early observations offer clinical insights for the medical community to help improve patient care and for public health officials to strengthen Ecuador's response to the outbreak.


Subject(s)
/mortality , Disease Outbreaks , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Cost of Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ecuador/epidemiology , Female , Geography , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Occupations , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Social Class , Symptom Assessment , Unemployment , Young Adult
10.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6): 364-368, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1061491

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: health literacy may contribute to the strategies to control the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), as individuals need to acquire promptly new health information, understand the reasons behind recommendations, and adapt their behaviour accordingly. OBJECTIVES: to investigate sociodemographic and disease-related factors that can influence self-perceived knowledge (poor/medium vs high) about COVID-19 in women of the Italian NINFEA birth cohort. DESIGN: cross-sectional study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: a web-based anonymous survey on COVID-19 was sent in April 2020 to women participating in the NINFEA cohort. A total of 3,129 women were included in the study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: using multiple weighted logistic regression models, self-perceived knowledge level was analysed in relation with the following variables: age, education level, family size, cumulative incidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) cases until 7 April 2020 by province, presence of COVID-19-like symptoms, SARS-CoV-2 testing, and COVID-19 diagnosis. RESULTS: the prevalence of self-perceived poor/medium knowledge was 57%. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, the odds ratio (OR) of self-perceived poor/medium COVID-19 knowledge level was increased for low/medium compared with high education level (OR 1.57; 95%CI 1.34-1.84), and decreased for SARS-CoV-2 testing (OR 0.25; 95%CI 0.16-0.39) and COVID-19 diagnosis (OR 0.20; 95%CI 0.07-0.60). There was no evidence of association between the other analysed variables and self-perceived knowledge level. CONCLUSIONS: the findings of this study suggest that low educational level is a determinant of low self-perceived knowledge on COVID-19 in middle-aged women.


Subject(s)
/psychology , Health Literacy , Pandemics , Adult , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Self Concept , Suburban Population/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Symptom Assessment , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data
12.
J Prim Care Community Health ; 12: 2150132720987711, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060256

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 initially emerged in Wuhan, China in late 2019. It has since been recognized as a pandemic and has led to great social and economic disruption globally. The Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (rtRT-PCR) has become the primary method for COVID-19 testing worldwide. The method requires a specialized laboratory set up. Long-term persistence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in nasopharyngeal secretion after full clinical recovery of the patient is regularly observed nowadays. This forces the patients to spend a longer period in isolation and test repeatedly to obtain evidence of viral clearance. Repeated COVID-19 testing in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic cases often leads to extra workload for laboratories that are already struggling with a high specimen turnover. Here, we present 5 purposively selected cases with different patterns of clinical presentations in which nasopharyngeal shedding of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was observed in patients for a long time. From these case studies, we emphasized the adoption of a symptom-based approach for discontinuing transmission-based precautions over a test-based strategy to reduce the time spent by asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic COVID-19 patients in isolation. A symptom-based approach will also help reduce laboratory burden for COVID-19 testing as well as conserve valuable resources and supplies utilized for rtRT-PCR testing in an emerging lower-middle-income setting. Most importantly, it will also make room for critically ill COVID-19 patients to visit or avail COVID-19 testing at their convenience.


Subject(s)
/methods , Health Care Rationing/methods , Symptom Assessment , Adult , /statistics & numerical data , Developing Countries , Female , Humans , Laboratories/statistics & numerical data , Male , Patient Isolation/statistics & numerical data , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , /isolation & purification , Young Adult
13.
Front Public Health ; 8: 582932, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058470

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a rapidly growing pandemic with its first case identified during December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. Due to the rampant rise in the number of cases in China and globally, WHO declared COVID-19 as a pandemic on 11th March 2020. The disease is transmitted via respiratory droplets of infected patients during coughing or sneezing and affects primarily the lung parenchyma. The spectrum of clinical manifestations can be seen in COVID-19 patients ranging from asymptomatic infections to severe disease resulting in mortality. Although respiratory involvement is most common in COVID-19 patients, the virus can affect other organ systems as well. The systemic inflammation induced by the disease along with multisystem expression of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2), a receptor which allows viral entry into cells, explains the manifestation of extra-pulmonary symptoms affecting the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, hematological, renal, musculoskeletal, and endocrine system. Here, we have reviewed the extensive literature available on COVID-19 about various clinical presentations based on the organ system involved as well as clinical presentation in specific population including children, pregnant women, and immunocompromised patients. We have also briefly discussed about the Multisystemic Inflammatory Syndrome occurring in children and adults with COVID-19. Understanding the various clinical presentations can help clinicians diagnose COVID-19 in an early stage and ensure appropriate measures to be undertaken in order to prevent further spread of the disease.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host , Pregnant Women , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Young Adult
14.
Front Public Health ; 8: 561264, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058468

ABSTRACT

Objective: The prognosis of mild and severe patients has prominent differences during the prevalence of COVID-19, and it will be significant to identify patients' potential risk of progressing to severe cases according to their first clinical presentations. Therefore, we aim to review the clinical symptoms of the COVID-19 epidemic systematically. Methods:We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and CNKI (Chinese Database) for studies about the clinical features of COVID-19 in China from March 18 to April 18. Then we used REVMAN to conduct a meta-analysis. Results: After screening, 20 articles including 3,326 COVID-19 confirmed cases were selected from 142 articles we retrieved at the beginning of our research. We divided all the cases into a severe group (including severe and critically severe patients) and a mild group according to the "Diagnosis and Treatment Protocol for Novel Coronavirus Infection-Induced Pneumonia" version 4 (trial). Of all the initial symptoms (including fever, cough, abdominal pain, anorexia, chest tightness, diarrhea, dyspnea, expectoration, fatigue, headache, hemoptysis, myalgia, nausea or vomiting, and pharyngalgia) we studied, we found that cough (odds ratio [OR] = 1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-1.7; p < 0.001), fever (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9; p < 0.001), dyspnea (OR = 6.2, 95% CI: 3.6-10.6; p < 0.001), diarrhea (OR = 2.6, 95% CI: 1.3-4.9; p < 0.001), fatigue (OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.3; p < 0.01), expectoration (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.6; p < 0.01), myalgia (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.8-3.1; p < 0.001), hemoptysis (OR = 4.0, 95% CI: 1.5-11.3; p < 0.001), abdominal pain (OR = 7.5, 95% CI: 2.4-23.4; p < 0.001), and anorexia (OR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.5-5.1; p < 0.001) had a different distribution in two groups and were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion:COVID-19 patients whose initial manifestation is dyspnea, hemoptysis, anorexia, diarrhea, or fatigue, especially abdominal pain should be closely monitored to prevent disease deterioration.


Subject(s)
/physiopathology , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e047016, 2021 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050403

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics, clinical management and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 at district hospitals. DESIGN: A descriptive observational cross-sectional study. SETTING: District hospitals (4 in metro and 4 in rural health services) in the Western Cape, South Africa. District hospitals were small (<150 beds) and led by family physicians. PARTICIPANTS: All patients who presented to the hospitals' emergency centre and who tested positive for COVID-19 between March and June 2020. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Source of referral, presenting symptoms, demographics, comorbidities, clinical assessment and management, laboratory turnaround time, clinical outcomes, factors related to mortality, length of stay and location. RESULTS: 1376 patients (73.9% metro, 26.1% rural). Mean age 46.3 years (SD 16.3), 58.5% females. The majority were self-referred (71%) and had comorbidities (67%): hypertension (41%), type 2 diabetes (25%), HIV (14%) and overweight/obesity (19%). Assessment of COVID-19 was mild (49%), moderate (18%) and severe (24%). Test turnaround time (median 3.0 days (IQR 2.0-5.0 days)) was longer than length of stay (median 2.0 day (IQR 2.0-3.0)). The most common treatment was oxygen (41%) and only 0.8% were intubated and ventilated. Overall mortality was 11%. Most were discharged home (60%) and only 9% transferred to higher levels of care. Increasing age (OR 1.06 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.07)), male (OR 2.02 (95% CI 1.37 to 2.98)), overweight/obesity (OR 1.58 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.46)), type 2 diabetes (OR 1.84 (95% CI 1.24 to 2.73)), HIV (OR 3.41 (95% CI 2.06 to 5.65)), chronic kidney disease (OR 5.16 (95% CI 2.82 to 9.43)) were significantly linked with mortality (p<0.05). Pulmonary diseases (tuberculosis (TB), asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, post-TB structural lung disease) were not associated with increased mortality. CONCLUSION: District hospitals supported primary care and shielded tertiary hospitals. Patients had high levels of comorbidities and similar clinical pictures to that reported elsewhere. Most patients were treated as people under investigation. Mortality was comparable to similar settings and risk factors identified.


Subject(s)
/diagnosis , /therapy , Hospitals, District/statistics & numerical data , /genetics , Adult , Cause of Death , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Management , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Patient Discharge , Referral and Consultation , Respiration, Artificial , South Africa/epidemiology , Symptom Assessment , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(2): 582-585, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048923

ABSTRACT

We estimated the generation interval distribution for coronavirus disease on the basis of serial intervals of observed infector-infectee pairs from established clusters in Singapore. The short mean generation interval and consequent high prevalence of presymptomatic transmission requires public health control measures to be responsive to these characteristics of the epidemic.


Subject(s)
/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Models, Statistical , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , /epidemiology , Cluster Analysis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infectious Disease Incubation Period , Singapore/epidemiology
17.
Clin Transl Gastroenterol ; 11(12): e00259, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1034415

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We prospectively studied the frequency, spectrum, and predictors of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms among patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) and the relationship between GI symptoms and the severity and outcome. METHODS: Consecutive patients with COVID-19, diagnosed in a university hospital referral laboratory in northern India, were evaluated for clinical manifestations including GI symptoms, their predictors, and the relationship between the presence of these symptoms, disease severity, and outcome on univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Of 16,317 subjects tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in their oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal swabs during April-May 2020, 252 (1.5%) were positive. Of them, 208 (82.5%) were asymptomatic; of the 44 symptomatic patients, 18 (40.9%) had non-GI symptoms, 15 (34.1%) had a combination of GI and non-GI symptoms, and 11 (25.0%) had GI symptoms only. Thirty-three had mild-to-moderate disease, 8 severe, and 5 critical. Five patients (1.98%) died. On multivariate analysis, the factors associated with the presence of GI symptoms included the absence of contact history and presence of non-GI symptoms and comorbid illnesses. Patients with GI synptoms more often had severe, critical illness and fatal outcome than those without GI symptoms. DISCUSSION: Eighty-two percent of patients with COVID-19 were asymptomatic, and 10.3% had GI symptoms; severe and fatal disease occurred only in 5% and 2%, respectively. The presence of GI symptoms was associated with a severe illness and fatal outcome on multivariate analysis. Independent predictors of GI symptoms included the absence of contact history, presence of non-GI symptoms, and comorbid illnesses.(Equation is included in full-text article.).


Subject(s)
/statistics & numerical data , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Adult , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Hospitals, University , Humans , India/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment , Young Adult
18.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(2)2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024578

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in 2020 resulted in widespread interruption of team sports training and competitions. Our aim was to review the recommendations and best practices in return to play in non-professional football after activity lockdown. The authors searched two electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science) to extract studies published before September 15 2020. Twenty studies explained recommendations, considerations, or best practices in return to play in football, and all of them were clustered into three groups: (1) training load management (n = 10), (2) medical recommendations (n = 9), and (3) recovery related issues (n = 5). The way to establish a progression in training process should be based on training load management and managing the number of stimuli per time. Following the studies, this training process should be divided into three phases: phase 1-physical distancing should be maintained; phases 2 and 3-group training should start. Medical considerations were clustered into different groups: general, pre- and post- training, during training, education, planning to return to competition, and suggestions for post confinement weeks. In particular, social issues, strict hygiene questions, and continuous PCR testing should be considered in return to play over football season. Finally, since a correlation has been found between high-intensive training loads and immunoglobulin A, nutritional and lifestyle recovery strategies should be performed. Moreover, since immunosuppression has been related to congested schedules (<72 h between matches), football federations should avoid this situation.


Subject(s)
/diagnosis , Football/statistics & numerical data , Return to Sport , Safety , Soccer/statistics & numerical data , /epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Symptom Assessment/methods
19.
J Occup Environ Med ; 62(11): 892-897, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024148

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between access to adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) and mental health outcomes among a sample of U.S. nurses. METHODS: An online questionnaire was administered in May 2020 to Michigan nurses via three statewide nursing organizations (n = 695 respondents). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with mental health symptoms. RESULTS: Nurses lacking access to adequate PPE (24.9%, n = 163) were more likely to report symptoms of depression (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.31, 2.94; P = 0.001), anxiety (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.12, 2.40; P = 0.01) and post-traumatic stress disorder (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.22, 2.74; P = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Healthcare organizations should be aware of the magnitude of mental health problems among nurses and vigilant in providing them with adequate PPE as the pandemic continues.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Depression/epidemiology , Nursing Staff/psychology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Michigan , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Symptom Assessment
20.
Med Arch ; 74(5): 363-367, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1022171

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The first case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in holy Najaf city in February 22, 2020. The outbreak then rose up all over Iraq from 519 cases and 20 deaths in June 2, 2020 to 3484 cases and 72 deaths per day in August 10, 2020 per 24 hours. Aim: The aim of the study is to describe the distribution of confirmed cases by age, demographic factors, isolation, comorbidities and case fatality rate. Methods: Prospectively collected and analyzed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. The demographic and clinical outcomes data of 1153 diagnosed patients were collected from consecutive patients, analyzed, and described. About two third of cases 789 (68.4%) acquired infection through contact with positive patients. Results: The reported cases were 743 (64.4%) males and 410 (35.6%) females with large number among age range 21 to 50 years. The most frequent presenting symptoms were fever, sore throat and dyspnea or cough, most of patients; 868 (75%) patients were isolated at home versus 285 (24.72) patients required hospitalization which represented the intermediate and sever cases. The overall case fatality rate was 2.4%. Conclusion: Most of COVID-19 cases in this locality were male from urban areas. The common onset symptoms were the fever, sore throat and dyspnea or cough. Majority of cases were isolated and treated at home. The estimated case fatality rate was within the global range (2.4%).


Subject(s)
/complications , /epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Child , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Iraq/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Isolation , Survival Rate , Symptom Assessment , Young Adult
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