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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 658, 2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770502

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whilst the impact of Covid-19 infection in pregnant women has been examined, there is a scarcity of data on pregnant women in the Middle East. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the impact of Covid-19 infection on pregnant women in the United Arab Emirates population. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out to compare the clinical course and outcome of pregnancy in 79 pregnant women with Covid-19 and 85 non-pregnant women with Covid-19 admitted to Latifa Hospital in Dubai between March and June 2020. RESULTS: Although Pregnant women presented with fewer symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, and shortness of breath compared to non-pregnant women; yet they ran a much more severe course of illness. On admission, 12/79 (15.2%) Vs 2/85 (2.4%) had a chest radiograph score [on a scale 1-6] of ≥3 (p-value = 0.0039). On discharge, 6/79 (7.6%) Vs 1/85 (1.2%) had a score ≥3 (p-value = 0.0438). They also had much higher levels of laboratory indicators of severity with values above reference ranges for C-Reactive Protein [(28 (38.3%) Vs 13 (17.6%)] with p < 0.004; and for D-dimer [32 (50.8%) Vs 3(6%)]; with p < 0.001. They required more ICU admissions: 10/79 (12.6%) Vs 1/85 (1.2%) with p=0.0036; and suffered more complications: 9/79 (11.4%) Vs 1/85 (1.2%) with p=0.0066; of Covid-19 infection, particularly in late pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women presented with fewer Covid-19 symptoms but ran a much more severe course of illness compared to non-pregnant women with the disease. They had worse chest radiograph scores and much higher levels of laboratory indicators of disease severity. They had more ICU admissions and suffered more complications of Covid-19 infection, such as risk for miscarriage and preterm deliveries. Pregnancy with Covid-19 infection, could, therefore, be categorised as high-risk pregnancy and requires management by an obstetric and medical multidisciplinary team.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Radiography, Thoracic , Symptom Assessment , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Abortion, Spontaneous/etiology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Case-Control Studies , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/etiology , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Radiography, Thoracic/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology
3.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 97-99, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436200

ABSTRACT

Computed Tomography (CT) scan of the chest plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 pneumonia shows typical CT Scan features which can aid diagnoses and therefore help in the early detection and isolation of infected patients. CT scanners are readily available in many parts of Ghana. It is able to show findings typical for COVID-19 infection of the chest, even in instances where Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RTPCR) misses the diagnosis. Little is known about the diagnostic potential of chest CT scan and COVID-19 among physicians even though CT scan offers a high diagnostic accuracy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Symptom Assessment/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Early Diagnosis , Female , Ghana , Humans , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity
4.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 46-51, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436194

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The novel corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was diagnosed in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and, in Ghana, in March 2020. As of 30th July 2020, Ghana had recorded 35,142 cases. COVID-19 which can be transmitted by both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals usually manifest as pneumonia with symptoms like fever, cough, dyspnoea and fatigue. The current non-availability of a vaccine or drug for COVID-19 management calls for early detection and isolation of affected individuals. Chest imaging has become an integral part of patient management with chest radiography serving as a primary imaging modality in many centres. METHODS: The study was a retrospective study conducted at Ga East Municipal Hospital (GEMH). Chest radiographs of patients with mild to moderate disease managed at GEMH were evaluated. The age, gender, symptom status, comorbidities and chest x-ray findings of the patients were documented. RESULTS: 11.4 % of the patients had some form of respiratory abnormality on chest radiography with 88.9% showing COVID-19 pneumonia features. 93.8% showed ground glass opacities (GGO), with 3.1% each showing consolidation (CN) only and CN with GGO. There was a significant association between COVID-19 radiographic features and patient's age, symptom status and comorbidities but not with gender. CONCLUSION: Most radiographs were normal with only 11% showing COVID-19-like abnormality. There was a significant association between age, symptom status and comorbidities with the presence of COVID-19 like features but not for gender. There was no association between the extent of the lung changes and patient characteristics. FUNDING: None declared.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Hospitals, Urban , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment/methods , Young Adult
5.
Rev Mal Respir ; 37(6): 505-510, 2020 Jun.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386577

ABSTRACT

The French-language Respiratory Medicine Society (SPLF) proposes a guide for the follow-up of patients who have presented with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. The proposals are based on known data from previous epidemics, on acute lesions observed in SARS-CoV-2 patients and on expert opinion. This guide proposes a follow-up based on three categories of patients: (1) patients managed outside hospital for possible or proven SARS-CoV-2 infection, referred by their physician for persistent dyspnoea; (2) patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in a medical unit; (3) patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in an intensive care unit. The subsequent follow-up will have to be adapted to the initial assessment. This guide emphasises the possibility of others causes of dyspnoea (cardiac, thromboembolic, hyperventilation syndrome…). These proposals may evolve over time as more knowledge becomes available.


Subject(s)
Aftercare/methods , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aftercare/standards , Ambulatory Care/methods , Ambulatory Care/standards , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/rehabilitation , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/standards , Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System/standards , Disease Management , Emergency Medical Services/methods , Emergency Medical Services/standards , Health Priorities , Hospitalization , Humans , Inpatients , Outpatients , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/rehabilitation , Respiratory Therapy/methods , Respiratory Therapy/standards , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/standards , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology
6.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 83(1): 43-49, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381382

ABSTRACT

We aimed to explore the awareness and preparedness of dementia caregivers and people with mild cognitive deficits on how to prevent COVID-19 infection and cope with the indirect consequences of the pandemic. A total of 139 patient-caregiver dyads received a telephone survey and 109 completed the survey. The majority of respondents reported having a moderate-to-good knowledge of the typical manifestations of COVID-19. Conversely, only few of them were informed of the atypical presentations and on how to recognize emergency warning signs. Filling the knowledge gaps on COVID-19 in the most vulnerable people may represent a significant resource to tackle the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caregivers , Dementia/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Health Literacy , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Caregivers/education , Caregivers/psychology , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Literacy/methods , Health Literacy/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Italy/epidemiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Symptom Assessment/methods
8.
Nephrology (Carlton) ; 27(2): 195-207, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of data comparing the consequences of first and second COVID-19 waves on kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) in India. METHODS: We conducted a single-centre retrospective study of 259 KTRs with COVID-19 to compare first wave (March 15-December 31 2020, n = 157) and second wave (April 1-May 31 2021, n = 102). RESULTS: KTRs during second wave were younger (43 vs. 40 years; p-value .04) and also included paediatric patients (0 vs. 5.9%; p-value .003). Symptoms were milder during the second wave (45 vs. 62.7%; p-value .007); COVID-19 positive patients had less frequent cough (32 vs. 13.8%; p-value .001), fever was less frequent (58 vs. 37%; p-value .001), and we observed fewer co-morbidities (11 vs. 20.6%; p-value .04). The percentages of neutrophils (77 vs. 83%; p-value .001) and serum ferritin (439 vs. 688; p-value .0006) were higher during second wave, while lymphocyte counts were reduced (20 vs. 14%; p-value .0001). Hydroxychloroquine (11 vs. 0%; p-value .0001) and tocilizumab (7 vs. 0%; p-value .004) were more frequently prescribed during first wave, while utilization of dexamethasone (6 vs. 27%; p-value .0001) and remdesivir (47 vs. 65%; p-value .03) increased during the second wave. Mucormycosis (1.3 vs. 10%; p-value .01) and ICU admissions (20 vs. 37.2%; p-value .002) were more frequent during second wave. The 28-day mortality rate (9.6 vs. 10%; p-value 1) was not different. CONCLUSIONS: There has been a different clinical spectrum of COVID-19 amongst KTR with similar mortality between the two waves at a large Indian transplant centre.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Kidney Transplantation , Transplant Recipients/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/classification , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , /statistics & numerical data , India/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Kidney Transplantation/methods , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mortality , Postoperative Period , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data
10.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 279: 114367, 2021 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281457

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although the rapid emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) poses a considerable threat to global public health, no specific treatment is available for COVID-19. ReDuNing injection (RDN) is a traditional Chinese medicine known to exert antibacterial, antiviral, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, RDN has been recommended in the diagnosis and treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-associated pneumonia by the National Health Council and the National Administration of Chinese Medicine. However, there is no information regarding its efficacy against COVID-19. AIM OF STUDY: This study was designed to determine the clinical efficacy of RDN in patients with COVID-19 and characterize its antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 50 adults with COVID-19 were included in this study, and the primary endpoint was recovery from clinical symptoms following 14 days of treatment. General improvements were defined as the disappearance of the major symptoms of infection including fever, fatigue, and cough. The secondary endpoints included the proportion of patients who achieved clinical symptom amelioration on days 7 and 10, time to clinical recovery, time to a negative nucleic acid test result, duration of hospitalization, and time to defervescence. Plaque reduction and cytopathic effect assays were also performed in vitro, and reverse-transcription quantitative PCR was performed to evaluate the expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IP-10, MCP-1, IL-6, IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-2 and CCL-5) during SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: The RDN group exhibited a shorter median time for the resolution of clinical symptoms (120 vs. 220 h, P < 0.0001), less time to a negative PCR test result (215 vs. 310 h, P = 0.0017), shorter hospitalization (14.8 vs. 18.5 days, P = 0.0002), and lower timeframe for defervescence (24.5 vs. 75 h, P = 0.0001) than the control group. In addition, time to improved imaging was also shorter in the RDN group than in the control group (6 vs.8.9 days, P = 0.0273); symptom resolution rates were higher in the RDN group than in the control group at 7 (96.30% vs. 39.13%, P < 0.0001) and 10 days (96.30% vs. 56.52%, P = 0.0008). No allergic reactions or anaphylactic responses were reported in this trial. RDN markedly inhibited SARS-CoV-2 proliferation and viral plaque formation in vitro. In addition, RDN significantly reduced inflammatory cytokine production in infected cells. CONCLUSIONS: RDN relieves clinical symptoms in patients with COVID-19 and reduces SARS-CoV-2 infection by regulating inflammatory cytokine-related disorders, suggestion that this medication might be a safe and effective treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cytokines/analysis , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Cell Line , China/epidemiology , Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic/methods , Drug Monitoring/methods , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Symptom Assessment/methods , Treatment Outcome
11.
Chest ; 160(5): 1693-1703, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274186

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Decannulation from venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) at the earliest and safest possible time may improve outcomes and reduce cost. Yet, no prospective studies have compared weaning strategies for liberation from ECMO. RESEARCH QUESTION: Is a protocolized daily assessment of readiness to liberate from venovenous ECMO safe and feasible? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective, single-arm safety and feasibility study of a protocol for daily assessment of readiness to liberate from venovenous ECMO among consecutive adult patients receiving venovenous ECMO across four ICUs at a single center between June 20, 2020, and November 24, 2020. The ECMO-free protocol included three phases: (1) the safety screening, (2) non-ECMO Fio2 titration, and (3) the ECMO-free trial. Enrollment, interventions, and data collection were performed prospectively by trained study staff. RESULTS: Twenty-six patients received the ECMO-free protocol on 385 patient-days. The safety screening was passed during a total of 59 ECMO-free daily assessments (15.3%) among 20 patients. Every passed safety screening proceeded to an ECMO-free trial. Twenty-eight passed ECMO-free trials (47.5%) occurred among 16 patients (61.5%). No missed safety screenings, protocol deviations, or adverse events occurred. Of the 16 patients who passed an ECMO-free trial, 14 patients (87.5%) were decannulated. Among decannulated patients, 12 patients (85.7%) were decannulated on the same day as a passed ECMO-free trial, 6 patients (42.9%) were decannulated on the first day that they passed an ECMO-free trial, and 6 patients (42.9%) passed an ECMO-free trial at least twice consecutively before decannulation. The median time from first passed ECMO-free trial to decannulation was 2 days (interquartile range, 0-3 days). INTERPRETATION: The ECMO-free protocol is feasible and may identify patients for decannulation earlier than gradual approaches to weaning.


Subject(s)
Clinical Protocols , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Risk Adjustment/methods , Symptom Assessment/methods , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/standards , Duration of Therapy , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Patient Safety , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies , Withholding Treatment/standards
12.
Respiration ; 100(9): 909-917, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Switzerland, confinement was imposed to limit transmission and protect vulnerable persons. These measures may have had a negative impact on perceived quality of care and symptoms in patients with chronic disorders. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether patients under long-term home noninvasive ventilation (LTHNIV) for chronic respiratory failure (CRF) were negatively affected by the 56-day confinement (March-April 2020). METHODS: A questionnaire-based survey exploring mood disturbances (HAD), symptom scores related to NIV (S3-NIV), and perception of health-care providers during confinement was sent to all patients under LTHNIV followed up by our center. Symptom scores and data obtained by ventilator software were compared between confinement and the 56 days prior to confinement. RESULTS: Of a total of 100 eligible patients, 66 were included (median age: 66 years [IQR: 53-74]): 35 (53%) with restrictive lung disorders, 20 (30%) with OHS or SRBD, and 11 (17%) with COPD or overlap syndrome. Prevalence of anxiety (n = 7; 11%) and depressive (n = 2; 3%) disorders was remarkably low. Symptom scores were slightly higher during confinement although this difference was not clinically relevant. Technical data regarding ventilation, including compliance, did not change. Patients complained of isolation and lack of social contact. They felt supported by their relatives and caregivers but complained of the lack of regular contact and information by health-care professionals. CONCLUSIONS: Patients under LTHNIV for CRF showed a remarkable resilience during the SARS-CoV-2 confinement period. Comments provided may be helpful for managing similar future health-care crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Home Care Services/standards , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Chronic Disease , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Long-Term Care/methods , Male , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Mood Disorders/physiopathology , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Noninvasive Ventilation/statistics & numerical data , Qualitative Research , Quality of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/psychology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Switzerland/epidemiology , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data
13.
Chem Senses ; 462021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258753

ABSTRACT

Although olfactory disorders (OD) are among the most significant symptoms of COVID-19, recovery time from COVID-19-related OD and their consequences on the quality of life remain poorly documented. We investigated the characteristics and behavioral consequences of COVID-19-related OD using a large-scale study involving 3111 French respondents (78% women) to an online questionnaire over a period of 9 months covering different epidemic waves (from 8 April 2020 to 13 January 2021). In the patients who subjectively recovered from COVID-19-related OD (N = 609), recovery occurred on average after 16 days and most of the time within 1 month ("normal" recovery range); 49 subjectively recovered in 1-2.5 months, and several cases took up to 6.5 months. Among the patients with ongoing OD (N = 2502), 974 were outside the "normal" recovery range (persistent OD) and reported OD for 1-10 months. Developing a persistent OD was more likely with increasing age and in women and was more often associated with parosmia and phantosmia. The deleterious impact of COVID-19-related OD on the quality of life was significantly aggravated by OD duration and was more pronounced in women. Because persistent OD is not infrequent after COVID-19, has deleterious consequences on the quality of life, and receives few solutions from the health practitioners, it would be beneficial to implement screening and treatment programs to minimize the long-term behavioral consequences of COVID-19-related OD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Olfaction Disorders/ethnology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Smell , Surveys and Questionnaires , Symptom Assessment/methods , Time Factors
14.
Am J Perinatol ; 38(10): 1010-1022, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254105

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The new coronavirus infection from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been recognized as a global public health emergency, and neonates may be more vulnerable due to their immature immune system. The first aim of this study was to report our experience on the management of neonates from mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection focusing on a 28-day follow-up since birth. The second aim is to assess how many data on neonatal outcomes of the first month of life are reported in literature, performing a systematic review and meta-analysis. STUDY DESIGN: We report our experience based on routine management of neonates born to mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection and follow-up until 28 days of life. RESULTS: In our experience at discharge, 1/48 (2.08%) of entrusted (mother refusing personal protective equipment) and none of separated presented positive nasopharyngeal swab (p = NS). All babies show good outcome at 28 days of life. The literature data show that the percentage of positive separated infants is significantly higher than the percentage of infants entrusted to positive mothers with appropriate control measures (13.63 vs. 2.4%; p = 0.0017). Meta-analysis of studies focused on follow-up showed a 2.94% higher risk of incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in entrusted newborns than in separated newborns (95% confidence interval: 0.39-22.25), but this was not significant (p = 0.30). CONCLUSION: A vertical transmission in utero cannot be totally excluded. Since in newborns, the disease is often ambiguous with mild or absent symptoms, it is important to define the most efficient joint management for infants born to COVID-19 positive mothers, being aware that the risk of horizontal transmission from a positive mother, when protective measures are applied, does not seem to increase the risk of infection or to affect the development of newborns from birth to first four weeks of life, and encourages the benefits of breastfeeding and skin-to-skin practice. KEY POINTS: · Entrusting the newborn to the positive mother does not increase the risk of infection.. · Our follow-up shows that newborns have good growth and outcome at one month of life.. · Applying protective measures we suggest breastfeeding and skin-to-skin practice..


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Neonatal Screening/methods , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Pregnancy , Symptom Assessment/methods
15.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(5): 799-806, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219727

ABSTRACT

Rationale: The natural history of recovery from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains unknown. Because fibrosis with persistent physiological deficit is a previously described feature of patients recovering from similar coronaviruses, treatment represents an early opportunity to modify the disease course, potentially preventing irreversible impairment.Objectives: Determine the incidence of and describe the progression of persistent inflammatory interstitial lung disease (ILD) following SARS-CoV-2 when treated with prednisolone.Methods: A structured assessment protocol screened for sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonitis. Eight hundred thirty-seven patients were assessed by telephone 4 weeks after discharge. Those with ongoing symptoms had outpatient assessment at 6 weeks. Thirty patients diagnosed with persistent interstitial lung changes at a multidisciplinary team meeting were reviewed in the interstitial lung disease service and offered treatment. These patients had persistent, nonimproving symptoms.Results: At 4 weeks after discharge, 39% of patients reported ongoing symptoms (325/837) and were assessed. Interstitial lung disease, predominantly organizing pneumonia, with significant functional deficit was observed in 35/837 survivors (4.8%). Thirty of these patients received steroid treatment, resulting in a mean relative increase in transfer factor following treatment of 31.6% (standard deviation [SD] ± 27.6, P < 0.001), and forced vital capacity of 9.6% (SD ± 13.0, P = 0.014), with significant symptomatic and radiological improvement.Conclusions: Following SARS-CoV-2 pneumonitis, a cohort of patients are left with both radiological inflammatory lung disease and persistent physiological and functional deficit. Early treatment with corticosteroids was well tolerated and associated with rapid and significant improvement. These preliminary data should inform further study into the natural history and potential treatment for patients with persistent inflammatory ILD following SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Aftercare/methods , COVID-19/complications , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Lung , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/virology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome , United Kingdom/epidemiology
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e218824, 2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210567

ABSTRACT

Importance: Schools were closed intermittently across Hong Kong to control the COVID-19 outbreak, which led to significant physical and psychosocial problems among children and youths. Objective: To compare the clinical characteristics and sources of infection among children and youths with COVID-19 during the 3 waves of outbreaks in Hong Kong in 2020. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study involved children and youths aged 18 years or younger with COVID-19 in the 3 waves of outbreaks from January 23 through December 2, 2020. Data were analyzed from December 2020 through January 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Demographic characteristics, travel and contact histories, lengths of hospital stay, and symptoms were captured through the central electronic database. Individuals who were infected without recent international travel were defined as having domestic infections. Results: Among 397 children and youths confirmed with COVID-19 infections, the mean (SD) age was 9.95 (5.34) years, 220 individuals (55.4%) were male, and 154 individuals (38.8%) were asymptomatic. There were significantly more individuals who were infected without symptoms in the second wave (59 of 118 individuals [50.0%]) and third wave (94 of 265 individuals [35.5%]) than in the first wave (1 of 14 individuals [7.1%]) (P = .001). Significantly fewer individuals who were infected in the second and third waves, compared with the first wave, had fever (first wave: 10 individuals [71.4%]; second wave: 22 individuals [18.5%]; third wave: 98 individuals [37.0%]; P < .001) or cough (first wave: 6 individuals [42.9%]; second wave: 15 individuals [12.7%]; third wave: 52 individuals [19.6%]; P = .02). Among all individuals, 394 individuals (99.2%) had mild illness. One patient developed chilblains (ie, COVID toes), 1 patient developed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and 1 patient developed post-COVID-19 autoimmune hemolytic anemia. In all 3 waves, 204 patients with COVID-19 (51.4%) had domestic infections. Among these individuals, 186 (91.2%) reported having a contact history with another individual with COVID-19, of which most (183 individuals [90.0%]) were family members. In the third wave, 18 individuals with domestic infections had unknown contact histories. Three schoolmates were confirmed with COVID-19 on the same day and were reported to be close contacts. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that nearly all children and youths with COVID-19 in Hong Kong had mild illness. These findings suggest that household transmission was the main source of infection for children and youths with domestic infections and that the risk of being infected at school was small.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Symptom Assessment , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Contact Tracing/methods , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Family Characteristics , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Travel-Related Illness
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e218500, 2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210565

ABSTRACT

Importance: Active SARS-CoV-2 (coronavirus) transmission continues in the US. It is unclear whether better access to coronavirus testing and more consistent use of testing could substantially reduce transmission. Objective: To describe coronavirus testing in persons with new onset of febrile illness and analyze whether there are changes over time and differences by race and ethnicity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from the COVID-19 Citizen Science Study, launched in March 2020, which recruited participants via press release, word-of-mouth, and partner organizations. Participants completed daily surveys about COVID-19 symptoms and weekly surveys about coronavirus testing. All adults (aged at least 18 years) with a smartphone were eligible to join. For this analysis, US participants with new onset of febrile illness from April 2020 to October 2020 were included. Data analysis was performed from November 2020 to March 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Receipt of a coronavirus test result within 7 days of febrile illness onset. Results: Of the 2679 participants included in this analysis, the mean (SD) age was 46.3 (13.4) years, 1983 were female (74%), 2017 were college educated (75%), and a total of 3865 distinct new febrile illness episodes were reported (300 episodes [7.8%] from Hispanic participants, 71 episodes [1.8%] from Black participants, and 3494 episodes [90.4%] from not Black, not Hispanic participants) between April 2 and October 23, 2020. In weekly surveys delivered during the 14 days after fever onset, 12% overall (753 participants) indicated receipt of a test result. Using serial survey responses and parametric time-to-event modeling, it was estimated that by 7 days after onset of febrile illness, a total of 20.5% (95% CI, 19.1%-22.0%) had received a test result. This proportion increased from 9.8% (95% CI, 7.5%-12.0%) early in the epidemic to 24.1% (95% CI, 21.5%-26.7%) at the end of July, but testing rates did not substantially improve since then, increasing to 25.9% (95% CI; 21.6%-30.3%) in late October at the start of the winter surge. Black participants reported receiving a test result about half as often as others (7% [7 of 103] of survey responses vs 12% [53 of 461] for Hispanic vs 13% [693 of 5516] for not Black, not Hispanic; P = .03). This association was not statistically significant in adjusted time-to-event models (hazard ratio = 0.59 vs not Black, not Hispanic participants; 95% CI, 0.26-1.34). Conclusions and Relevance: Systematic underuse of coronavirus testing was observed in this cohort study through late October 2020, at the beginning of the winter COVID-19 surge, which may have contributed to preventable coronavirus transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Fever , Health Services Accessibility , Health Services Misuse , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Misuse/prevention & control , Health Services Misuse/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
18.
Am J Nurs ; 121(4): 16, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209860

ABSTRACT

Study highlights the need for symptom assessment in addition to oximetry measurement.


Subject(s)
Data Accuracy , Oximetry/statistics & numerical data , Oximetry/standards , Skin Pigmentation , Symptom Assessment/methods , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States
20.
Postgrad Med ; 133(sup1): 36-41, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207179

ABSTRACT

Accumulating studies on COVID-19 patients report high incidences of thrombotic complications, but guidance on the best diagnostic approach for suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) in COVID-19 patients is lacking. Diagnosing PE in these patients is challenging as signs and symptoms of PE and COVID-19 show wide overlap, D-dimer levels are often elevated in the absence of thrombosis and computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) may be unfeasible in the case of severe renal impairment and/or hemodynamic instability.This narrative review discusses available literature and guidelines on current diagnostic algorithms for suspected PE in special patient populations, in particular COVID-19. A special focus is on reviewing the literature aimed at identifying symptoms with a high suspicion for PE and on the diagnostic performance of diagnostic algorithms for suspected PE in the setting of COVID-19.Based on available literature, the index of suspicion for PE should be high in the case of unexplained abrupt worsening of respiratory status, typical symptoms of deep-vein thrombosis and/or acute unexplained right ventricular dysfunction. Despite the lack of prospective diagnostic management studies, we propose to adhere to current diagnostic algorithms applying assessment of pretest probability and D-dimer testing as available evidence suggests that these might be considered safe. Preferably, algorithms using adjusted D-dimer thresholds are recommended as it likely improves the yield of the clinical decision rule/D-dimer combination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Embolism , Algorithms , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Pulmonary Embolism/diagnosis , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment/methods
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