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1.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 658, 2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440917

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whilst the impact of Covid-19 infection in pregnant women has been examined, there is a scarcity of data on pregnant women in the Middle East. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the impact of Covid-19 infection on pregnant women in the United Arab Emirates population. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out to compare the clinical course and outcome of pregnancy in 79 pregnant women with Covid-19 and 85 non-pregnant women with Covid-19 admitted to Latifa Hospital in Dubai between March and June 2020. RESULTS: Although Pregnant women presented with fewer symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, and shortness of breath compared to non-pregnant women; yet they ran a much more severe course of illness. On admission, 12/79 (15.2%) Vs 2/85 (2.4%) had a chest radiograph score [on a scale 1-6] of ≥3 (p-value = 0.0039). On discharge, 6/79 (7.6%) Vs 1/85 (1.2%) had a score ≥3 (p-value = 0.0438). They also had much higher levels of laboratory indicators of severity with values above reference ranges for C-Reactive Protein [(28 (38.3%) Vs 13 (17.6%)] with p < 0.004; and for D-dimer [32 (50.8%) Vs 3(6%)]; with p < 0.001. They required more ICU admissions: 10/79 (12.6%) Vs 1/85 (1.2%) with p=0.0036; and suffered more complications: 9/79 (11.4%) Vs 1/85 (1.2%) with p=0.0066; of Covid-19 infection, particularly in late pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women presented with fewer Covid-19 symptoms but ran a much more severe course of illness compared to non-pregnant women with the disease. They had worse chest radiograph scores and much higher levels of laboratory indicators of disease severity. They had more ICU admissions and suffered more complications of Covid-19 infection, such as risk for miscarriage and preterm deliveries. Pregnancy with Covid-19 infection, could, therefore, be categorised as high-risk pregnancy and requires management by an obstetric and medical multidisciplinary team.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Radiography, Thoracic , Symptom Assessment , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Abortion, Spontaneous/etiology , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Case-Control Studies , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/physiopathology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/etiology , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Radiography, Thoracic/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , United Arab Emirates/epidemiology
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13580, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291169

ABSTRACT

In the DECODE project, data were collected from 3,114 surveys filled by symptomatic patients RT-qPCR tested for SARS-CoV-2 in a single university centre in March-September 2020. The population demonstrated balanced sex and age with 759 SARS-CoV-2( +) patients. The most discriminative symptoms in SARS-CoV-2( +) patients at early infection stage were loss of taste/smell (OR = 3.33, p < 0.0001), body temperature above 38℃ (OR = 1.67, p < 0.0001), muscle aches (OR = 1.30, p = 0.0242), headache (OR = 1.27, p = 0.0405), cough (OR = 1.26, p = 0.0477). Dyspnea was more often reported among SARS-CoV-2(-) (OR = 0.55, p < 0.0001). Cough and dyspnea were 3.5 times more frequent among SARS-CoV-2(-) (OR = 0.28, p < 0.0001). Co-occurrence of cough, muscle aches, headache, loss of taste/smell (OR = 4.72, p = 0.0015) appeared significant, although co-occurrence of two symptoms only, cough and loss of smell or taste, means OR = 2.49 (p < 0.0001). Temperature > 38℃ with cough was most frequent in men (20%), while loss of taste/smell with cough in women (17%). For younger people, taste/smell impairment is sufficient to characterise infection, whereas in older patients co-occurrence of fever and cough is necessary. The presented study objectifies the single symptoms and interactions significance in COVID-19 diagnoses and demonstrates diverse symptomatology in patient groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Academic Medical Centers/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Child , Child, Preschool , Cough/etiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Dyspnea/etiology , Female , Fever/etiology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pilot Projects , Poland/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Symptom Assessment/classification , Young Adult
3.
J Investig Med ; 69(7): 1287-1296, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276980

ABSTRACT

This systematic and meta-review aimed to compare clinical presentation, outcomes, and care management among patients with COVID-19 during the early phase of the pandemic. A total of 77 peer-reviewed publications were identified between January 1, 2020 and April 9, 2020 from PubMed, Google Scholar, and Chinese Medical Journal databases. Subsequently, meta-analysis of 40 non-overlapping studies, comprising of 4844 patients from seven countries, was conducted to see differences in clinical characteristics and laboratory outcomes across patients from different geographical regions (Wuhan, other parts of China and outside China), severity (non-severe, severe and fatal) and age groups (adults and children). Patients from Wuhan had a higher mean age (54.3 years) and rates of dyspnea (39.5%) compared with patients from other parts of China and outside China. Myalgia, fatigue, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and fatalities were also significantly more prevalent among Wuhan patients. A significant dose-response increase in prevalence of diabetes, D-dimer, white blood cells, neutrophil levels and ARDS was seen from non-severe to severe and fatal outcomes. A significant increase in mean duration of symptom onset to admission was seen between non-severe cases (4.2 days) and severe and fatal cases (6.3 days and 8.8 days, respectively). Proportion of asymptomatic cases was higher in children (20%) compared with adults (2.4%). In conclusion, patients with COVID-19 from Wuhan displayed more severe clinical disease during the early phase of the pandemic, while disease severity was significantly lesser among pediatric cases. This review suggests that biomarkers at admission may be useful for prognosis among patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Global Health/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mortality , Observational Studies as Topic , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2113782, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274643

ABSTRACT

Importance: Alternative methods for hospital occupancy forecasting, essential information in hospital crisis planning, are necessary in a novel pandemic when traditional data sources such as disease testing are limited. Objective: To determine whether mandatory daily employee symptom attestation data can be used as syndromic surveillance to estimate COVID-19 hospitalizations in the communities where employees live. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted from April 2, 2020, to November 4, 2020, at a large academic hospital network of 10 hospitals accounting for a total of 2384 beds and 136 000 discharges in New England. The participants included 6841 employees who worked on-site at hospital 1 and lived in the 10 hospitals' service areas. Exposure: Daily employee self-reported symptoms were collected using an automated text messaging system from a single hospital. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mean absolute error (MAE) and weighted mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 7-day forecasts of daily COVID-19 hospital census at each hospital. Results: Among 6841 employees living within the 10 hospitals' service areas, 5120 (74.8%) were female individuals and 3884 (56.8%) were White individuals; the mean (SD) age was 40.8 (13.6) years, and the mean (SD) time of service was 8.8 (10.4) years. The study model had a MAE of 6.9 patients with COVID-19 and a weighted MAPE of 1.5% for hospitalizations for the entire hospital network. The individual hospitals had an MAE that ranged from 0.9 to 4.5 patients (weighted MAPE ranged from 2.1% to 16.1%). For context, the mean network all-cause occupancy was 1286 during this period, so an error of 6.9 is only 0.5% of the network mean occupancy. Operationally, this level of error was negligible to the incident command center. At hospital 1, a doubling of the number of employees reporting symptoms (which corresponded to 4 additional employees reporting symptoms at the mean for hospital 1) was associated with a 5% increase in COVID-19 hospitalizations at hospital 1 in 7 days (regression coefficient, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.02-0.07; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that a real-time employee health attestation tool used at a single hospital could be used to estimate subsequent hospitalizations in 7 days at hospitals throughout a larger hospital network in New England.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Forecasting/methods , Hospitalization/trends , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Sentinel Surveillance , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , New England/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data
5.
Respiration ; 100(9): 909-917, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Switzerland, confinement was imposed to limit transmission and protect vulnerable persons. These measures may have had a negative impact on perceived quality of care and symptoms in patients with chronic disorders. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether patients under long-term home noninvasive ventilation (LTHNIV) for chronic respiratory failure (CRF) were negatively affected by the 56-day confinement (March-April 2020). METHODS: A questionnaire-based survey exploring mood disturbances (HAD), symptom scores related to NIV (S3-NIV), and perception of health-care providers during confinement was sent to all patients under LTHNIV followed up by our center. Symptom scores and data obtained by ventilator software were compared between confinement and the 56 days prior to confinement. RESULTS: Of a total of 100 eligible patients, 66 were included (median age: 66 years [IQR: 53-74]): 35 (53%) with restrictive lung disorders, 20 (30%) with OHS or SRBD, and 11 (17%) with COPD or overlap syndrome. Prevalence of anxiety (n = 7; 11%) and depressive (n = 2; 3%) disorders was remarkably low. Symptom scores were slightly higher during confinement although this difference was not clinically relevant. Technical data regarding ventilation, including compliance, did not change. Patients complained of isolation and lack of social contact. They felt supported by their relatives and caregivers but complained of the lack of regular contact and information by health-care professionals. CONCLUSIONS: Patients under LTHNIV for CRF showed a remarkable resilience during the SARS-CoV-2 confinement period. Comments provided may be helpful for managing similar future health-care crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Home Care Services/standards , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Insufficiency , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Chronic Disease , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Services Needs and Demand , Humans , Long-Term Care/methods , Male , Mood Disorders/epidemiology , Mood Disorders/physiopathology , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Noninvasive Ventilation/statistics & numerical data , Qualitative Research , Quality of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/psychology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support , Switzerland/epidemiology , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data
6.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(7): 1041.e1-1041.e4, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225180

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Persistent COVID-19 symptoms have been reported up to 3 months after hospital discharge. Little is known on the frequency and the nature of persistent symptoms beyond 3 months. Here we have assessed, in the longitudinal prospective French COVID-19 cohort, symptoms that persisted 6 months after admission for COVID-19. METHODS: Hospitalized patients with virologically confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled. Follow-up was planned with a physician's visit at month (M)3 and M6 after admission. Associations between persistence of symptoms at M6 and clinical characteristics at admission were assessed through bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: M6 data were available for 1137 participants. Median age was 61 years (IQR 51-71) and 288 (29%, 95% CI 26-32%) were admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) during the acute phase. Six hundred and fifty-five (68%, 95% CI 65-71%) and 639 (60%, 95% CI 57-63%) participants had at least one symptom at M3 and M6 visit, respectively, mostly fatigue, dyspnoea, joint pain and myalgia. At M6, 255 (24%, 95% CI 21-27%) of participants had three or more persistent symptoms. The presence of three or more symptoms at M6 was independently associated with female gender (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.40, 95% CI 1.75-3.30), having three or more symptoms at admission (aOR 2.04, 95% CI 1.45-2.89) and ICU admission/transfer during acute phase (aOR 1.55, 95% CI 1.09-2.18), but not significantly with age or having two or more comorbidities. One hundred and twenty-five (29%, 95% CI 25-34%) of those who initially had a professional occupation were not back to work at M6. DISCUSSION: A fourth of individuals admitted to hospital for COVID-19 still had three or more persistent symptoms at M6. Longitudinal follow-up of individuals with severe COVID-19 is warranted to better understand the pathophysiology underlying this long-term persistence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Discharge , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
7.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(5): 799-806, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219727

ABSTRACT

Rationale: The natural history of recovery from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains unknown. Because fibrosis with persistent physiological deficit is a previously described feature of patients recovering from similar coronaviruses, treatment represents an early opportunity to modify the disease course, potentially preventing irreversible impairment.Objectives: Determine the incidence of and describe the progression of persistent inflammatory interstitial lung disease (ILD) following SARS-CoV-2 when treated with prednisolone.Methods: A structured assessment protocol screened for sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonitis. Eight hundred thirty-seven patients were assessed by telephone 4 weeks after discharge. Those with ongoing symptoms had outpatient assessment at 6 weeks. Thirty patients diagnosed with persistent interstitial lung changes at a multidisciplinary team meeting were reviewed in the interstitial lung disease service and offered treatment. These patients had persistent, nonimproving symptoms.Results: At 4 weeks after discharge, 39% of patients reported ongoing symptoms (325/837) and were assessed. Interstitial lung disease, predominantly organizing pneumonia, with significant functional deficit was observed in 35/837 survivors (4.8%). Thirty of these patients received steroid treatment, resulting in a mean relative increase in transfer factor following treatment of 31.6% (standard deviation [SD] ± 27.6, P < 0.001), and forced vital capacity of 9.6% (SD ± 13.0, P = 0.014), with significant symptomatic and radiological improvement.Conclusions: Following SARS-CoV-2 pneumonitis, a cohort of patients are left with both radiological inflammatory lung disease and persistent physiological and functional deficit. Early treatment with corticosteroids was well tolerated and associated with rapid and significant improvement. These preliminary data should inform further study into the natural history and potential treatment for patients with persistent inflammatory ILD following SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Aftercare/methods , COVID-19/complications , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Lung Diseases, Interstitial , Lung , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/virology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/etiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/physiopathology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survivors/statistics & numerical data , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Treatment Outcome , United Kingdom/epidemiology
8.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e218824, 2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210567

ABSTRACT

Importance: Schools were closed intermittently across Hong Kong to control the COVID-19 outbreak, which led to significant physical and psychosocial problems among children and youths. Objective: To compare the clinical characteristics and sources of infection among children and youths with COVID-19 during the 3 waves of outbreaks in Hong Kong in 2020. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study involved children and youths aged 18 years or younger with COVID-19 in the 3 waves of outbreaks from January 23 through December 2, 2020. Data were analyzed from December 2020 through January 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Demographic characteristics, travel and contact histories, lengths of hospital stay, and symptoms were captured through the central electronic database. Individuals who were infected without recent international travel were defined as having domestic infections. Results: Among 397 children and youths confirmed with COVID-19 infections, the mean (SD) age was 9.95 (5.34) years, 220 individuals (55.4%) were male, and 154 individuals (38.8%) were asymptomatic. There were significantly more individuals who were infected without symptoms in the second wave (59 of 118 individuals [50.0%]) and third wave (94 of 265 individuals [35.5%]) than in the first wave (1 of 14 individuals [7.1%]) (P = .001). Significantly fewer individuals who were infected in the second and third waves, compared with the first wave, had fever (first wave: 10 individuals [71.4%]; second wave: 22 individuals [18.5%]; third wave: 98 individuals [37.0%]; P < .001) or cough (first wave: 6 individuals [42.9%]; second wave: 15 individuals [12.7%]; third wave: 52 individuals [19.6%]; P = .02). Among all individuals, 394 individuals (99.2%) had mild illness. One patient developed chilblains (ie, COVID toes), 1 patient developed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and 1 patient developed post-COVID-19 autoimmune hemolytic anemia. In all 3 waves, 204 patients with COVID-19 (51.4%) had domestic infections. Among these individuals, 186 (91.2%) reported having a contact history with another individual with COVID-19, of which most (183 individuals [90.0%]) were family members. In the third wave, 18 individuals with domestic infections had unknown contact histories. Three schoolmates were confirmed with COVID-19 on the same day and were reported to be close contacts. Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that nearly all children and youths with COVID-19 in Hong Kong had mild illness. These findings suggest that household transmission was the main source of infection for children and youths with domestic infections and that the risk of being infected at school was small.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Symptom Assessment , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Contact Tracing/methods , Contact Tracing/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Family Characteristics , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Travel-Related Illness
9.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e218500, 2021 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210565

ABSTRACT

Importance: Active SARS-CoV-2 (coronavirus) transmission continues in the US. It is unclear whether better access to coronavirus testing and more consistent use of testing could substantially reduce transmission. Objective: To describe coronavirus testing in persons with new onset of febrile illness and analyze whether there are changes over time and differences by race and ethnicity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from the COVID-19 Citizen Science Study, launched in March 2020, which recruited participants via press release, word-of-mouth, and partner organizations. Participants completed daily surveys about COVID-19 symptoms and weekly surveys about coronavirus testing. All adults (aged at least 18 years) with a smartphone were eligible to join. For this analysis, US participants with new onset of febrile illness from April 2020 to October 2020 were included. Data analysis was performed from November 2020 to March 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Receipt of a coronavirus test result within 7 days of febrile illness onset. Results: Of the 2679 participants included in this analysis, the mean (SD) age was 46.3 (13.4) years, 1983 were female (74%), 2017 were college educated (75%), and a total of 3865 distinct new febrile illness episodes were reported (300 episodes [7.8%] from Hispanic participants, 71 episodes [1.8%] from Black participants, and 3494 episodes [90.4%] from not Black, not Hispanic participants) between April 2 and October 23, 2020. In weekly surveys delivered during the 14 days after fever onset, 12% overall (753 participants) indicated receipt of a test result. Using serial survey responses and parametric time-to-event modeling, it was estimated that by 7 days after onset of febrile illness, a total of 20.5% (95% CI, 19.1%-22.0%) had received a test result. This proportion increased from 9.8% (95% CI, 7.5%-12.0%) early in the epidemic to 24.1% (95% CI, 21.5%-26.7%) at the end of July, but testing rates did not substantially improve since then, increasing to 25.9% (95% CI; 21.6%-30.3%) in late October at the start of the winter surge. Black participants reported receiving a test result about half as often as others (7% [7 of 103] of survey responses vs 12% [53 of 461] for Hispanic vs 13% [693 of 5516] for not Black, not Hispanic; P = .03). This association was not statistically significant in adjusted time-to-event models (hazard ratio = 0.59 vs not Black, not Hispanic participants; 95% CI, 0.26-1.34). Conclusions and Relevance: Systematic underuse of coronavirus testing was observed in this cohort study through late October 2020, at the beginning of the winter COVID-19 surge, which may have contributed to preventable coronavirus transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Fever , Health Services Accessibility , Health Services Misuse , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Female , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/etiology , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Misuse/prevention & control , Health Services Misuse/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/ethnology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
10.
BMC Fam Pract ; 22(1): 66, 2021 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175290

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To estimate the prevalence of symptoms and signs related to a COVID-19 case series confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for SARS-CoV-2. Risk factors and the associated use of health services will also be analysed. METHODS: Observational, descriptive, retrospective case series study. The study was performed at two Primary Care Health Centres located in Madrid, Spain. The subjects studied were all PCR SARS-CoV-2 confirmed cases older than 18 years, diagnosed from the beginning of the community transmission (March 13) until April 15, 2020. We collected sociodemographic, clinical, health service utilization and clinical course variables during the following months. All data was gathered by their own attending physician, and electronic medical records were reviewed individually. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: A descriptive analysis was carried out and a Poisson regression model was adjusted to study associated factors to Health Services use. RESULTS: Out of the 499 patients studied from two health centres, 55.1% were women and mean age was 58.2 (17.3). 25.1% were healthcare professionals. The most frequent symptoms recorded related to COVID-19 were cough (77.9%; CI 95% 46.5-93.4), fever (77.7%; CI95% 46.5-93.4) and dyspnoea (54.1%, CI95% 46.6-61.4). 60.7% were admitted to hospital. 64.5% first established contact with their primary care provider before going to the hospital, with a mean number of 11.4 Healthcare Providers Encounters with primary care during all the follow-up period. The number of visit-encounters with primary care was associated with being male [IRR 1.072 (1.013, 1.134)], disease severity {from mild respiratory infection [IRR 1.404 (1.095, 1.801)], up to bilateral pneumonia [IRR 1.852 (1.437,2.386)]}, and the need of a work leave [IRR 1.326 (1.244, 1.413]. CONCLUSION: Symptoms and risk factors in our case series are similar to those in other studies. There was a high number of patients with atypical unilateral or bilateral pneumonia. Care for COVID has required a high use of healthcare resources such as clinical encounters and work leaves.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Symptom Assessment , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Demography , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Primary Health Care/methods , Primary Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Socioeconomic Factors , Spain/epidemiology , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data
11.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The symptoms, radiography, biochemistry and healthcare utilisation of patients with COVID-19 following discharge from hospital have not been well described. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 401 adult patients attending a clinic following an index hospital admission or emergency department attendance with COVID-19. Regression models were used to assess the association between characteristics and persistent abnormal chest radiographs or breathlessness. RESULTS: 75.1% of patients were symptomatic at a median of 53 days post discharge and 72 days after symptom onset and chest radiographs were abnormal in 47.4%. Symptoms and radiographic abnormalities were similar in PCR-positive and PCR-negative patients. Severity of COVID-19 was significantly associated with persistent radiographic abnormalities and breathlessness. 18.5% of patients had unscheduled healthcare visits in the 30 days post discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 experience persistent symptoms and abnormal blood biomarkers with a gradual resolution of radiological abnormalities over time. These findings can inform patients and clinicians about expected recovery times and plan services for follow-up of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Aftercare , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19 , Patient Discharge/standards , Radiography, Thoracic , Symptom Assessment , Aftercare/methods , Aftercare/organization & administration , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Radiography, Thoracic/statistics & numerical data , Recovery of Function , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , United Kingdom/epidemiology
12.
Hong Kong Med J ; 27(2): 99-105, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1168171

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Hospital Authority of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region established a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) temporary test centre at the AsiaWorld-Expo from March 2020 to April 2020, which allowed high-risk individuals to undergo early assessment of potential severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. This study reviewed the characteristics and outcomes of individuals who attended the centre for COVID-19 testing. METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study collected epidemiological and clinical data. The primary outcome was a positive or negative SARS-CoV-2 test result, according to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses of pooled nasopharyngeal and throat swabs collected at the centre. The relationships of clinical characteristics with SARS-CoV-2 positive test results were assessed by multivariable binary logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 1258 attendees included in the analysis, 86 individuals tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection (positivity rate=6.84%; 95% confidence interval [CI]=5.57%-8.37%). Of these 86 individuals, 40 (46.5%) were aged 15 to 24 years and 81 (94.2%) had a history of recent travel. Symptoms were reported by 86.0% and 96.3% of individuals with positive and negative test results, respectively. The clinical characteristics most strongly associated with a positive test result were anosmia (adjusted odds ratio [ORadj]=8.30; 95% CI=1.12-127.09) and fever ORadj=1.32; 95% CI=1.02-3.28). CONCLUSION: The temporary test centre successfully helped identify individuals with COVID-19 who exhibited mild disease symptoms. Healthcare providers should carefully consider the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 to arrange early testing to reduce community spread.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Quick Diagnosis Units , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Quick Diagnosis Units/methods , Quick Diagnosis Units/organization & administration , Quick Diagnosis Units/statistics & numerical data , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Travel-Related Illness
13.
J Res Health Sci ; 21(1): e00508, 2021 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis and supportive treatments are essential to patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Therefore, the current study aimed to determine different patterns of syndromic symptoms and sensitivity and specificity of each of them in the diagnosis of COVID-19 in suspected patients. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study . METHODS: In this study, the retrospective data of 1,539 patients suspected of COVID-19 were obtained from a local registry under the supervision of the officials at Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran. A Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was carried out on syndromic symptoms, and the associations of some risk factors and latent subclasses were accessed using one-way analysis of variance and Chi-square test. RESULTS: The LCA indicated that there were three distinct subclasses of syndromic symptoms among the COVID-19 suspected patients. The age, former smoking status, and body mass index were associated with the categorization of individuals into different subclasses. In addition, the sensitivity and specificity of class 2 (labeled as "High probability of polymerase chain reaction [PCR]+") in the diagnosis of COVID-19 were 67.43% and 76.17%, respectively. Furthermore, the sensitivity and specificity of class 3 (labeled as "Moderate probability of PCR+") in the diagnosis of COVID-19 were 75.92% and 50.23%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study showed that syndromic symptoms, such as dry cough, dyspnea, myalgia, fatigue, and anorexia, might be helpful in the diagnosis of suspected COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Latent Class Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Res Health Sci ; 21(1): e00510, 2021 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid increase in the spread of COVID-19 and the numbers of infected patients worldwide has highlighted the need for intensive care unit (ICU) beds and more advanced therapy. This need is more urgent in resource-constrained settings. The present study aimed to identify the predictors of ICU admission among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. STUDY DESIGN: The current study was conducted based on a retrospective cohort design. . METHODS: The participants included 665 definite cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)  hospitalized in Imam Hossein Hospital from February 20 to May 14, 2020. The baseline characteristics of patients were assessed, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was utilized to determine the significant odds ratio (OR) for ICU admission. RESULTS: Participants were aged 59.52±16.72 years, and the majority (55.6%) of them were male. Compared to non-ICU patients (n=547), the ICU patients (n=118) were older, had more baseline comorbidities, and presented more often with dyspnea, convulsion, loss of consciousness, tachycardia, tachypnea, and hypoxia, and less often with myalgia. Significant OR (95% CI) of ICU admission was observed for the 60-80 age group (2.42, 95%CI: 1.01; 5.79), ≥80 age group (3.73, 95%CI: 1.44; 9.42), ≥3 comorbidities (2.07, 95%CI: 1.31; 3.80), loss of consciousness (6.70, 95%CI: 2.94, 15.24), tachypnea (1.79, 95%CI: 1.03, 3.11), and SpO2<90 (5.83, 95%CI: 2.74; 12.4). Abnormal laboratory results were more common among ICU-admitted patients; in this regard, leukocytosis (4.45, 95%CI: 1.49, 13.31), lymphopenia (2.39, 95%CI: 1.30; 4.39), elevated creatine phosphokinase (CPK) (1.99, 95%CI: 1.04; 3.83), and increased aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (2.25, 95%CI: 1.18-4.30) had a significant OR of ICU admission. Chest computer tomography (CT) revealed that consolidation (1.82, 95%CI: 1.02, 3.24), pleural effusion (3.19, 95%CI: 1.71, 5.95), and crazy paving pattern (8.36, 95%CI: 1.92, 36.48) had a significant OR of ICU admission. CONCLUSION: As evidenced by the obtained results, the predictors of ICU admission were identified among epidemiological characteristics, presenting symptoms and signs, laboratory tests, and chest CT findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Forecasting , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Front Public Health ; 9: 628479, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154263

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has caused a global public health emergency. Government mitigation strategies included a series of behavior-based prevention policies that had a likely impact on the spread of other contagious respiratory illnesses, such as seasonal influenza. Our aim was to explore how 2019-2020 influenza tracked onto COVID-19 pandemic and its mitigation methods. Materials and Methods: We linked the WHO FluNet database and COVID-19 confirmed cases (Johns Hopkins University) for four countries across the northern (Canada, the United States) and southern hemispheres (Australia, Brazil) for the period 2016-2020. Graphical presentations of longitudinal data were provided. Results: There was a notable reduction in influenza cases for the 2019-2020 season. Northern hemisphere countries experienced a quicker ending to the 2019-2020 seasonal influenza cases (shortened by 4-7 weeks) and virtually no 2020 fall influenza season. Countries from the southern hemisphere experienced drastically low levels of seasonal influenza, with consistent trends that were approaching zero cases after the introduction of COVID-19 measures. Conclusions: It is likely that the COVID-19 mitigation measures played a notable role in the marked decrease in influenza, with little to no influenza activity in both the northern and southern hemispheres. In spite of this reduction in influenza cases, there was still community spread of COVID-19, highlighting the contagiousness of SARS-CoV-2 compared to influenza. These results, together with the higher mortality rate from SARS-CoV-2 compared to influenza, highlight that COVID-19 is a far greater health threat than influenza.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Internationality , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Australia/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Canada/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(9): e24604, 2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114903

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Mortality of critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was high. Aims to examine whether time from symptoms onset to intensive care unit (ICU) admission affects incidence of extra-pulmonary complications and prognosis in order to provide a new insight for reducing the mortality. A single-centered, retrospective, observational study investigated 45 critically ill patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in ICU of The Third People's Hospital of Yichang from January 17 to March 29, 2020. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to time from symptoms onset to ICU admission (>7 and ≤7 days) and into 2 groups according to prognosis (survivors and non-survivors). Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, radiological characteristics and treatment data were studied. Compared with patients who admitted to the ICU since symptoms onset ≤7 days (55.6%), patients who admitted to the ICU since symptoms onset >7 days (44.4%) were more likely to have extra-pulmonary complications (19 [95.0%] vs 16 [64.0%], P = .034), including acute kidney injury, cardiac injury, acute heart failure, liver dysfunction, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, hyperamylasemia, and hypernatremia. The incidence rates of acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumothorax, and hospital-acquired pneumonia had no difference between the 2 groups. Except activated partial thromboplastin and Na+ concentration, the laboratory findings were worse in group of time from symptoms onset to ICU admission >7 days. There was no difference in mortality between the 2 groups. Of the 45 cases in the ICU, 19 (42.2%) were non-survivors, and 16 (35.6%) were with hospital-acquired pneumonia. Among these non-survivors, hospital-acquired pneumonia was up to 12 (63.2%) besides higher incidence of extra-pulmonary complications. However, hospital-acquired pneumonia occurred in only 4 (15.4%) survivors. Critically ill patients with COVID-19 who admitted to ICU at once might get benefit from intensive care via lower rate of extra-pulmonary complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Symptom Assessment , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , China/epidemiology , Critical Care/methods , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Digestive System Diseases/diagnosis , Digestive System Diseases/etiology , Female , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia/diagnosis , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia/mortality , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Humans , Hyperamylasemia/diagnosis , Hyperamylasemia/etiology , Hypernatremia/diagnosis , Hypernatremia/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Analysis , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data
19.
JAMA Intern Med ; 181(5): 672-679, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1098863

ABSTRACT

Importance: Understanding the effect of serum antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on susceptibility to infection is important for identifying at-risk populations and could have implications for vaccine deployment. Objective: The study purpose was to evaluate evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection based on diagnostic nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) among patients with positive vs negative test results for antibodies in an observational descriptive cohort study of clinical laboratory and linked claims data. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study created cohorts from a deidentified data set composed of commercial laboratory tests, medical and pharmacy claims, electronic health records, and hospital chargemaster data. Patients were categorized as antibody-positive or antibody-negative according to their first SARS-CoV-2 antibody test in the database. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary end points were post-index diagnostic NAAT results, with infection defined as a positive diagnostic test post-index, measured in 30-day intervals (0-30, 31-60, 61-90, >90 days). Additional measures included demographic, geographic, and clinical characteristics at the time of the index antibody test, including recorded signs and symptoms or prior evidence of coronavirus 2019 (COVID) diagnoses or positive NAAT results and recorded comorbidities. Results: The cohort included 3 257 478 unique patients with an index antibody test; 56% were female with a median (SD) age of 48 (20) years. Of these, 2 876 773 (88.3%) had a negative index antibody result, and 378 606 (11.6%) had a positive index antibody result. Patients with a negative antibody test result were older than those with a positive result (mean age 48 vs 44 years). Of index-positive patients, 18.4% converted to seronegative over the follow-up period. During the follow-up periods, the ratio (95% CI) of positive NAAT results among individuals who had a positive antibody test at index vs those with a negative antibody test at index was 2.85 (95% CI, 2.73-2.97) at 0 to 30 days, 0.67 (95% CI, 0.6-0.74) at 31 to 60 days, 0.29 (95% CI, 0.24-0.35) at 61 to 90 days, and 0.10 (95% CI, 0.05-0.19) at more than 90 days. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, patients with positive antibody test results were initially more likely to have positive NAAT results, consistent with prolonged RNA shedding, but became markedly less likely to have positive NAAT results over time, suggesting that seropositivity is associated with protection from infection. The duration of protection is unknown, and protection may wane over time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19 , Disease Susceptibility , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Age Factors , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , Correlation of Data , Disease Susceptibility/diagnosis , Disease Susceptibility/epidemiology , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Virus Shedding/immunology
20.
J Intern Med ; 289(4): 559-573, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096894

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Convalescent plasma therapy for COVID-19 relies on transfer of anti-viral antibody from donors to recipients via plasma transfusion. The relationship between clinical characteristics and antibody response to COVID-19 is not well defined. We investigated predictors of convalescent antibody production and quantified recipient antibody response in a convalescent plasma therapy clinical trial. METHODS: Multivariable analysis of clinical and serological parameters in 103 confirmed COVID-19 convalescent plasma donors 28 days or more following symptom resolution was performed. Mixed-effects regression models with piecewise linear trends were used to characterize serial antibody responses in 10 convalescent plasma recipients with severe COVID-19. RESULTS: Donor antibody titres ranged from 0 to 1 : 3892 (anti-receptor binding domain (RBD)) and 0 to 1 : 3289 (anti-spike). Higher anti-RBD and anti-spike titres were associated with increased age, hospitalization for COVID-19, fever and absence of myalgia (all P < 0.05). Fatigue was significantly associated with anti-RBD (P = 0.03). In pairwise comparison amongst ABO blood types, AB donors had higher anti-RBD and anti-spike than O donors (P < 0.05). No toxicity was associated with plasma transfusion. Non-ECMO recipient anti-RBD antibody titre increased on average 31% per day during the first three days post-transfusion (P = 0.01) and anti-spike antibody titre by 40.3% (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Advanced age, fever, absence of myalgia, fatigue, blood type and hospitalization were associated with higher convalescent antibody titre to COVID-19. Despite variability in donor titre, 80% of convalescent plasma recipients showed significant increase in antibody levels post-transfusion. A more complete understanding of the dose-response effect of plasma transfusion amongst COVID-19-infected patients is needed.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Symptom Assessment/methods , Symptom Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome , United States
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