Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 89
Filter
1.
Saúde Soc ; 31(1): e210367, 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1760034

ABSTRACT

Resumo Sindemia é o termo utilizado para designar como interações biológicas e sociais influenciam no comportamento de uma determinada doença. A retomada das atividades escolares presenciais em meio à sindemia de covid-19 suscita controvérsias. Os defensores alegam que o retorno presencial mitigaria vulnerabilidades sociais, sanitárias e educacionais, enquanto os críticos afirmam que tal decisão contribuiria para a disseminação do vírus. O presente estudo analisa a dinâmica das internações e mortes por covid-19 entre estudantes da educação básica mediante a retomada das atividades escolares presenciais no município de São Paulo. Ademais, procura desvelar se a incidência de infecção por Sars-Cov-2 entre profissionais da educação teria relação com a qualidade socioterritorial que circunscreve as unidades de ensino básico (UE). As análises foram realizadas utilizando base de dados de instituições públicas paulistas. A retomada das atividades presenciais coincidiu com o aumento de internações e óbitos por covid-19 entre estudantes. O pico ocorreu 15 dias após o início das aulas. As UE inseridas em territórios com menores índices de desenvolvimento humano (IDH) registraram as maiores taxas de infecção por Sars-Cov-2. Retomar as aulas presenciais sem diminuir os riscos de contaminação parece ameaçar principalmente os indivíduos de territórios vulneráveis.


Abstract The term syndemic has been used to designate how biological and social interactions influence the behavior of a particular disease. The resumption of face-to-face school activities amidst the covid-19 syndemic sparks considerable controversy: while supporters claim that returning to school would mitigate social, health, and educational vulnerabilities, critics say that such a decision would help to spread the virus. In this scenario, this study analyzes the dynamics of hospital admissions and deaths related to covid-19 among elementary students in terms of the resumption of face-to-face school activities in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Moreover, it also investigates the association between the incidence of covid-19 among education professionals and the socio-spacial properties in which the based education units (UEs) are located. The analyses were conducted with data from the public institutions of São Paulo. The results indicate that in-person activities resumption coincided with an increase in admissions and deaths from covid-19 among students, peaking 15 days after the beginning of the classes. UEs located in territories with lower human development indices registered the highest SARS-Cov-2 infection rates. Thus, resuming in-person classes without mitigating contamination risks poses a threat for the population, especially for those from vulnerable territories.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Socioeconomic Factors , Students , Education , Syndemic , COVID-19
2.
Behav Med ; 48(2): 85-94, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751936

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 syndemic, with a disproportionately higher adverse impact on communities of color (i.e., COVID-19 infection and death), will likely exacerbate the existing health disparities in trauma-related symptoms between people of color (POC) and White Americans. However, no studies have examined the racial disparity in posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) during COVID-19. Grounded in ecological theory and racial trauma framework, we investigated racial disparity in PTSS and three possible mechanisms, 1) COVID stress, 2) direct racism, and 3) indirect racism, for these disparities using a large U.S. national sample. Results indicated that POC reported higher levels of PTSS than White Americans. The PTSS racial disparity was accounted more by direct and indirect racism than by the COVID-19-specific stressors, after controlling for age, gender, education, income, parent status, adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), and intimate partner violence (IPV). Additional fine-grained analyses for Hispanic/Latinx Americans, Black/African Americans, and Asian American and Pacific Islanders by and large corroborated the above findings. Our findings highlighted the deleterious impact of the ongoing racism pandemic on the POC community as a public health crisis in addition to the COVID-19 pandemic.Supplemental data for this article is available online at at http://doi:10.1080/08964289.2021.2006131.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Humans , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/diagnosis , Syndemic
3.
Saúde Soc ; 31(1): e210367, 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1674114

ABSTRACT

Resumo Sindemia é o termo utilizado para designar como interações biológicas e sociais influenciam no comportamento de uma determinada doença. A retomada das atividades escolares presenciais em meio à sindemia de covid-19 suscita controvérsias. Os defensores alegam que o retorno presencial mitigaria vulnerabilidades sociais, sanitárias e educacionais, enquanto os críticos afirmam que tal decisão contribuiria para a disseminação do vírus. O presente estudo analisa a dinâmica das internações e mortes por covid-19 entre estudantes da educação básica mediante a retomada das atividades escolares presenciais no município de São Paulo. Ademais, procura desvelar se a incidência de infecção por Sars-Cov-2 entre profissionais da educação teria relação com a qualidade socioterritorial que circunscreve as unidades de ensino básico (UE). As análises foram realizadas utilizando base de dados de instituições públicas paulistas. A retomada das atividades presenciais coincidiu com o aumento de internações e óbitos por covid-19 entre estudantes. O pico ocorreu 15 dias após o início das aulas. As UE inseridas em territórios com menores índices de desenvolvimento humano (IDH) registraram as maiores taxas de infecção por Sars-Cov-2. Retomar as aulas presenciais sem diminuir os riscos de contaminação parece ameaçar principalmente os indivíduos de territórios vulneráveis.


Abstract The term syndemic has been used to designate how biological and social interactions influence the behavior of a particular disease. The resumption of face-to-face school activities amidst the covid-19 syndemic sparks considerable controversy: while supporters claim that returning to school would mitigate social, health, and educational vulnerabilities, critics say that such a decision would help to spread the virus. In this scenario, this study analyzes the dynamics of hospital admissions and deaths related to covid-19 among elementary students in terms of the resumption of face-to-face school activities in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Moreover, it also investigates the association between the incidence of covid-19 among education professionals and the socio-spacial properties in which the based education units (UEs) are located. The analyses were conducted with data from the public institutions of São Paulo. The results indicate that in-person activities resumption coincided with an increase in admissions and deaths from covid-19 among students, peaking 15 days after the beginning of the classes. UEs located in territories with lower human development indices registered the highest SARS-Cov-2 infection rates. Thus, resuming in-person classes without mitigating contamination risks poses a threat for the population, especially for those from vulnerable territories.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Socioeconomic Factors , Students , Education , Syndemic , COVID-19
4.
Nat Hum Behav ; 6(1): 25-26, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671564

Subject(s)
Global Health , Syndemic , Humans
6.
Nursing ; 52(1): 38-43, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612691

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: This article discusses the interconnection between the syndemic effect of racial inequities and disparities as well as the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on Black Americans. It also highlights meaningful reforms and priorities to achieve health equity in Black communities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Racism , Health Status Disparities , Healthcare Disparities , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndemic , United States/epidemiology
7.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(10): e00119021, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1609136

ABSTRACT

This essay aims to present and discuss the theoretical framework for the COVID-19 syndemic. The first part presents the foundations and principles of syndemic theory. For the purposes of this essay, syndemic was defined as a process of synergic interaction between two or more diseases, in which the effects are mutually enhanced. We discussed the three principal typologies of syndemic interaction: mutually causal epidemics; epidemics interacting synergically; and serial causal epidemics. In the second part, COVID-19 is analyzed as a syndemic resulting from the interaction between various groups of diseases and the socioeconomic context. The theoretical model considered the interaction between COVID-19 and chronic noncommunicable diseases, infectious and parasitic diseases, and mental health problems. The essay addressed how social iniquities and conditions of vulnerability act at various levels to increase the effect of COVID-19 and other pandemics. The last section discusses the need for comprehensive, multisector, and integrated responses to COVID-19. A model for intervention was presented that involves the patient care and socioeconomic dimensions. In the sphere of patient care, the authors defend the structuring of strong and responsive health systems, accessible to the entire population. The economic and social dimension addressed the issue of reclaiming the ideals of solidarity, the health promotion strategy, and emphasis on social determinants of health. In conclusion, the lessons learned from the syndemic approach to COVID-19 call on government and society to develop policies that link clinical, sanitary, socioeconomic, and environmental interventions.


Este ensaio tem como objetivo apresentar e discutir o quadro teórico da sindemia da COVID-19. Na primeira parte, são apresentados os fundamentos e princípios da teoria sindêmica. Adotou-se o conceito de sindemia como processo de interação sinérgica entre duas ou mais doenças, no qual os efeitos se potencializam mutuamente. Foram discutidas as três principais tipologias de interação sindêmica: epidemias mutuamente causais; epidemias interagindo sinergicamente; e epidemias causais em série. Na segunda parte, a COVID-19 é analisada como uma sindemia resultante da interação entre vários grupos de doenças e o contexto socioeconômico. O modelo teórico considerou a interação entre COVID-19 e doenças crônicas não transmissíveis, doenças infecciosas e parasitárias e problemas de saúde mental. Abordou-se como as iniquidades sociais e as condições de vulnerabilidade atuam em diversos níveis e potencializam a atuação da COVID-19 e das demais pandemias. Na última seção, discute-se a necessidade de respostas abrangentes, multisetoriais e integradas ao enfrentamento da COVID-19. Foi apresentado um modelo de intervenção envolvendo as dimensões assistencial e socioeconômica. No âmbito assistencial, defendeu-se a estruturação de sistemas de saúde fortes, responsivos e acessíveis a toda a população. A dimensão econômica e social abordou o resgate dos ideais de solidariedade, da estratégia da promoção da saúde e a ênfase sobre os determinantes sociais. Conclui-se que as lições aprendidas com a abordagem sindêmica da COVID-19 exortam governos e a sociedade para o desenvolvimento de políticas que articulem intervenções clínicas, sanitárias, socioeconômicas e ambientais.


Este ensayo tiene como objetivo presentar y discutir el cuadro teórico de la sindemia de la COVID-19. En la primera parte, se presentan los fundamentos y principios de la teoría sindémica. Se adoptó el concepto de sindemia como un proceso de interacción sinérgica entre dos o más enfermedades, en el que los efectos se potencializan mutuamente. Se discutieron las tres principales tipologías de interacción sindémica: epidemias mutuamente causales; epidemias interactuando sinérgicamente; y epidemias causales en serie. En la segunda parte, la COVID-19 es analizada como una sindemia resultante de la interacción entre varios grupos de enfermedades y el contexto socioeconómico. El modelo teórico consideró la interacción entre COVID-19 y enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles, enfermedades infecciosas y parasitarias, así como problemas de salud mental. Se abordó cómo las inequidades sociales y las condiciones de vulnerabilidad actúan en diversos niveles y potencializan la actuación de la COVID-19 y de las demás pandemias. En la última sección, se discute la necesidad de respuestas integrales, multisectoriales e integradas en el combate a la COVID-19. Se presentó un modelo de intervención implicando las dimensiones asistencial y socioeconómica. En el ámbito asistencial, se defendió la conformación de sistemas de salud fuertes, con capacidad de respuesta y accesibles a toda la población. La dimensión económica y social abordó el rescate de los ideales de solidaridad, de la estrategia de promoción de la salud, así como el énfasis sobre los determinantes sociales. Se concluye que las lecciones aprendidas con el abordaje sindémico de la COVID-19 exhortan a gobiernos y sociedad a que desarrollen políticas que implementen y coordinen intervenciones clínicas, sanitarias, socioeconómicas y ambientales.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Syndemic , Brazil , Humans , Models, Theoretical , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Health Promot Int ; 36(6): 1517-1520, 2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598780
9.
Med Anthropol ; 41(1): 4-18, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585594

ABSTRACT

In this article, we address the nature of syndemics and whether, as some have asserted, these epidemiological phenomena are global configurations. Our argument that syndemics are not global rests on recognition that they are composed of social/environment contexts, disease clusters, demographics, and biologies that vary across locations. These points are illustrated with the cases of syndemics involving COVID-19, diabetes mellitus, and HIV/AIDS. We draw on theoretical discourse from epidemiology, biology, and anthropology to present what we believe is a more accurate framework for thinking about syndemics with shared elements.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Anthropology, Medical , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Environment , Syndemic
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(1)2021 Dec 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580863

ABSTRACT

The syndemic framework proposed by the 2021-2030 World Health Organization (WHO) action plan for patient safety and the introduction of enabling technologies in health services involve a more effective interpretation of the data to understand causation. Based on the Systemic Theory, this communication proposes the "Systemic Clinical Risk Management" (SCRM) to improve the Quality of Care and Patient Safety. This is a new Clinical Risk Management model capable of developing the ability to observe and synthesize different elements in ways that lead to in-depth interventions to achieve solutions aligned with the sustainable development of health services. In order to avoid uncontrolled decision-making related to the use of enabling technologies, we devised an internal Learning Algorithm Risk Management (LARM) level based on a Bayesian approach. Moreover, according to the ethics of Job Well Done, the SCRM, instead of giving an opinion on events that have already occurred, proposes a bioethical co-working because it suggests the best way to act from a scientific point of view.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bayes Theorem , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Management , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndemic
14.
Cult Health Sex ; 23(11): 1545-1558, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561293

ABSTRACT

This paper argues for the concept of viral forgetting to understand how and why the lessons of HIV were not easy to remember in the context of COVID. Building on recently drawn analogies between the two epidemics, we argue that new normative injunctions to 'flatten the curve' and 'stay at home' individualise responses to COVID that make memory of the first decade of HIV vital in recent viral times. Individualistic responses, including those that bind individuals to social identity groups, obscure the ways in which effective care for others and the self requires a recognition of the partiality of community, the inevitability of vulnerability, and a complex interpretation of scientific evidence and human ontology. We draw on Eve Sedgwick's thinking about ignorance and power to critique how political leadership in 2020, particularly in the USA, created chaos that suggested that an individualist masculine response to the epidemic was the only thing that could save us.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndemic
15.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 19(1): 54-75, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1536353

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic brought unprecedented social change with the most severe impacts on the most vulnerable populations, including people living with HIV (PLWH). This review examined findings from empirical studies of social and behavioral impacts of COVID-19 on PLWH in the first year of the pandemic. RECENT FINDINGS: Impacts of COVID-19 on PLWH fit within an HIV syndemics framework, with overlapping COVID-19 and HIV comorbid conditions concerning mental health and structural inequality. Early impacts of COVID-19 on social isolation, emotional distress, stigma, and substance use varied across studies with few consistent patterns. Structural inequalities, particularly impacts on food security and housing stability, were observed more consistently and globally. COVID-19 intersects with HIV infection along with multiple interlocking comorbidities that are best characterized and understood within a syndemics framework.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Stigma , Syndemic
16.
Lancet Glob Health ; 10(1): e148-e153, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531936

ABSTRACT

Latin America has been particularly hard hit by the COVID-19 syndemic, including the associated economic fallout that has threatened the livelihoods of most families. Social protection platforms and policies should have a crucial role in safeguarding individual and family wellbeing; however, the response has been insufficient to address the scale of the crisis. In this Viewpoint, we focus on two policy challenges of the COVID-19 syndemic: rapidly and effectively providing financial support to the many families that lost livelihoods, and responding to and mitigating the increased risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). We argue that building programmatic linkages between social protection platforms, particularly cash transfers, and IPV prevention, mitigation, and response services, creates synergies that can promote freedom from both poverty and violence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Financial Support , Intimate Partner Violence/prevention & control , Syndemic , Humans , Latin America , Public Policy , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
18.
Salud Colect ; 17: e3748, 2021 Nov 04.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505554

ABSTRACT

As the basis for a theory of the co-occurrence of epidemic and pandemic processes, the article begins with a discussion of the concept of syndemic, created during the HIV/AIDS epidemic to understand the social, behavioral, and cultural components of emerging diseases, as is the case of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Secondly, the notion of infodemic is highlighted, which has great potential to better understand the impacts of the pandemic from approaches that are generally neglected in conventional epidemiological research. Third, in order to illustrate these points, a "micro-archaeological" case study of the infodemic resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic is presented, focusing on the specific situation in Brazil. Then, the correlations between scientific evidence, intervention models, and measures to control the pandemic are comparatively analyzed in different countries, as well as their adoption or rejection in the Brazilian context, which is structured by deep economic inequalities, social inequities, and health inequities.


Como base para una teoría de la coocurrencia de procesos epidémicos y pandémicos, en primer lugar, se introduce el concepto de sindemia, creado en la epidemia de VIH/sida para comprender componentes sociales, conductuales y culturales de enfermedades emergentes, tal como la actual pandemia de COVID-19. En segundo lugar, se destaca la noción de infodemia, que tiene gran potencial para comprender los impactos de la pandemia desde planos que generalmente se descuidan en los enfoques epidemiológicos convencionales. En tercer lugar, como complemento e ilustración, se presenta un estudio de caso "microarqueológico" de la infodemia resultante de la pandemia de COVID-19, centrado en la situación concreta de Brasil. Luego, se analizan las correlaciones entre la evidencia científica, los modelos de intervención y las medidas para controlar la pandemia en varios países y su adopción o rechazo en la realidad brasileña, estructurada sobre profundas desigualdades económicas, inequidades sociales e inequidades en salud.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndemic
19.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 26(10): 4411-4424, out. 2021. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1502140

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo, uma mescla de ensaio e revisão narrativa, analisa a relação entre a Agenda 2030, os sistemas alimentares e sua relevância para a saúde global e coletiva. O conceito de sindemia contextualiza a pandemia de COVID-19 em relação com a pobreza e com a injustiça social, mas também revela a sinergia com outras pandemias relacionadas ao avanço do sistema alimentar global: de desnutrição, de obesidade e das mudanças climáticas, as quais possuem forte influência do modelo dominante de agricultura. Lançamos mão, também, de quatro conceitos estratégicos para pensar a transição em direção a sistemas alimentares saudáveis e sustentáveis: sistema alimentar, segurança alimentar e nutricional (SAN), direito humano à alimentação adequada (DHAA) e agroecologia. Em seguida, cotejamos relatórios e dados internacionais que sistematizam estudos sobre as crescentes ameaças decorrentes do modelo dominante de agricultura, frequentemente negadas por setores econômicos poderosos e grupos neoconservadores. Também destacamos desafios colocados em diferentes escalas, do global ao local, para que políticas públicas e mobilizações sociais desenvolvidas nas últimas duas décadas possam resistir e se reinventar na construção de sociedades mais justas.


Abstract This article, an essay, and narrative review, analyzes the relationship between the 2030 Agenda, food systems, and their relevance to global and collective health. The concept of syndemics contextualizes the COVID-19 pandemic in relation to poverty and social injustice, as it also reveals the synergy with other pandemics related to the advancement of the global food system: malnutrition, obesity, and climate change, which all have strong influence of the dominant model of agriculture. We also use four strategic concepts to think about the transition towards healthy and sustainable food systems: food system, food and nutrition security (FNS), human right to adequate food (HRAF) and agroecology. Then, we gather international reports and data that systematize studies on the growing threats imposed by the dominant agricultural model, often denied by powerful economic sectors and neoconservative groups. We also highlight challenges imposed at different scales, from global to local, so that public policies and social mobilizations developed in the last two decades can resist and reinvent themselves in the construction of fairer societies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Food Supply , COVID-19 , Pandemics , Syndemic , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2976-e2977, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501039

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Syndemic , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL